|Classification and external resources|
Pasteurella multocida (subsp. septica and subsp. multocida) is carried in the mouth and respiratory tract of various animals, including pigs. It is a small Gram negative bacillus with bipolar staining by Wayson stain. In animals, it can originate fulminant septicaemia (chicken cholera), but is also a common commensal.
Until taxonomic revision in 1999, Mannheimia spp. were classified as Pasteurella spp., and infections by organisms now called Mannheimia spp., as well as by organisms now called Pasteurella spp., were designated as pasteurellosis. The term "pasteurellosis" is often still applied to mannheimiosis, although such usage has declined.
- Types 1
- Animals 2
- Diagnosis 3
- Treatment 4
- See also 5
- References 6
- External links 7
There are several forms of the infection:
- Skin/subcutaneous tissue disease is a septic phlegmon that develops classically in the hand and forearm after cat bite. Inflammatory signs are very rapid to develop; in 1 or 2 hours, edema, severe pain and serosanguineous exudate appear. Fever, moderate or very high can be seen along with vomiting, headache and diarrhea. Lymphangitis is common. Complications are possible, in the form of septic arthritis, osteitis or evolution to chronicity.
- Sepsis is very rare, but can be as fulminant as septicaemic plague, with high fever, rigors and vomiting, followed by shock and coagulopathy.
- Pneumonia disease is also rare and appears in patients with some chronic pulmonary pathology. It usually presents as bilateral consolidating pneumonia, sometimes very severe.
P. multocida causes numerous pathological conditions in domestic animals. It often acts together with other infectious agents, like Chlamydiae, Mycoplasmae and viruses. Environmental conditions (transportation, housing deficiency, and bad weather) also play a role.
The following diseases are considered caused by P. multocida, alone or associated to other pathogens:
- ) 
- Enzootic pneumonia of sheep (and goats, with frequent intervention of Mannheimia haemolytica)
- Fowl cholera (chicken and other domestic poultry and cage birds)
- Enzootic pneumonia and atrophic rhinitis of pigs
- Pasteurellosis of chinchillas
- Pasteurellosis of rabbits
- Pasteurellosis suspected in an epizootic illness of saiga antelope, although there are other possible causes.
Diagnosis is made with isolation of Pasteurella multocida in a normally sterile site (blood, pus or CSF).
As the infection is usually transmitted into humans through animal bites, antibiotics usually treat the infection, but medical attention should be sought if the wound is severely swelling. Pasteurellosis is usually treated with high-dose penicillin if severe. Either tetracycline or chloramphenicol provides an alternative in beta-lactam intolerant patients. However, it is most important to treat the wound.
- Kuhnert P; Christensen H (editors). (2008). Pasteurellaceae: Biology, Genomics and Molecular Aspects. Caister Academic Press.
- Hunt Gerardo, S.; Citron, D. M.; Claros, M. C.; Fernandez, H. T.; Goldstein, E. J. C. (2001). "Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica Differentiation by PCR Fingerprinting and -Glucosidase Activity". Journal of Clinical Microbiology 39 (7): 2558–2564.
- Angen Ø, Mutters R, Caugant DA, Olsen JE, Bisgaard M; Mutters; Caugant; Olsen; Bisgaard (1999). sp. nov"Mannheimia varigena sp. nov. and Mannheimia ruminalis sp. nov., Mannheimia glucosida comb. nov., Mannheimia granulomatis gen. nov., comb. nov., Mannheimia haemolytica"Taxonomic relationships of the [Pasteurella] haemolytica complex as evaluated by DNA-DNA hybridizations and 16S rRNA sequencing with proposal of . Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49 (Pt 1): 67–86.
- Zecchinon L, Fett T, Desmecht D; Fett; Desmecht (2005). defeats host defence through a kiss of death mechanism"Mannheimia haemolytica"How . Vet. Res. 36 (2): 133–56.
- Brogden KA, Lehmkuhl HD, Cutlip RC; Lehmkuhl; Cutlip (1998). "Pasteurella haemolytica complicated respiratory infections in sheep and goats". Vet. Res. 29 (3–4): 233–54.
- "Endangered saiga antelope mysteriously dying in vast numbers in Kazakhstan". The Independent. Associated Press. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
- Pasteurella multocida-related diseases in sheep and goats