White Australia policy

White Australia policy

This badge from 1910 was produced by the Australian Natives' Association, comprising Australian-born whites. Prime Minister Alfred Deakin was a member. It shows the use of the slogan "White Australia" at that time.[1]
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The term White Australia Policy comprises various historical policies that intentionally favoured immigration to Australia from certain European countries, and especially from Britain. It came into fruition with the Federation in 1901, and the policies were progressively dismantled between 1949 and 1973.[2] Australia's official World War One historian Charles Bean defined the early intentions of the policy as "a vehement effort to maintain a high Western standard of economy, society and culture (necessitating at that stage, however it might be camouflaged, the rigid exclusion of Oriental peoples)."[3]

Competition in the goldfields between British and Chinese miners, and labour union opposition to the importation of Pacific Islanders into the sugar plantations of Queensland reinforced the demand to eliminate or minimize low wage immigration from Asia and the Pacific Islands. Soon after Australia became a federation it passed the Immigration Restriction Act of 1901. The passage of this bill is considered the commencement of the White Australia Policy as Australian government policy. Subsequent acts further strengthened the policy up to the start of World War II.[4] These policies effectively allowed for the privileging of British migrants over all others through the first decades of the 20th century. During the Second World War, Prime Minister John Curtin reinforced the policy, saying "This country shall remain forever the home of the descendants of those people who came here in peace in order to establish in the South Seas an outpost of the British race."[2]

The policy was dismantled in stages by several successive governments after the conclusion of World War II, with the encouragement of first non-British, non-white immigration, allowing for a large multi-ethnic post-war program of immigration. The Menzies and Holt Governments effectively dismantled the policies between 1949 and 1966 and the Whitlam Government passed laws to ensure that race would be totally disregarded as a component for immigration to Australia in 1973. In 1975 the Whitlam Government passed the Racial Discrimination Act, which made racially-based selection criteria illegal. In the decades since, Australia has maintained largescale multi-ethnic immigration. Australia's current Migration Program allows people from any country to apply to migrate to Australia, regardless of their nationality, ethnicity, culture, religion or language, provided that they meet the criteria set out in law.[2]

Immigration policy prior to Federation

Gold Rush Era

The discovery of gold in Australia in 1851 led to an influx of immigrants from all around the world. The colony of New South Wales had a population of just 200,000 in 1851, but the huge influx of settlers spurred by the goldrushes transformed the Australian colonies economically, politically and demographically. Over the next 20 years, 40,000 Chinese men and over 9,000 women (mostly Cantonese) immigrated to the goldfields seeking prosperity.[5]

Gold brought great wealth but also new social tensions. Multiethnic migrants came to New South Wales in large numbers for the first time. Competition on the goldfields, particularly resentment among white miners towards the successes of Chinese miners, led to tensions between groups and eventually a series of significant protests and riots, including the Buckland Riot in 1857 and the Lambing Flat Riots between 1860 and 1861. Governor Hotham, on 16 November 1854, appointed a Royal Commission on Victorian goldfields problems and grievances. This led to restrictions being placed on Chinese immigration and residency taxes levied from Chinese residents in Victoria from 1855 with New South Wales following suit in 1861. These restrictions remained in force until the early 1870s.[6]Reference does not support the argument of this paragraph

Support from the Australian Labour Movement

The growth of the sugar industry in Queensland in the 1870s led to searching for labourers prepared to work in a tropical environment. During this time, thousands of "Kanakas" (Pacific Islanders) were brought into Australia as indentured workers.[7] This and related practices of bringing in non-white labour to be cheaply employed was commonly termed "blackbirding" and refers to the recruitment of people through trickery and kidnappings to work on plantations, particularly the sugar cane plantations of Queensland (Australia) and Fiji.[8] In the 1870s and 1880s, the trade union movement began a series of protests against foreign labour. Their arguments were that Asians and Chinese took jobs away from white men, worked for "substandard" wages, lowered working conditions and refused unionisation.[5]

Objections to these arguments came largely from wealthy land owners in rural areas.[5] It was argued that without Asiatics to work in the tropical areas of the Northern Territory and Queensland, the area would have to be abandoned.[7] Despite these objections to restricting immigration, between 1875–1888 all Australian colonies enacted legislation which excluded all further Chinese immigration.[7] Asian immigrants already residing in the Australian colonies were not expelled and retained the same rights as their Anglo and Southern compatriots.

Agreements were made to further increase these restrictions in 1895 following an Inter-colonial Premier's Conference where all colonies agreed to extend entry restrictions to all non-white races. However, in attempting to enact this legislation, the Governors of New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania reserved the bills, due to a treaty with Japan, and they did not become law. Instead, the Natal Act of 1897 was introduced, restricting "undesirable persons" rather than any specific race.[5]

The British government in London was not pleased with legislation that discriminated against certain subjects of its Empire, but decided not to disallow the laws that were passed. Colonial Secretary Joseph Chamberlain explained in 1897:

"We quite sympathise with the determination...of these colonies...that there should not be an influx of people alien in civilisation, alien in religion, alien in customs, whose influx, moreover, would seriously interfere with the legitimate rights of the existing labouring population."[9]

From Federation to World War II

In writing about the preoccupations of the Australian population in early Federation Australia prior to World War One, the official World War One historian Charles Bean included the White Australia Policy and defined it as follows:

Federation Convention and Australia's first government

Immigration was a prominent topic in the lead up to Australian Federation. At the 3rd Session of the 1898 Australasian Federation Convention, Western Australian premier and future federal cabinet member, John Forrest, summarised the prevailing feeling:[8]

The Barton Government which won the first elections following Federation in 1901 was formed by the Protectionist Party with the support of the Australian Labor Party. The support of the Labor Party was contingent upon restricting non-white immigration, reflecting the attitudes of the Australian Workers Union and other labour organisations at the time, upon whose support the Labor Party was founded.

The first Parliament of Australia quickly moved to restrict immigration to maintain Australia's "British character", and the Pacific Island Labourers Bill and the Immigration Restriction Bill were passed shortly before parliament rose for its first Christmas recess. The Colonial Secretary in Britain had however made it clear that a race based immigration policy would run "contrary to the general conceptions of equality which have ever been the guiding principle of British rule throughout the Empire". The Barton Government therefore conceived of the "language dictation test", which would allow the government, at the discretion of the minister, to block unwanted migrants by forcing them to sit a test in "any European language". Race had already been established as a premise for exclusion among the colonial parliaments, so the main question for debate was who exactly the new Commonwealth ought to exclude, with the Labor Party rejecting Britain's calls to placate the populations of its non-white colonies and allow "aboriginal natives of Asia, Africa, or the islands thereof". There was opposition from Queensland and its sugar industry to the proposals of the Pacific Islanders Bill to exclude "Kanaka" laborers, however Barton argued that the practice was "veiled slavery" that could lead to a "negro problem" similar to that in the United States and the Bill was passed.[11]

Immigration Restriction Act 1901

The new Federal Parliament, as one of its first pieces of legislation, passed the Immigration Restriction Act 1901 to "place certain restrictions on immigration and... for the removal... of prohibited immigrants". The Act drew on similar legislation in South Africa. Edmund Barton, the prime minister, argued in support of the Bill with the following statement: "The doctrine of the equality of man was never intended to apply to the equality of the Englishman and the Chinaman."[12]

The Attorney General tasked with drafting the legislation was Alfred Deakin. Deakin supported Barton's position over that of the Labor Party in drafting the Bill (the ALP wanted more direct methods of exclusion than the dictation test) and redacted the more vicious racism proposed for the text in his Second Reading of the Bill.[13] In seeking to justify the policy, Deakin said he believed that the Japanese and Chinese[14] might be a threat to the newly formed federation and it was this belief that led to legislation to ensure they would be kept out:

"It is not the bad qualities, but the good qualities of these alien races that make them so dangerous to us. It is their inexhaustible energy, their power of applying themselves to new tasks, their endurance and low standard of living that make them such competitors."[15]

Early drafts of the Act explicitly banned non-Europeans from migrating to Australia but objections from the British government, which feared that such a measure would offend British subjects in India and Britain's allies in Japan, caused the Barton government to remove this wording. Instead, a "dictation test" was introduced as a device for excluding unwanted immigrants. Immigration officials were given the power to exclude any person who failed to pass a 50-word dictation test. At first this was to be in any European language, but was later changed to include any language. The tests were written in such a way to make them nearly impossible to pass. The first of these tests was written by Federal MP Stewart Parnaby as an example for officers to follow when setting future tests. The "Stewart" test was unofficially standardised as the English version of the test, due to its extremely high rates of failure resulting from a very sophisticated use of language.[16] While specifically asked by Barton to carry out this task, Parnaby allegedly shared similar views to Donald Cameron despite never publically admitting so .

The legislation found strong support in the new Australian Parliament, with arguments ranging from economic protection to outright racism. The Labor Party wanted to protect "white" jobs and pushed for more explicit restrictions. A few politicians spoke of the need to avoid hysterical treatment of the question. Member of Parliament Bruce Smith said he had "no desire to see low-class Indians, Chinamen or Japanese...swarming into this country... But there is obligation...not (to) unnecessarily offend the educated classes of those nations"[17] Donald Cameron, a member from Tasmania, expressed a rare note of dissention:

Outside parliament, Australia's first Catholic cardinal, Patrick Francis Moran was politically active and denounced anti-Chinese legislation as "unchristian".[19] The popular press mocked the cardinal's position and the small European population of Australia generally supported the legislation and remained fearful of being overwhelmed by an influx of non-British migrants from the vastly different cultures of the highly populated empires to Australia's north.

Pacific Island Labourers Act 1901

In 1901 the Australian parliament passed the Pacific Island Labourers Act 1901. The result of this legislation was that 7,500 Pacific Islanders (called "Kanakas") working mostly on plantations in Queensland were deported and entry into Australia by Pacific Islanders after 1904 was prohibited.

The Paris Peace Conference

At the 1919 Paris Peace Conference following World War 1, Japan sought to include a racial equality clause in the Covenant of the League of Nations. Japanese policy reflected their desire to remove or to ease the immigration restrictions against Japanese (especially in the United States and Canada), which Japan regarded as a humiliation and affront to its prestige.

Australian Prime Minister Billy Hughes was already concerned by the prospect of Japanese expansion in the Pacific. Australia, Japan and New Zealand had seized the German colonial empire's territories in the Pacific in the early stages of the War and Hughes was concerned to retain German New Guinea as vital to the defence of Australia.[20] The Treaty ultimately granted Australia a League of Nations Mandate over German New Guinea and Japan to the South Pacific Mandate immediately to its north - thus bringing Australian and Japanese territory to a shared border - a situation altered only by Japan's World War II invasion of New Guinea.

Hughes vehemently opposed Japan's racial equality proposition. Hughes recognised that such a clause would be a threat to White Australia and made it clear to British Prime Minister David Lloyd George that he would leave the conference if the clause was adopted. When the proposal failed, Hughes reported in the Australian parliament:

"The White Australia is yours. You may do with it what you please, but at any rate, the soldiers have achieved the victory and my colleagues and I have brought that great principle back to you from the conference, as safe as it was on the day when it was first adopted."[21]

Stanley Bruce

Australian Prime Minister Stanley Bruce was a supporter of the White Australia Policy, and made it an issue in his campaign for the 1925 Australian Federal election.[22]

Abolition of the policy

World War II

Australian anxiety at the prospect of Japanese expansionism and war in the Pacific continued through the 1930s. Billy Hughes, by then a minister in the United Australia Party's Lyons Government, made a notable contribution to Australia's attitude towards immigration in a 1935 speech in which he argued that "Australia must... populate or perish". However Hughes was forced to resign in 1935 after his book Australia and the War Today exposed a lack of preparation in Australia for what Hughes correctly supposed to be a coming war.[11]

Between the Great Depression starting in 1929 and the end of World War II in 1945, global conditions kept immigration to very low levels.[24] At the start of the war, Prime Minister John Curtin (ALP) reinforced the message of the White Australia Policy by saying: "This country shall remain forever the home of the descendants of those people who came here in peace in order to establish in the South Seas an outpost of the British race."[25]

Following the 1942 Fall of Singapore, Australians feared invasion by Imperial Japan. Australian cities were bombed by the Japanese Airforce and Navy and Axis Naval Forces menaced Australian shipping, while the Royal Navy remained pre-occupied with the battles of the Atlantic and Mediterranean in the face of Nazi aggression in Europe. A Japanese invasion fleet headed for the Australian Territory of New Guinea was only halted by the intervention of the United States Navy in the Battle of the Coral Sea.[26] Australia received thousands of refugees from territories falling to advancing Japanese forces - notably thousands of Dutch who fled the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia).[27] Australian Aborigines, Torres Strait Islanders, Papua New Guineans and Timorese served in the frontline of the defence of Australia, bringing Australia's racially discriminatory immigration and political rights policies into focus and wartime service gave many Indigenous Australians confidence in demanding their rights upon return to civilian life.[28]

Launch of post war multi-ethnic immigration

Dutch migrants arriving in Australia in 1954. Australia embarked upon a massive immigration programme following World War II and gradually dismantled the preferential treatment afforded to British migrants.

Following the trauma of World War II, Australia's vulnerability during the Pacific War and its small population led to policies summarised by the slogan, "Populate or perish". According to author Lachlan Strahan, this was an ethnocentric slogan that in effect was an admonition to fill Australia with Europeans or else risk having it overrun by Asians.[29]

During the war, many non-white refugees, including Malays, Indonesians, and Filipinos, arrived in Australia, but Immigration Minister Arthur Calwell controversially sought to have them all deported. In 1948, Iranian Bahá'ís seeking to immigrate to Australia were classified as "Asiatic" by the policy and were denied entry.[30] In 1949, Calwell's successor Harold Holt allowed the remaining 800 non-white refugees to apply for residency, and also allowed Japanese "war brides" to settle in Australia.[25] In the meantime, encouraging immigration from Europe, Australia admitted large numbers of immigrants from mostly Italy, Greece, and Yugoslavia, as well as its traditional source of the British Isles. Ambitious post-war development projects like the Snowy Mountains Scheme (1949–1972) required a large labour force that could only be sourced by diversifying Australia's migrant intake.

Relaxation of restrictions

Sir Robert Menzies. The Menzies Government abolished the dictation test in 1958.

Australian policy began to shift towards significantly increasing immigration. Legislative changes over the next few decades continuously opened up immigration in Australia.[24]

Labor Party Chifley Government:

  • 1947 The Chifley Labor Government relaxed the Immigration Restriction Act allowing non-Europeans the right to settle permanently in Australia for business reasons.

Liberal-Country Party Menzies Government (1949-1966):

  • 1949 Immigration Minister Harold Holt permitted 800 non-European refugees to stay, and Japanese war brides to be admitted.[31]
  • 1950 External Affairs Minister Percy Spender instigated the Colombo Plan, under which students from Asian countries were admitted to study at Australian universities.
  • 1957 Non-Europeans with 15 years' residence in Australia were allowed to become citizens.
  • 1958 Revised Migration Act, 1958 abolished the dictation test and introduced a simpler system for entry. Immigration Minister, Sir Alexander Downer, announced that 'distinguished and highly qualified Asians' might immigrate.
  • 1959 Australians were permitted to sponsor Asian spouses for citizenship.
  • 1964 Conditions of entry for people of non-European stock were relaxed.

In 1963, a paper "Immigration: Control or Colour Bar?" was published by a group of students and academics at Melbourne University. It proposed eliminating the White Australia policy, and was influential towards this end.[32][33]

End of the White Australia Policy

Harold Holt. The Holt Government's Migration Act 1966 effectively dismantled the White Australia Policy.

In 1966, the Holt Liberal Government introduced the Migration Act, 1966, a watershed moment in immigration reform, it effectively dismantled the White Australia Policy and increased access to non-European migrants, including refugees fleeing the Vietnam War.[34] After a review of the European policy in March 1966, Immigration Minister Hubert Opperman announced applications for migration would be accepted from well-qualified people on the basis of their suitability as settlers, their ability to integrate readily and their possession of qualifications positively useful to Australia. At the same time, Harold Holt's government decided a number of "temporary resident" non-Europeans, who were not required to leave Australia, could become permanent residents and citizens after five years (the same as for Europeans).

As a result, annual non-European settler arrivals rose from 746 in 1966 to 2,696 in 1971, while annual part-European settler arrivals rose from 1,498 to 6,054.[25]

The legal end of the White Australia policy is usually placed in the year 1973, when the Whitlam Labor government implemented a series of amendments preventing the enforcement of racial aspects of the immigration law.[25] These amendments:

  • Legislated that all migrants, regardless of origin, be eligible to obtain citizenship after three years of permanent residence.
  • Ratified all international agreements relating to immigration and race.
  • Issued policy to totally disregard race as a factor in selecting migrants.

The 1975 Racial Discrimination Act made the use of racial criteria for any official purpose illegal.

It was not until the Fraser Liberal government's review of immigration law in 1978 that all selection of prospective migrants based on country of origin was entirely removed from official policy.

In 1981 the Minister for Immigration announced a Special Humanitarian Assistance Program (SHP) for Iranians to seek refuge in Australia and by 1988 some 2500 Bahá'ís and many more others had arrived in Australia through either SHP or Refugee Programs.[30] The last selective immigration policy, offering relocation assistance to British nationals, was finally removed in 1982.[35]


Australia's contemporary immigration program has two components: a program for skilled and family migrants and a humanitarian program for refugees and asylum seekers.[36] By 2010, the post-war immigration program had received more than 6.5 million migrants from every continent. The population tripled in the six decades to around 21 million in 2010, comprising people originating from 200 countries.[37]


In addition to the obvious demographic effect of creating a population of European, and largely [38] While non-European and non-Christian immigration has increased substantially since the dismantling of the White Australia policy, Australian society inevitably remains rooted in the demographic legacy of the 72 years of White Australia, during which time the country underwent its most substantial population growth.

Contemporary demographics

The 2001 Australian census results indicate that many Australians claim some European heritage: English 37%, Irish 11%, Italian 5%, German 4.3%, Scottish 3%, Greek 2%, Former Yugoslav 1.8%, Dutch 1.5%, Polish 0.9%. Australians of some non-European origin form a significant but still relatively small part of the population: Chinese 3.2%, Indian 0.9%, Lebanese 0.9%, Vietnamese 0.9%. About 2.2% identified themselves as Indigenous Australians. 39% of the population gave their ancestry as "Australian". The Australian census does not classify people according to race, only ethnic ancestry. (Note that subjects were permitted to select more than one answer for this census question.)[39]

15% of the population now speaks a language other than English at home.[40] The most commonly spoken languages are Italian, Greek, Cantonese Chinese and Arabic.

Political and social legacy

The story of Australia since the Second World War - and particularly since the final relegation of the white Australia Policy - has been one of ever-increasing ethnic and cultural diversity. Successive governments have sustained a large programmes of multiethnic immigration from all continents.

Discrimination on the basis of race or ethnicity was legally sanctioned until 1975. Australia's new official policy on racial diversity is: "to build on our success as a culturally diverse, accepting and open society, united through a shared future".[41] The White Australia Policy continues to be mentioned in modern contexts, although it is generally only mentioned by politicians when denouncing their opposition. As Leader of the Opposition, John Howard, argued for restricting Asian immigration in 1988, as part of his One Australia policy, later admitting that his comments cost him his job at the time:

Howard later retracted and apologised for the remarks, and was returned to the leadership of the Liberal Party in 1995. The Howard Government (1996–2007) in turn ran a large programme of non-discriminatory immigration and, according to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, Asian countries became an increasingly important source of immigration over the decade from 1996 to 2006, with the proportion of migrants from Southern and Central Asian countries doubling from 7% to 14%. The proportion of immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa also increased. By 2005–06, China and India were the third and fourth largest sources of all migration (after New Zealand and the United Kingdom). In 2005–06, there were 180,000 permanent additions of migrants to Australia (72% more than the number in 1996–97). This figure included around 17,000 through the humanitarian programme, of whom Iraqis and Sudanese accounted for the largest portions.[43] China became Australia's biggest source of migrants, for the first time in 2009, surpassing New Zealand and Britain.[44]

Despite the overall success and generally bipartisan support for Australia's multi-ethnic immigration programme, there remain voices of opposition to immigration within the Australian electorate. At its peak, Pauline Hanson's One Nation Party received 9% of the national vote at the 1998 Federal Election.[45]

Hanson was widely accused of trying to take Australia back to the days of the White Australia Policy, particularly through reference to Arthur Calwell, one of the policy's strongest supporters. In her maiden address to the Australian Parliament following the 1996 Election, Hanson said:

Hanson's remarks generated wide interest in the media both nationally and internationally, but she herself did not retain her seat in Parliament at the 1998 Election or subsequent 2001 and 2004 Federal Elections. Hanson also failed to win election in the 2003 and 2011 New South Wales State Elections.[47] In May 2007, Pauline Hanson, with her new Pauline's United Australia Party, continued her call for a freeze on immigration, arguing that African migrants carried disease into Australia.[48]

Topics related to racism and immigration in Australia are still regularly connected by the media to the White Australia Policy. Some examples of issues and events where this connection has been made include: reconciliation with Aborigines; mandatory detention and the "Pacific Solution"; the 2005 Cronulla riots, and the 2009 attacks on Indians in Australia. Former opposition Labor party leader Mark Latham, in his book The Latham Diaries, described the ANZUS alliance as a legacy of the White Australia policy.

In 2007, the Howard Government proposed an Australian Citizenship Test intended "to get that balance between diversity and integration correct in future, particularly as we now draw people from so many different countries and so many different cultures". The draft proposal contained a pamphlet introducing Australian history, Culture and Democracy. Migrants were to be required to correctly answer at least 12 out of 20 questions on such topics in a citizenship quiz. Migrants would also be required to demonstrate an adequate level of understanding of the English language.[49] The Rudd Government reviewed and then implemented the proposal in 2009.[50]

Australian government policy from earlier years has been claimed to be the original impetus for the apartheid system in South Africa.[51]

See also


  1. ^ See Museum Victoria description
  2. ^ a b c "Fact Sheet 8 – Abolition of the 'White Australia' Policy". Australian Immigration. Commonwealth of Australia, National Communications Branch, Department of Immigration and Citizenship. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  3. ^ C.E.W Bean; ANZAC to Amiens; Penguin Books; 2014 Edition; p.5
  4. ^  
  5. ^ a b c d Markey, Raymond (1 January 1996). "Race and organized labor in Australia, 1850–1901". Highbeam Research. Retrieved 14 June 2006. 
  6. ^ R. Lockwood, "British Imperial Influences in the Foundation of the White Australia Policy," Labour History, No. 7 (Nov. 1964), pp. 23–33 in JSTOR
  7. ^ a b c Griffiths, Phil (4 July 2002). "Towards White Australia: The shadow of Mill and the spectre of slavery in the 1880s debates on Chinese immigration" (RTF). 11th Biennial National Conference of the Australian Historical Association. Retrieved 14 June 2006. 
  8. ^ a b Willoughby, Emma. "Our Federation Journey 1901–2001" (PDF). Museum Victoria. Retrieved 14 June 2006. 
  9. ^ Speech to Colonial Conference of 1897, quoted in J. Holland Rose et al., eds. The Cambridge History of the British Empire: Volume VII: Part I: Australia (1933) p 411; full text
  10. ^ 1898 Australasian Federation Convention 3rd Session Debates 8 Feb
  11. ^ a b Brian Carroll; From Barton to Fraser; Cassell Australia; 1978
  12. ^ Kendall, Timothy. "Within China's Orbit: China through the eyes of the Australian Parliament". Australian Parliamentary Library. Retrieved 24 October 2011. 
  13. ^ Biography - Alfred Deakin - Australian Dictionary of Biography
  14. ^ Culture and Customs of Australia http://books.google.com.au/books?id=REN8gTardCUC&pg=PA12&lpg=PA12&dq=Japanese+Chinese+good+qualities&source=web&ots=rB6nr4eQIJ&sig=R5jyD7v_5CNrT_yHpRCe5QI_SpM&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=3&ct=result
  15. ^ Kay Schaffer Manne's Generation: White Nation Responses to the Stolen Generation Report Australian Humanities Review http://www.lib.latrobe.edu.au/AHR/archive/Issue-June-2001/schaffer.html
  16. ^ Stuart MacIntyre (1986) The Oxford History of Australia, Volume 4 1901-1942 Oxford University Press, Melbourne. ISBN 0-19-554612-1
  17. ^ Bruce Smith(Free Trade Party)Parliamentary Debates cited in D.M.Gibb (1973) The Making of White Australia.p.113. Victorian Historical Association. ISBN
  18. ^ Donald Cameron(Free Trade Party)Parliamentary Debates, cited in D.M.Gibb (1973)p.112
  19. ^ Biography - Patrick Francis Moran - Australian Dictionary of Biography
  20. ^ Remembering the war in New Guinea - Why were the Japanese were in New Guinea
  21. ^ "100 Years: The Australia Story. Episode 2: Rise And Fall Of White Australia". Australian Broadcasting Commission. 21 March 2001. Retrieved 29 January 2007. 
  22. ^ a b "Policy Launch Speech: Stanley Bruce, Prime Minister" (PDF). Melbourne:  
  23. ^ Bowen, James; Bowen, Margarita (2002). The Great Barrier Reef: History, Science, Heritage.  
  24. ^ a b "Immigration to Australia During the 20th Century" (PDF). Australian Department of Immigration. Archived from the original on 17 April 2006. Retrieved 14 June 2006. 
  25. ^ a b c d "Abolition of the 'White Australia' Policy". Australian Department of Immigration. Retrieved 14 June 2006. 
  26. ^ Second World War, 1939–45 | Australian War Memorial
  27. ^ Allies in adversity, Australia and the Dutch in the Pacific War | Australian War Memorial
  28. ^ Indigenous Australian servicemen | Australian War Memorial
  29. ^ Lachlan Strahan, (1996) p. 146Australia's China: changing perceptions from the 1930s to the 1990s
  30. ^ a b Hassall, Graham; (ed.) Ata, Abe (1989). "Religion and Ethnic Identity, An Australian Study". Melbourne: Victoria College & Spectrum. Chapter "Persian Bahá'ís in Australia". 
  31. ^ Australian Immigration Fact Sheet 8. Abolition of the 'White Australia' Policy
  32. ^ "At-a-glance: The White Australia Policy".  
  33. ^ Jeff Waters (2013-06-20). "'"Academic Howard Nathan says Australia's race relations changed 'immeasurably for the better.  
  34. ^ In office - Harold Holt - Australia's PMs - Australia's Prime Ministers
  35. ^ Jupp, Dr James. "Immigration and Citizenship" (PDF). University of Melbourne. Retrieved 14 June 2006. 
  36. ^ Australian Immigration Fact Sheet 60 - Australia's Refugee and Humanitarian Program
  37. ^ Australia in Brief: Australia - an overview - Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade
  38. ^ "Australia".   See drop-down essay on "Independence and Aboriginal Policy"
  39. ^ "Population characteristics: Ancestry of Australia's population". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 14 June 2006. 
  40. ^ Inglis, Christine (1 December 2002). "Australia's Increasing Ethnic and Religious Diversity". Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved 14 June 2006. 
  41. ^ "Multicultural Australia: United in Diversity (Social Engineering and the Enforcement of Diversity)" (PDF). The Australian Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs. Archived from the original on 17 April 2006. Retrieved 14 June 2006. 
  42. ^ Megalogenis, George (20 February 2006). "Howard hits out at 'jihad' Muslims". The Australian. Retrieved 14 June 2006. 
  43. ^ 4102.0 - Australian Social Trends, 2007
  44. ^ Martin, Peter (8 December 2009). "China top source of immigration". The Age (Melbourne). 
  45. ^ Carr, Adam. "Federal Election of 3 October 1998". Archived from the original on 13 February 2006. Retrieved 14 June 2006. 
  46. ^ Hanson, Pauline (1 September 1996). "Maiden Speech". Retrieved 14 June 2006. 
  47. ^ "Hanson fails to win seat in NSW". The Sydney Morning Herald. 12 April 2011. 
  48. ^ "Hanson launches campaign song". The Age (Melbourne). 5 October 2007. 
  49. ^ "Citizenship test unveiled". The Sydney Morning Herald. 26 August 2007. 
  50. ^ Berkovic, Nicola (18 September 2009). "Citizen quiz tests facts, not figures". The Australian. 
  51. ^ The Electronic Journal of Australian and New Zealand History:

Further reading

External links

  • "Immigration Restriction Act 1901". National Archives of Australia: Documenting a Democracy. Retrieved 14 February 2006.  (scan of the Act and information)
  • The Mabel Freer Case
  • Educational Resources about the White Australia Policy
  • Newton Barton Diary, 1894–1895 – A shipboard diary kept by able seaman Newton Barton on one of his voyages to recruit South Sea Islanders for the Queensland cane fields. Digitised and held by the State Library of Queensland.
  • Fact Sheet 8 – Abolition of the 'White Australia' Policy