Multiplication (music)
 This article is about multiplication in music; for multiplication in mathematics see multiplication.
The mathematical operations of multiplication have several applications to music. Other than its application to the frequency ratios of intervals (e.g., Just intonation, and the twelfth root of two in equal temperament), it has been used in other ways for twelvetone technique, and musical set theory. Additionally ring modulation is an electrical audio process involving multiplication that has been used for musical effect.
A multiplicative operation is a mapping in which the argument is multiplied (Rahn 1980, 53). Multiplication originated intuitively in interval expansion, including tone row order number rotation, for example in the music of Béla Bartók and Alban Berg (Schuijer 2008, 77–78). Pitch number rotation, Fünferreihe or "fiveseries" and Siebenerreihe or "sevenseries", was first described by Ernst Krenek in Über neue Musik (Krenek 1937; Schuijer 2008, 77–78). Princetonbased theorists, including James K. Randall (1962), Godfrey Winham (1970), and Hubert S. Howe (1967) "were the first to discuss and adopt them, not only with regards [sic] to twelvetone series" (Schuijer 2008, 81).
Contents
 Pitchclass multiplication modulo 12 1
 Pitch multiplication 2
 Time multiplication 3
 Affine transformation 4
 Zrelation 5
 References 6
 Further reading 7
Pitchclass multiplication modulo 12
When dealing with pitchclass sets, multiplication modulo 12 is a common operation. Dealing with all twelve tones, or a tone row, there are only a few numbers which one may multiply a row by and still end up with a set of twelve distinct tones. Taking the prime or unaltered form as P_{0}, multiplication is indicated by M_x, x being the multiplicator:
 M_x(y) \equiv xy \pmod{12}
The following table lists all possible multiplications of a chromatic twelvetone row:
M  M × (0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11) mod 12  

0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0 
1  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11 
2  0  2  4  6  8  10  0  2  4  6  8  10 
3  0  3  6  9  0  3  6  9  0  3  6  9 
4  0  4  8  0  4  8  0  4  8  0  4  8 
5  0  5  10  3  8  1  6  11  4  9  2  7 
6  0  6  0  6  0  6  0  6  0  6  0  6 
7  0  7  2  9  4  11  6  1  8  3  10  5 
8  0  8  4  0  8  4  0  8  4  0  8  4 
9  0  9  6  3  0  9  6  3  0  9  6  3 
10  0  10  8  6  4  2  0  10  8  6  4  2 
11  0  11  10  9  8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1 
Note that only M_{1}, M_{5}, M_{7}, and M_{11} give a one to one mapping (a complete set of 12 unique tones). This is because each of these numbers is relatively prime to 12. Also interesting is that the chromatic scale is mapped to the circle of fourths with M_{5}, or fifths with M_{7}, and more generally under M_{7} all even numbers stay the same while odd numbers are transposed by a tritone. This kind of multiplication is frequently combined with a transposition operation. It was first described in print by Herbert Eimert, under the terms "Quartverwandlung" (fourth transformation) and "Quintverwandlung" (fifth transformation) (Eimert 1950, 29–33), and has been used by the composers Milton Babbitt (Morris 1997, 238 & 242–43; Winham 1970, 65–66), Robert Morris (1997, 238–39 & 243), and Charles Wuorinen (Hibbard 1969, 157–58). This operation also accounts for certain harmonic transformations in jazz (Morris 1982, 153–54).
Thus multiplication by the two meaningful operations (5 & 7) may be designated with M_{5}(a) and M_{7}(a) or M and IM (Schuijer 2008, 77–78).
 M_{1} = Identity
 M_{5} = Cycle of fourths transform
 M_{7} = Cycle of fifths transform
 M_{11} = Inversion
 M_{11}M_{5} = M_{7}
 M_{7}M_{5} = M_{11}
 M_{5}M_{5} = M_{1}
 M_{7}M_{11}M_{5} = M_{1}
 ...
Pitch multiplication
Pierre Boulez (1971),) described an operation he called pitch multiplication, which is somewhat akin to the Cartesian product of pitch class sets. Given two sets, the result of pitch multiplication will be the set of sums (modulo 12) of all possible pairings of elements between the original two sets. Its definition:
 X \times Y = \{ (x+y)\bmod 12  x\in X, y\in Y\}
For example, if multiplying a C major chord \{ 0,4,7 \} with a dyad containing C,D \{ 0,2 \}, the result is:
 \{ 0,4,7 \} \times \{ 0,2 \} = \{ 0,2,4,6,7,9 \}
In this example, a set of 3 pitches multiplied with a set of 2 pitches gives a new set of 3 × 2 pitches. Given the limited space of modulo 12 arithmetic, when using this procedure very often duplicate tones are produced, which are generally omitted. This technique was used most famously in Boulez's 1955 masterpiece Le marteau sans maître, as well as in his Third Piano Sonata, Pli selon pli, Eclat (and Eclat multiples), FiguresDoublesPrisms, Domaines, and Cummings ist der Dichter, as well as the withdrawn choral work, Oubli signal lapidé (1952) (Koblyakov 1990; Heinemann 1993; Heinemann 1998).
Howard Hanson called this operation of commutative mathematical Convolution "superposition" (Hanson 1960, 44, 167) or "@projection" and used the "/" notation interchangeably. Thus "p@m" or "p/m" means "perfect 5th at major 3rd", e.g.: { C E G B }. He specifically noted that two triad forms could be so multiplied, or a triad multiplied by itself, to produce a resultant scale. The latter "squaring" of a triad produces a particular scale highly saturated in instances of the source triad (Hanson 1960, 167). Thus "pmn", Hanson's name for common the major triad, when squared, is "PMN", e.g.: { C D E G G♯ B }.
Nicholas Slonimsky used this operation, nongeneralized, to form 1300 scales by multiplying the symmetric tritones, augmented chords, diminished seventh chords, and wholetone scales by the sum of 3 factors which he called interpolation, infrapolation, and ultrapolation (Slonimsky 1947, v). The combination of interpolation, infrapolation, and ultrapolation, forming obliquely infrainterpolation, infraultrapolation, and infrainterultrapolation, additively sums to what is effectively a second sonority. This second sonority, multiplied by the first, gives his formula for generating scales and their harmonizations.
Joseph Schillinger used the idea, undeveloped, to categorize common 19th and early 20thcentury harmonic styles as product of horizontal harmonic rootmotion and vertical harmonic structure (Schillinger 1941, 147). Some of the composers' styles which he cites appear in the following multiplication table.
The approximation of the 12 pitches of Western music by modulus12 math, forming the Circle of Halfsteps, means that musical intervals can also be thought of as angles in a polar coordinate system, stacking of identical intervals as functions of harmonic motion, and transposition as rotation around an axis. Thus, in the multiplication example above from Hanson, "p@m" or "p/m" ("perfect 5th at major 3rd", e.g.: { C E G B }) also means "perfect fifth, superimposed upon perfect fifth rotated 1/3 of the circumference of the Circle of Halfsteps". A conversion table of intervals to angular measure (taken as negative numbers for clockwise rotation) follows:
Interval  Circle of Halfsteps  Circle of Fifths  

Halfsteps  Radians (times π)  Degrees  Fifths  Radians (times π)  Degrees  
Unison  0  0  0  0  0  0 
Minor second  1  1/6  30  7  7/6  210 
Major second  2  1/3  60  2  1/3  60 
Minor third  3  1/2  90  9  3/2  270 
Major third  4  2/3  120  4  2/3  120 
Perfect fourth  5  5/6  150  11  11/6  330 
Diminished fifth or Augmented fourth  6  1  180  6  1  180 
Perfect fifth  7  7/6  210  1  1/6  30 
Minor sixth  8  4/3  240  8  4/3  240 
Major sixth  9  3/2  270  3  1/2  90 
Minor seventh  10  5/3  300  10  5/3  300 
Major seventh  11  11/6  330  5  5/6  150 
Octave  12  2  360  12  2  360 
This angular interpretation of intervals is helpful to visualize a very practical example of multiplication in music: EulerFokker genera used in describing the Just intonation tuning of keyboard instruments (Fokker 1987). Each genus represents an harmonic function such as "3 perfect fifths stacked" or other sonority such as { C G D F♯ }, which, when multiplied by the correct angle(s) of copy, approximately fills the 12TET circumferential space of the Circle of fifths. It would be possible, though not musically pretty, to tune an augmented triad of two perfect nonbeating major thirds, then (multiplying) tune two tempered fifths above and 1 below each note of the augmented chord; this is EulerFokker genus [555]. A different result is obtained by starting with the "3 perfect fifths stacked", and from these nonbeating notes tuning a tempered major third above and below; this is EulerFokker genus [333].
Time multiplication
Joseph Schillinger described an operation of "polynomial time multiplication" corresponding roughly to that of Pitch multiplication above (Schillinger 1941, 70–? ). A theme, reduced to a consistent series of integers representing the quarter, 8th, or 16thnote duration of each of the notes of the theme, could be multiplied by itself or the series of another theme to produce a coherent and related variation. Especially, a theme's series could be squared or cubed or taken to higher powers to produce a saturation of related material.
Affine transformation
Herbert Eimert described what he called the "eight modes" of the twelvetone series, all mirror forms of one another. The inverse is obtained through a horizontal mirror, the retrograde through a vertical mirror, the retrogradeinverse through both a horizontal and a vertical mirror, and the "cycleoffourthstransform" or Quartverwandlung and "cycleoffifthstransform" or Quintverwandlung obtained through a slanting mirror (Eimert 1950, 28–29). With the retrogrades of these transforms and the prime, there are eight permutations.
Furthermore, one can sort of move the mirror at an angle, that is the 'angle' of a fourth or fifth, so that the chromatic row is reflected in both cycles. . . . In this way, one obtains the cycleoffourths transform and the cycleoffifths transform of the row. (Eimert 1950, 29, translated in Schuijer 2008, 81)
Joseph Schillinger embraced not only contrapuntal inverse, retrograde, and retrogradeinverse—operations of matrix multiplication in Euclidean vector space±but also their rhythmic counterparts as well. Thus he could describe a variation of theme using the same pitches in same order, but employing its original time values in retrograde order. He saw the scope of this multiplicatory universe beyond simple reflection, to include transposition and rotation (possibly with projection back to source), as well as dilation which had formerly been limited in use to the time dimension (via augmentation and diminution) (Schillinger 1941, 187ff). Thus he could describe another variation of theme, or even of a basic scale, by multiplying the halfstep counts between each successive pair of notes by some factor, possibly normalizing to the octave via Modulo12 operation (Schillinger 1941, 115ff, 208ff).
Zrelation
Some Zrelated chords are connected by M or IM (multiplication by 5 or multiplication by 7), due to identical entries for 1 and 5 on the APIC vector (Schuijer 2008, 98n18).
References
 Antokoletz, Elliott. 1993. "Middle Period String Quartets". In The Bartok Companion, edited by Malcolm Gillies, 257–77. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0571153305 (cased); ISBN 0571153313 (pbk).
 Boulez, Pierre. 1971. Boulez on Music Today. Translated by Susan Bradshaw and Richard Rodney Bennett. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674080068.
 Eimert, Herbert. 1950. Lehrbuch der Zwölftontechnik. Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Härtel.
 Fokker, Adriaan Daniël. 1987. Selected Musical Compositions. Utrech: The Diapason Press. ISBN 9070907119.
 Hanson, Howard. 1960. Harmonic Materials of Modern Music. New York: AppletonCenturyCrofts.
 Heinemann, Stephen. 1993. "PitchClass Set Multiplication in Boulez's Le Marteau sans maître. D.M.A. diss., University of Washington.
 Heinemann, Stephen. 1998. "PitchClass Set Multiplication in Theory and Practice." Music Theory Spectrum 20, no. 1 (Spring): 7296.
 Hibbard, William. 1969. "Charles Wuorinen: The Politics of Harmony". Perspectives of New Music 7, no. 2 (SpringSummer): 155–66.
 Howe, Hubert S. 1965. “Some Combinational Properties of Pitch Structures.” Perspectives of New Music 4, no. 1 (FallWinter): 45–61.
 Koblyakov, Lev . 1990. Pierre Boulez: A World of Harmony. Chur: Harwood Academic Publishers. ISBN 3718604221.
 Krenek, Ernst. 1937. Über neue Musik: Sechs Vorlesungen zur Einführung in die theoretischen Grundlagen. Vienna: Ringbuchhandlung.
 Morris, Robert D. 1982. Review: "John Rahn, Basic Atonal Theory. New York: Longman, 1980". Music Theory Spectrum 4:138–54.
 Morris, Robert D. 1997. "Some Remarks on Odds and Ends". Perspectives of New Music 35, no. 2 (Summer): 237–56.
 Rahn, John. 1980. Basic Atonal Theory. Longman Music Series. New York and London: Longman. Reprinted, New York: Schirmer Books; London: Collier Macmillan, 1987.
 Randall, James K. 1962. "PitchTime Correlation". Unpublished. Cited in Schuijer 2008, 82.
 Schillinger, Joseph. 1941. The Schillinger System of Musical Composition. New York: Carl Fischer. ISBN 0306775220.
 Schuijer, Michiel. 2008. Analyzing Atonal Music: PitchClass Set Theory and Its Contexts. Eastman Studies in Music 60. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. ISBN 9781580462709.
 Slonimsky, Nicholas. 1947. Thesaurus of Scales and Melodic Patterns. New York: Charles Scribner Sons. ISBN 0026118505.
 Winham, Godfrey. 1970. “Composition with Arrays”. Perspectives of New Music 9, no. 1 (FallWinter): 43–67.
Further reading
 Morris, Robert D. 1977. "On the Generation of MultipleOrderFunction TwelveTone Rows". Journal of Music Theory 21, no. 2 (Autumn): 238–62.
 Morris, Robert D. 1982–83. "Combinatoriality without the Aggregate". Perspectives of New Music 21, nos. 1 & 2 (AutumnWinter/SpringSummer): 432–86.
 Morris, Robert D. 1990. "PitchClass Complementation and Its Generalizations". Journal of Music Theory 34, no. 2 (Autumn): 175–245.
 Starr, Daniel V. 1978. "Sets, Invariance, and Partitions." Journal of Music Theory 22, no. 1:1–42.


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