Country of origin USSR
First flight 1960-10-10[1]
Last flight 2010-09-30[2]
Designer OKB-1 V. M. Melnikov[3][4]
Application Upper Stage
Associated L/V Molniya[5]
Predecessor S1.5400[6]
Successor RD-58[5]
Status Retired
Liquid-fuel engine
Propellant LOX[5] / RG-1[5]
Cycle Stage Combustion[3][4][5]
Chamber 1[5]
Thrust (vac.) 66.69 kilonewtons (14,990 lbf)[5]
Chamber pressure 5.4 MPa (780 psi)[7]
Isp (vac.) 340 seconds[6]
Burn time up to 207s[7]
Dry weight 153 kilograms (337 lb)[6]
Used in
Molniya Block-L[6]

The S1.5400 (GRAU Index 11D33) was a Soviet single nozzle liquid propellant rocket engine burning liquid oxygen and kerosene in an oxidizer rich staged combustion cycle.[8] It was the first rocket engine to use this cycle in the world, and it was designed by V. M. Melnikov, an alumnus of Isaev, within Korolev's Bureau, for the Molniya fourth stage, the Block-L.[3][4] It was also the first Soviet engine designed for start and restart in vacuum, and had the highest isp at the time of its deployment.[9]

Its development took from 1958 to 1960.[3] The first production run was started on May 1960, and it passed all the firing tests.[9] Its first flight failed before the Block-L was activated and it was in a Venera flight during 1961 that it had its first success. Between 1961 and 1964 it went through an improvement program that ended up in the S1.5400A1 version (GRAU Index 11D33M). It improved thrust from 63.74 kilonewtons (14,330 lbf) to 66.69 kilonewtons (14,990 lbf) and isp from 338.5s to 340s, while keeping weight the same.[6][7]

The engine used titanium alloy in its main combustion chamber to tolerate temperatures of up to 700 °C (1,292 °F). The turbopump initial spin-up is pyrotechnic. The engine is attached to a Cardan suspension which enables it to gimbal up to 3 degrees in two axes.[5][9]

See also

  • Molniya - The original rocket to use the S1.5400.
  • OKB-1 - RSC Energiya is the successor of the S1.5400 designer bureau, OKB-1.


  1. ^ Pillet, Nicolas. "Liste des lancements Molnia" (in French). Kosmonavtika.com. Retrieved 2015-05-30. 
  2. ^ Pillet, Nicolas. "Liste des lancements Molnia-M" (in French). Kosmonavtika.com. Retrieved 2015-05-30. 
  3. ^ a b c d Sutton, George Paul (November 2005). "Section 4.2 Engine Systems". History of Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines.  
  4. ^ a b c Eckardt, Dietrich (2014). Gas Turbine Powerhouse. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag. p. 377.  
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h "Engines".  
  6. ^ a b c d e Sutton, George Paul (November 2005). "Section 8.11 Korolev's Design Buerau, late NPO Energiya". History of Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines.  
  7. ^ a b c "S1.5400A". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2015-05-30. 
  8. ^ "S1.5400". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2015-05-30. 
  9. ^ a b c Harvey, Brian (2007). Russian Planetary Exploration: History, Development, Legacy and Prospects. Springer-Praxis. pp. 29–31.  

External links

  • RSC Energia Corporation Home Page