Strategic Defense Initiative

Strategic Defense Initiative Organization
SDIO
Agency overview
Formed 1984
Dissolved 1993 (renamed)
Superseding agency Ballistic Missile Defense Organization
Missile Defense Agency
Jurisdiction Federal government of the United States

The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President United States Department of Defense to oversee the Strategic Defense Initiative.

Reagan was a vocal critic of Mutual Assured Destruction, and the Strategic Defense Initiative was an important part of his defense policy intended to end MAD as a nuclear deterrent strategy, as well as a strategic initiative to neutralize the military component of Soviet nuclear defenses.[2]

The ambitious initiative was widely criticized as being unrealistic, even unscientific, as well as for threatening to destabilize MAD and re-ignite "an offensive arms race".[3] SDI was derided, largely in the mainstream media, as "Star Wars", after American Physical Society concluded that a global shield such as "Star Wars" was not only impossible with existing technology, but that ten more years of research was needed to learn whether it might ever be feasible.[4]

However, the United States now holds a significant advantage in the field of comprehensive advanced missile defense systems through years of extensive research and testing. Many of the obtained technological insights were transferred to subsequent programs and would find use in follow-up programs.[5][6][7]

Under the anti-ballistic missile systems of today. BMDO was renamed to the Missile Defense Agency in 2002. This article covers defense efforts under the SDIO.

Under the SDIO's Innovative Sciences and Technology Office, headed by physicist and engineer Dr. James Ionson,[8] the investment was predominantly made in basic research at national laboratories, universities, and in industry; these programs have continued to be key sources of funding for top research scientists in the fields of high-energy physics, supercomputing/computation, advanced materials, and many other critical science and engineering disciplines — funding which indirectly supports other research work by top scientists, and which was most politically viable to fund within the defense budget environment.

Contents

  • History 1
    • Precursor to SDI 1.1
    • Bombers to ICBMs 1.2
    • ABMs 1.3
    • Attack from above 1.4
    • X-ray laser 1.5
  • Project and proposals 2
  • Ground-based programs 3
    • Extended Range Interceptor (ERINT) 3.1
    • Homing Overlay Experiment (HOE) 3.2
    • Exoatmospheric Reentry-vehicle Interceptor Subsystem (ERIS) 3.3
  • Directed-energy weapon (DEW) programs 4
    • X-ray laser 4.1
    • Chemical laser 4.2
    • 4.3 Neutral Particle Beam
    • Laser and mirror experiments 4.4
    • Hypervelocity Rail Gun (CHECMATE) 4.5
  • Space-based programs 5
    • Space-Based Interceptor (SBI) 5.1
    • Brilliant Pebbles 5.2
  • Sensor programs 6
    • Boost Surveillance and Tracking System (BSTS) 6.1
    • Space Surveillance and Tracking System (SSTS) 6.2
    • Brilliant Eyes 6.3
    • Other sensor experiments 6.4
  • Countermeasures 7
  • Impact upon Soviet Union of SDI Program 8
  • Controversy and criticism 9
    • Treaty obligations 9.1
    • SDI and MAD 9.2
    • Non-ICBM delivery 9.3
  • Timeline 10
  • Fiction and popular culture 11
  • See also 12
  • References 13
  • External links 14

History

Precursor to SDI

Secretary of State under Reagan, suggests that a 1967 lecture by physicist Edward Teller (the so-called "father of the hydrogen bomb") was an important precursor, where Teller talked about the idea of defending against nuclear missiles by using nuclear explosives. Held at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Reagan attended it shortly after becoming the governor of California.[9] In 1979, Ronald Reagan visited the NORAD command base under Cheyenne Mountain where he was first introduced to the extensive tracking and detection systems extending throughout the world and into space. However, he was struck by their comments that while they could track the attack down to the individual targets, there was nothing one could do to stop it. Reagan felt that in the event of an attack this would place the president in a terrible position between immediate counterattack or attempting to absorb the attack and maintain an upper hand in the post-attack era. Shultz suggests that this feeling of helplessness, coupled with the defensive ideas proposed by Teller a decade earlier, combined to form the impetus of the SDI.[10] In the fall of 1979, at Reagan's request, Lieutenant General Daniel O. Graham conceived a concept he called the High Frontier, an idea of strategic defense using ground- and space-based weapons theoretically possible because of emerging technologies. It was designed to replace the doctrine of Mutual Assured Destruction, a doctrine that Reagan and his aides described as a suicide pact.[11]

The initial focus of the strategic defense initiative was a nuclear explosion-powered X-ray laser designed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by a scientist named Peter L. Hagelstein[12] who worked with a team called 'O Group', doing much of the work in the late 1970s and early 1980s. O Group was headed by physicist Lowell Wood, a protégé and friend of Edward Teller.

Ronald Reagan was told of Hagelstein's breakthrough by Teller in 1983, which prompted Reagan's March 23, 1983, "Star Wars" speech. Reagan announced, "I call upon the scientific community who gave us nuclear weapons to turn their great talents to the cause of mankind and world peace: to give us the means of rendering these nuclear weapons impotent and obsolete." This speech, along with Reagan's Evil Empire speech on March 8, 1983, in Florida, ushered in the final major escalation in rhetoric of the Cold War prior to a thawing of relations in the mid-to-late-1980s.

The concept for the space-based portion was to use lasers to shoot down incoming Soviet intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) armed with nuclear warheads. Nobel Prize-winning physicist Hans Bethe went to Livermore in February 1983 for a two-day briefing on the X-ray laser, and "Although impressed with its scientific novelty, Bethe went away highly skeptical it would contribute anything to the nation's defense."[13]

Frances Fitzgerald claimed that Reagan may also have been inspired to create SDI by a fictional secret weapon, a ray that can paralyze electrical currents, in Murder in the Air, a movie he made in 1940.[14]

Bombers to ICBMs

Although the Germans put considerable effort into the first surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) after 1943, they did not have enough time to develop operational-level weapons before the end of World War II.

Their research proved valuable to teams in the US and USSR, where missile programs slowly developed in the immediate post-war era. As the Cold War started, the Soviets found themselves facing massive USAF and RAF bomber fleets they could not hope to counter in the air. In response they dramatically increased their efforts in SAM development, deploying the SA-1 Guild system around Moscow as early as 1955.[15] This was followed by the dramatically improved and semi-mobile SA-2 Guideline, a weapon that remains in service in the 2000s (decade). Similar US and UK weapons soon followed. By the late 1950s, as missiles developed both in quality and number, the ability for the US air fleet to penetrate Soviet airspace was increasingly at risk.

In response, both sides increased their efforts to develop long-range missiles. The Soviets, with no effective bomber force of their own, put considerable effort into their program and quickly brought their basic R-7 Semyorka system into operation in 1959.[16] The US's SM-65 Atlas followed almost immediately thereafter.[17] These early examples were useful only for attacking large targets like cities or ports, but their relative invulnerability and low cost provided both sides with a credible force in an era of stiffening air defenses.

ABMs

At first it appeared that the ICBM could be countered by systems similar to the ever-evolving SAMs already in operation. The ICBM's high trajectory meant they became visible to defensive radars not long after being launched, which meant that defensive systems would have time to prepare. Although they moved quickly in flight, early re-entry systems slowed dramatically once they reached the lower atmosphere,[18] which gave time for a fast missile to attack it. By the early 1960s both nations were working on their first anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems.

As ABMs were being developed, countermeasures were also being studied. As the systems generally used long-range radars to find and track the incoming warheads, the simplest solution was to add radar reflectors and other decoys to the launch. These took up little room or weight, but would make a radar return that looked like an additional warhead. This would force the defender to use more ABMs to ensure the "right" object was hit, or wait until they started to re-enter, when the lighter objects would slow down faster and leave the warhead racing ahead. Neither option was particularly attractive in cost terms, generally requiring more and faster missiles.

A better understanding of Nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NEMP) presented new problems; a warhead set off at high altitudes and long ranges from the defensive missiles could blind the radars, making the incoming warheads only become visible at lower altitudes. This would further reduce the amount of time the ABM system had to react.[19] Systems using non-obvious approaches might be able to blind the radars in a sneak attack; the Soviets developed the R-36 with a system called Fractional Orbital Bombardment System to allow attacks on US missile fields from low altitudes and/or from the south, while the US relied on manned bombers for the same role.

Making matters worse was the continual increase in ICBM numbers. Even before the systems were ready for use, the number of interceptor missiles needed to effectively deter an attack kept increasing. As the ABM systems were expensive, it appeared the simplest way to defeat them was to simply make more ICBMs and deliberately start an arms race the defender could not win.[20] The introduction of MIRV systems dramatically upset this in the favour of the attack; missiles now carried several warheads that would be dispersed over wide areas, so now every new ICBM built would require a small fleet of ABMs to counter it.[21] Both the US and USSR rushed to introduce new weapons with MIRV systems, and the number of warheads in the world rapidly proliferated.[22]

Whether or not deploying an ABM system was worthwhile was a highly contentious issue.[23] The US scaled back their plans significantly and their Sentinel Program aimed only to counter the small Chinese ICBM force, a limited Soviet attack or an accidental launch. By the late 1960s, widespread efforts were underway to solve the problem diplomatically instead of with more missiles. The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, signed in 1972, placed limits on the number of ABM systems, later followed by limits on the number of warheads. Both countries continued to deploy a single ABM site; the US briefly deployed a single site under their Safeguard Program, while the Soviets deployed A35/A135 missile defense system around Moscow.

Attack from above

Throughout the development of the ABM, another possibility existed that avoided most of these problems. If the interceptors were placed in orbit, some of them could be positioned over the Soviet Union at all times. These would fly "down hill" to attack the missiles, so they could be considerably smaller and cheaper than an interceptor that needed to launch up from the ground. It was also much easier to track the ICBMs during launch, due to their huge infrared signatures, and disguising these signatures would require the construction of large rockets instead of small radar decoys. Moreover, each interceptor could kill one ICBM; MIRV had no effect. As long as the interceptor missile was inexpensive, the advantage was on the side of the defense.

The US Air Force had studied these concepts under "Project Defender" as early as 1958,[24] which included work on the "Ballistic Missile Boost Interceptor", or BAMBI. BAMBI interceptors would be deployed on a series of satellites, and would be launched towards ICBMs as they climbed. As they approached the ICBM, they would open a large metal net, which would destroy the missile on impact. Depending on assumptions about the accuracy of the system and the number of missiles it would have to face, between 400 and 3,600 such satellites would be needed in order to keep enough above the USSR at any one time.[25] The Air Force concluded that there was simply no way to launch the required number of satellites, let alone have any way to service them. As their space logistical abilities improved through the 1960s they continued to study the problem, but in each case the problem of increasing ICBM numbers meant the numbers of interceptors needed grew to overwhelm any possible launch capability.

However, the introduction of the laser in the 1960s appeared to offer the possibility of a way out of the problem. The amount of time needed to attack any one missile was known as the "dwell time",[26] and if a powerful laser had a short dwell time, say 10 seconds, it would be able to attack multiple missiles during the minutes while the ICBM was launching. Given current laser energies this was impractical, but the concept was studied throughout the 1960s and later.

X-ray laser

In 1979 Edward Teller contributed to a Hoover Institution publication where he claimed that the US would be facing an emboldened USSR due to their work on civil defense. Two years later at a conference in Italy, he made the same claims about their ambitions, but with a subtle change; now he claimed that the reason for their boldness was their development of new space-based weapons. In fact, according to Frances FitzGerald, there was no evidence at all that such research was being carried out, what had really changed was that Teller was now selling his latest nuclear weapon, the X-ray laser. Finding limited success in his efforts to get funding for the project, his speech in Italy was a new attempt to create a missile gap.[27]

According to a 1983 US Interagency Intelligence Assessment, there was good evidence that in the late 1960s the Soviets were devoting serious thought to both explosive and non-explosive nuclear power sources for lasers.[28]

The US project was the result of a 1977 development by Lawrence Livermore's "O-Group". Livermore had been working on X-ray lasers for some time, but Chapline found a new solution that used the massive release of X-rays from a nuclear warhead as the source of light for a small baseball-bat sized lasing crystal in the form of a metal rod.[29] The concept was first tried out in 1978s underground nuclear test "Diablo Hawk" but had failed. Peter Hagelstein, new to O Group, set about creating computer simulations of the system in order to understand why. At first he demonstrated that Chapline's original calculations were simply wrong and the Diablo Hawk system could not possibly work. But as he continued his efforts, he found, to his dismay, that using heavier metals appeared to make a machine that would work. Through 1979 a new test was planned to take advantage of his work.[30] The follow-up test in November 1980s "Dauphin" appeared to be a success, and plans were made for a major series of experiments in the early 1980s under "Excalibur".[31]

Since the lasing medium was fairly small, a single bomb could host a number of them and attack multiple ICBMs in a single burst. The Soviet ICBM fleet had tens of thousands of warheads, but only about 1,400 missiles.[32] If each satellite had two dozen lasers, two dozen satellites on-station would significantly blunt any attack. In Molniya orbits, where the satellites would spend much of their time over the USSR, only a few dozen satellites would be needed, in total. An article in Aviation Week and Space Technology described how the devices "... are so small that a single payload bay on the space shuttle could carry to orbit a number sufficient to stop a Soviet nuclear weapons attack".[31] Some time later Teller used similar language in a letter to Paul Nitze, who was preparing a new round of strategic limitations talks, stating that "A single X-ray laser module the size of an executive desk... could potentially shoot down the entire Soviet land-based missile force..."[33]

Livermore is just one of several major US weapons labs. Other labs had been working on ideas of their own, from new space or ground-based missiles, to chemical lasers, to particle beam weapons. Angelo Codevilla argued for similar funding for powerful chemical lasers as well.[31] None of these efforts was taken very seriously by members of the Carter administration. In a meeting with Teller and Lowell Wood, a critic noted that the Soviets could easily defeat the system by attacking the satellite, whose only defense, if it had been unarmed, was to destroy itself. However this may have been rectified if the satellite also included a means of self-defense,[34] and would not have been the first satellite to have a defense system, as a revolver cannon was mounted on the 1974 Soviet Salyut 3 space station, a satellite that successfully test fired its cannon in orbit.[35] The critics also suggested that the US public would be unlikely to accept nuclear bombs in space, regardless of the potential benefits. At the time Teller was stymied by these arguments; the concept was later adapted to a "pop-up", or launch on warning system, where the X-ray laser would be launched, or "popped-up" into space from ballistic missile submarines.[36]

Project and proposals

President Reagan delivering the March 23, 1983 speech initiating SDI

In 1984, the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) was established to oversee the program, which was headed by Lt. General James Alan Abrahamson USAF, a past Director of the NASA Space Shuttle program.[1] Research and development initiated by the SDIO created significant technological advances in computer systems, component miniaturization, sensors and missile systems that form the basis for current systems.

Initially, the program focused on large scale systems designed to defeat a Soviet offensive strike. However, as the threat diminished, the program shifted towards smaller systems designed to defeat limited or accidental launches.

By 1987, the SDIO had developed a national missile defense concept called the Strategic Defense System Phase I Architecture. This concept consisted of ground and space based sensors and weapons, as well as a central battle management system.[37] The ground-based systems operational today trace their roots back to this concept.

In his 1991

  • Freedom of information act reading room – Strategic Defense Initiative
  • Interview with George Keyworth about Star Wars Program from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives
  • Missile Wars – A PBS Frontline report.
  • Nuclear Files.org Ronald Reagan on the Strategic Defense Initiative
  • Possible Soviet Responses to the US Strategic Defense Initiative (CIA document)
  • The Reagan Files: Recently Released Documents Related to SDI.

External links

  •  
  • Broad, William J. (1985). Star Warriors: A penetrating look into the lives of the young scientists behind our space age weaponry. Simon & Schuster.   (Reprint edition 1993; Diane Pub. Co.)
Notes
  1. ^ a b Federation of American Scientists. Missile Defense Milestones. Accessed March 10, 2006.
  2. ^ 'Alternatives to assured destruction', [[Encyclopaedia Britannica, Nuclear Strategy]
  3. ^ SDI, Page 1600, The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations: S-Z, By Cathal J. Nolan
  4. ^ Stars Wars works!, By MARK HERTSGAARD, 1996/06/07, SALON
  5. ^ 4.9. The case of the US Strategic Defence Initiative. Archive.unu.edu. Retrieved on 2013-07-21.
  6. ^ Missile Defense (Pros & Cons, Arguments For and Against, Advantages & Disadvantages). BalancedPolitics.org (2011-11-19). Retrieved on 2013-07-21.
  7. ^ "James A. Abrahamson : Henry F. Cooper : What Did We Get For Our $30-Billion Investment In SDI/BMD?". Nipp.org. Retrieved 2013-09-01. 
  8. ^ 85-25: National Policy on Transfer of Scientific, Technical and Engineering Information, Security Innovation for Estate Protection
  9. ^ Shultz, George P., Triumph and Turmoil, p. 261 ISBN 0-684-19325-6
  10. ^ Shultz, ibid., pp. 261-62
  11. ^ Daniel O. Graham. Confessions of a Cold Warrior. October 1995. ISBN 0-9644495-2-8.
  12. ^ William J., Broad (April 13, 1989). Cold Fusion' Patents Sought"'". New York Times. 
  13. ^ Broad, William J. (1992). Teller's War: The Top-Secret Story Behind the Star Wars Deception. Simon & Schuster.   p127.
  14. ^ Edward Copeland. Confessions of a Cold Warrior.
  15. ^ "S-25 SA-1 GUILD", GlobalSecurity.org
  16. ^ "R-7 – SS-6 SAPWOOD", GlobalSecurity.org
  17. ^ "SM-65 Atlas", GlobalSecurity.org
  18. ^ The Polaris W58 warhead was subsonic.
  19. ^ D.W. Hafemelster, "Basic Physics of EMP, Beam Weapons. and ABM", American Institute of Physics, 1983
  20. ^ Oran Young, "Active Defense and International Order", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists", May 1967, pg. 35–42
  21. ^ Herbert York, "ABM, MIRV, and the Arms Race", Science, July 17, 1970, pg. 257–260
  22. ^ W. K. H. Panofsky, "Roots of the Strategic Arms Race: Ambiguity and Ignorance", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, June 1971, pg. 13–20
  23. ^ The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists devoted much of their May and June 1967 issues to the topic, Scientific American published similar articles throughout the late 1960s
  24. ^ Stephen Schwartz, "Atomic Audit", Brookings Institution Press, 1998, pg. 285
  25. ^ Felix Pirani, "Military Space Systems", New Scientist,, September 6, 1962, pg. 496
  26. ^ "Advanced Tactical Laser (ATL)", GlobalSecurity.org
  27. ^ Frances FitzGerald, "Way Out There in the Blue: Reagan, Star Wars and the End of the Cold War", pg. 128
  28. ^ There is good evidence that in the late 1960s the Soviets were giving serious thought to both explosive and nonexplosive nuclear power sources for lasers of an unknown type.Possible Soviet Responses to the US Strategic Defense Initiative Interagency Intelligence Assessment. 1983.
  29. ^ Jeff Hecht, "The strange story being the X-ray laser", New Scientist, October 15, 1981, pg. 166
  30. ^ Peter Goodchild, "Edward Teller, the real Dr. Strangelove", Harvard University Press, 2004, pg 333–345
  31. ^ a b c Frances FitzGerald, "Way Out There in the Blue: Reagan, Star Wars and the End of the Cold War", pg. 129
  32. ^ "ICBM 50: Golden Legacy Enduring Deterrent", US Air Force Museum
  33. ^ "Teller's telltale letters", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, November 1988
  34. ^ http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/aureview/1982/may-jun/cady.html Air University Review, May–June 1982 Beam Weapons in Space a reality we must confront Major Steven E. Cady. ...an expensive laser station in space would itself become the first target of an enemy nation planning an attack. However, it is difficult to see why an extensive system of directed-energy weapons in space would not be able to destroy missiles or satellites sent to attack it. Such an attack would also prompt an immediate nuclear first strike against the attacking nation.
  35. ^ , Ch. 2Space Power TheoryJames Olberg,
  36. ^ https://www.fas.org/spp/military/program/lexicon.htm Pop-up A mode of deployment for a weapon or sensor system that is based on the ground or on ships at sea and is launched or popped-up into space where it operates when needed. Frequently used in reference to the Excalibur X-ray laser that would be launched from submarines.
  37. ^ Missile Defense Agency. History of the Missile Defense Organization. Accessed March 10, 2006.
  38. ^ North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Limited Ballistic Missile Strikes. Accessed April 27, 2006.
  39. ^ White Sands Missile Range. ERINT – Extended Range Interceptor. Accessed March 10, 2006.
  40. ^ HOE, Encyclopedia Astronautica
  41. ^ GAO/NSIAD-94-219; Secretary of Defense Les Aspin, Press Briefing, September 9, 1993; Senior Defense Official [John Deutch, Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology], "DOD Background Briefing," September 9, 1993.Records Indicate Deception Program Did Not Affect 1984 Test Results,United States General Accounting Office, Ballistic Missile Defense:
  42. ^ Encyclopedia Astronautica. SVC / Lockheed HOE. Accessed March 10, 2006.
  43. ^ Encyclopedia Astronautica. Lockheed ERIS. Accessed March 10, 2006.
  44. ^ United States Department of Energy. United States Nuclear Tests 1945–1992. Accessed March 10, 2006.
  45. ^ Bloembergen, N., Patel, C. K. N., Avizonis, P., Clem, Ro., and Hertzberg, A., "Report to the APS of the Study Group on Science and Technology of Directed Energy Weapons," Reviews of Modern Physics, No. 3, Part II, July 1987; ISBN 9997342895
  46. ^ K. Tsipis, "Third-Generation Nuclear Weapons," SIPRI Yearbook of World Armaments and Disarmament 1985 (University Press, 1985).
  47. ^ M. D. Rosen et al., "Exploding Foil Technique for Achieving Soft X-Ray Laser," pp.106–109, and D. L. Matthews et al., "Demonstration of a Soft X-Ray Amplifier," pp.110–113, Physical Review Letters, 54 (January 14, 1985).
  48. ^ Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Legacy of the X-Ray Laser Program (PDF). November 1994. Accessed April 29, 2006.
  49. ^ The Missile Defense Agency - U.S. Department of Defense
  50. ^ Federation of American Scientists. Mid-Infrared Advanced Chemical Laser. Accessed April 8, 2006.
  51. ^ F. J. Duarte (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '87 (STS, McLean, Va, 1988).
  52. ^ Airborne Laser Undergoes Successful Test, June 9, 2009, NTI: Global Security Newswire
  53. ^ Nunz, G. J.; Los Alamos National Laboratory. BEAR (Beam Experiments Aboard a Rocket) Project. Volume 1: Project Summary. Accessed April 29, 2006.
  54. ^ Missile Defense Agency. BMDO funded research may help reduce the impact this stuff sucs of nuclear waste (PDF). Accessed April 29, 2006.
  55. ^ Lieutenant General Malcolm R. O'Neill. Statement of Lieutenant General Malcolm R. O'Neill, USA, Director, BMDO before the Committee on National Security, House of Representatives, April 4, 1995. Accessed March 11, 2006.
  56. ^ Encyclopedia Astronautica. Low-power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (LACE). Accessed April 29, 2006.
  57. ^ Brendan Borrell (February 6, 2008). "Electromagnetic Railgun Blasts Off". Technology Review. 
  58. ^ David Pahl (1987). Space Warfare And Strategic Defense. Exeter Books.  
  59. ^ a b Federation of American Scientists. Ballistic Missile Defense. Accessed March 10, 2006.
  60. ^ Claremont Institute. Brilliant Pebbles. Accessed March 11, 2006.
  61. ^ The Heritage Foundation. Brilliant Pebbles. Accessed March 11, 2006.
  62. ^ "Missile Defense Timeline", Missile Defense Agency
  63. ^ Baucom, Donald F. [2] The Rise and Fall of Brilliant Pebbles. Accessed April 24, 2014.
  64. ^ Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Summary of Brilliant Pebbles. Accessed March 11, 2006.
  65. ^ Federation of American Scientists. Ballistic Missile Defense Technology: Is the United States Ready for A Decision to Deploy?. Accessed March 11, 2006.
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  67. ^ Federation of American Scientists. Space and Missile Tracking System. Accessed March 11, 2006.
  68. ^ The Aerospace Corporation. Delta Star: an SDIO Space Experiment. Accessed June 18, 2006.
  69. ^ Marilyn Berger. Paul Nitze, Cold War Arms Expert, Dies at 97.(PDF) New York Times. October 20, 2004.
  70. ^ Uchrinscko, Karl W, "Threat and Opportunity: The Soviet View of the Strategic Defense Initiative", Naval Postgraduate School, December 1986
  71. ^ Benjamin S. Lambeth and Kevin Lewis, "The Kremlin and SDI", Foreign Affairs published by The Council on Foreign Relations, from Spring 1988 Issue
  72. ^ How to Reduce the Risk of Nuclear Warfare: Carl Sagan on Space Exploration (1986). Press Club.
  73. ^ Sharon Watkins Lang. SMDC/ASTRAT Historical Office. Where do we get "Star Wars"?. The Eagle. March 2007.
  74. ^ Kengor, Dr. Paul (2006). The Crusdader: Ronald Reagan and the Fall of Communism. United States: Harper Perennial. pp. 181–183. 
  75. ^ Dr. Gerold Yonas. SDI:Prospects and Challenges. March 7, 1986.
  76. ^ Union of Concerned Scientists. Space-Based Missile Defense: A Report by the Union of Concerned Scientists. Cambridge, MA. March 1984.
  77. ^ Parnas, D.L., Software Aspects of Strategic Defense Systems, Communications of the ACM, December 1985, Vol. 28, No. 12, reprinted from American Scientist, Journal of Sigma Xi, Vol. 73, No. 5, pp. 432–440.
  78. ^ Singh, Nagendra; McWhinney, Edward (1989). Nuclear weapons and contemporary international law. Martinus Nijhoff. p. 236.  
  79. ^ Protocol to the Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems. May 24, 1976.
  80. ^ CNN. Reagan-Gorbachev Transcripts at the Wayback Machine (archived January 19, 2008). Accessed September 18, 2009.

References

See also

  • Dale Brown's novel Silver Tower details the adventures on and around a space station that employs an anti-ICBM laser system called Skybolt against a Soviet invasion of Iran; it would reappear in Brown's Patrick McLanahan saga starting with the 2007 novel Strike Force.
  • Tom Clancy's novel The Cardinal of the Kremlin is based in part on a race between the USA and USSR to complete laser-based SDI systems.
  • Homer Hickam Jr's novel Back to the Moon used leftover SDI weapons, including the Homing Overlay Experiment, in an attempt to kill the crew of shuttle Columbia.
  • Whitley Strieber's novel Warday details how the Soviet Union launches a preemptive, limited nuclear attack on the United States while it was deploying the Strategic Defense Initiative (called "Spiderweb" in the novel) out of fears that the SDI would make the USA potentially invulnerable to Soviet missile attacks.
  • In the Civilization series, there are several references to ICBM defense systems similar to SDI.
  • The comedy movie Real Genius follows college physics prodigies who are unknowingly induced to develop a space-based laser weapon system for the Air Force.
  • In RoboCop, a brief satirical news story mentions how a Strategic Defense platform codenamed Peace, malfunctioned in orbit, destroying a swath of Southern California in the process.
  • Spies Like Us follows two duped 'spies' who are told to launch a single Soviet missile towards the USA as part of a black operation to demonstrate and justify the expense of SDI.
  • In the 1993 Larry Bond novel Cauldron the GPALS system is depicted as having been deployed with the Brilliant Pebbles weapons included. They are used to destroy all French and German military satellites covering an invasion of Poland in the then-future of 1998.
  • In the 2010 T.V. series Nikita, a rogue government black ops program called Division tries to blackmail the US president using an abandoned SDI laser satellite as ground attack weapon in season two.

Because of public awareness of the program and its controversial nature, SDI has been the subject of many fictional and pop culture references. This is not intended to be a complete list of those references.

Fiction and popular culture

Timeline

Another criticism of SDI was that it would not be effective against non-space faring weapons, namely cruise missiles, bombers, short-range ballistic missile submariness and non-conventional delivery methods. However, it was never intended to act as a defense against non-space faring weapons.

Non-ICBM delivery

During the Reykjavik talks with Gorbachev in 1986, Ronald Reagan addressed Gorbachev's concerns about imbalance by stating that SDI would be given to the Soviet Union to prevent the imbalance from occurring. Gorbachev answered that he could not take this claim seriously.[80]

SDI was criticized for potentially disrupting the strategic doctrine of Mutual Assured Destruction. MAD postulated that intentional nuclear attack was inhibited by the certainty of ensuing mutual destruction. Even if a nuclear first strike destroyed many of the opponent's weapons, sufficient nuclear missiles would survive to render a devastating counter-strike against the attacker. The criticism was that SDI could have potentially allowed an attacker to survive the lighter counter-strike, thus encouraging a first strike by the side having SDI. Another destabilizing scenario was countries being tempted to strike first before SDI was deployed, thereby avoiding a disadvantaged nuclear posture. Proponents of SDI argued that SDI development might instead cause the side that did not have the resources to develop SDI, too, rather than launching a suicidal nuclear first strike attack before the SDI system was deployed, instead come to the bargaining table with the country that did have those resources, and, hopefully, agree to a real, sincere disarmament pact that would drastically decrease all forces, both nuclear and conventional. Furthermore, the MAD argument was criticized on the grounds that MAD only covered intentional, full-scale nuclear attacks by a rational, non-suicidal opponent with similar values. It did not take into account limited launches, accidental launches, rogue launches, or launches by non-state entities or covert proxies.

SDI and MAD

The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and its subsequent protocol,[79] which limited missile defenses to one location per country at 100 missiles each (which the USSR had and the US did not), would have been violated by SDI ground-based interceptors. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty requires "Each of the Parties to the Treaty undertakes to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear disarmament, and on a treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control." Many viewed favoring deployment of ABM systems as an escalation rather than cessation of the nuclear arms race, and therefore a violation of this clause. On the other hand, many others did not view SDI as an escalation.

Another criticism of SDI was that it would require the United States to modify previously ratified treaties. The Outer Space Treaty of 1967, which requires "States Parties to the Treaty undertake not to place in orbit around the Earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass destruction, install such weapons on celestial bodies, or station such weapons in outer space in any other manner"[78] and would forbid the US from pre-positioning in Earth orbit any devices powered by nuclear weapons and any devices capable of "mass destruction". Only the space stationed nuclear pumped X-ray laser concept would have violated this treaty, since other SDI systems, did not require the pre-positioning of nuclear explosives in space.

Treaty obligations

SDI drew criticism from abroad as well. This 1986 Socialist German Workers Youth graffiti in Kassel, West Germany says "Keinen Krieg der Sterne! Stoppt SDI! SDAJ" or (No star wars! Stop SDI! SDAJ).

Parnas said he joined the panel with the desire to make nuclear weapons "impotent and obsolete" but soon concluded that the concept was "a fraud". [77] On June 28, 1985,

In response to this when Teller testified before Congress he stated that "instead of [Bethe] objecting on scientific and technical grounds, which he thoroughly understands, he now objects on the grounds of politics, on grounds of military feasibility of military deployment, on other grounds of difficult issues which are quite outside the range of his professional cognizance or mine."

Physicist Hans Bethe, who worked with Edward Teller on both the atomic bomb and hydrogen bomb at Los Alamos, claimed a laser defense shield was unfeasible. He said that a defensive system was costly and difficult to build yet simple to destroy, and claimed that the Soviets could easily use thousands of decoys to overwhelm it during a nuclear attack. He believed that the only way to stop the threat of nuclear war was through diplomacy and dismissed the idea of a technical solution to the Cold War, saying that a defense shield could be viewed as threatening because it would limit or destroy Soviet offensive capabilities while leaving the American offense intact. In March 1984, Bethe coauthored a 106-page report for the Union of Concerned Scientists that concluded "the X-ray laser offers no prospect of being a useful component in a system for ballistic missile defense."[76]

Ashton Carter, a board member at MIT, assessed SDI for Congress in 1984, saying there were a number of difficulties in creating an adequate missile defense shield, with or without lasers. Carter said X-rays have a limited scope because they become diffused through the atmosphere, much like the beam of a flashlight spreading outward in all directions. This means the X-rays needed to be close to the Soviet Union, especially during the critical few minutes of the booster phase, in order for the Soviet missiles to be both detectable to radar and targeted by the lasers themselves. Opponents disagreed, saying advances in technology, such as using very strong laser beams, and by "bleaching" the column of air surrounding the laser beam, could increase the distance that the X-ray would reach to successfully hit its target.

Jessica Savitch reported on the technology in episode No.111 of Frontline, "Space: The Race for High Ground" on PBS on 4/11/1983. [1] The opening sequence shows Jessica Savitch seated next to a laser that she used to destroy a model of a communication satellite. The demonstration was perhaps the first televised use of a weapons grade laser. No theatrical effects were used. The model was actually destroyed by the heat from the laser. The model and the laser were realized by Marc Palumbo, a High Tech Romantic artist from the Center for Advanced Visual Studies at MIT.

SDI may have been first dubbed "Star Wars" by opponent Dr. Carol Rosin, a consultant and former spokeswoman for Wernher von Braun. However, Missile Defense Agency historians attribute the term to a Washington Post article published March 24, 1983, the day after the Star Wars speech, which quoted Democratic Senator Ted Kennedy describing the proposal as "reckless Star Wars schemes."[73] Some critics used that term derisively, implying it was an impractical science fiction fantasy. In addition, the American media's liberal use of the moniker (despite President Reagan's request that they use the program's official name) did much to damage the program's credibility.[74] In comments to the media on March 7, 1986, Acting Deputy Director of SDIO, Dr. Gerold Yonas, described the name "Star Wars" as an important tool for Soviet disinformation and asserted that the nickname gave an entirely wrong impression of SDI.[75] However, supporters have adopted the usage as well on the grounds that yesterday's science fiction is often tomorrow's engineering.

SDI was not just lasers; in this Kinetic Energy Weapon test, a seven-gram Lexan projectile was fired from a light-gas gun at a velocity of 23,000 feet per second (7,000 meters per second or 15,682 miles per hour) at a cast aluminum block.

Controversy and criticism

In 1986 Carl Sagan summarized what he heard Soviet commentators were saying about SDI, with a common argument being that it was equivalent to starting an economic war through a defensive arms race to further cripple the