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Name

Louis Pasteur Guşul.érieure]]
Pasteur Institute | alma_mater =
École Normale Supérieure| notable_students = Charles Friedel[1] | awards = Rumford Medal (1856, 1892)
Copley Medal (1874)
Albert Medal (1882)
Leeuwenhoek Medal (1895) | signature = Louis Pasteur Signature.svg
}} Louis Pasteur (, French: ; December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization. He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and preventions of diseases, and his discoveries have saved countless lives ever since. He reduced mortality from puerperal fever, and created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax. His medical discoveries provided direct support for the germ theory of disease and its application in clinical medicine. He is best known to the general public for his invention of the technique of treating milk and wine to stop bacterial contamination, a process now called pasteurization. He is regarded as one of the three main founders of bacteriology, together with Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch, and is popularly known as the "father of microbiology".[2][3][4]

Pasteur was responsible for crushing the doctrine of [5]

Pasteur also made significant discoveries in chemistry, most notably on the molecular

Louis Pasteur
Photograph by Nadar
Born (1822-12-27)December 27, 1822
Dole, France
Died September 28, 1895(1895-09-28) (aged 72)
Marnes-la-Coquette, France
Nationality French
Fields Chemistry
Microbiology
Institutions University of Strasbourg
Lille University of Science and Technology
École Normale Supérieure
Pasteur Institute
Alma mater École Normale Supérieure
Notable students Charles Friedel[6]
Notable awards Rumford Medal (1856, 1892)
Copley Medal (1874)
Albert Medal (1882)
Leeuwenhoek Medal (1895)
Signature

Louis Pasteur (, French: ; December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization. He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and preventions of diseases, and his discoveries have saved countless lives ever since. He reduced mortality from puerperal fever, and created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax. His medical discoveries provided direct support for the germ theory of disease and its application in clinical medicine. He is best known to the general public for his invention of the technique of treating milk and wine to stop bacterial contamination, a process now called pasteurization. He is regarded as one of the three main founders of bacteriology, together with Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch, and is popularly known as the "father of microbiology".[2][3][4]

Pasteur was responsible for crushing the doctrine of [5]

Pasteur also made significant discoveries in chemistry, most notably on the molecular basis for the asymmetry of certain crystals and racemization. He was the Director of the Pasteur Institute, established in 1887, till his death, and his body lies beneath the institute in a vault covered in depictions of his accomplishments in Byzantine mosaics.[7]

Although Pasteur made groundbreaking experiments, his reputation became associated with various controversies. Historical reassessment of his notebook revealed that he practiced deception to overcome his rivals.[8][9]

Early life

The house in which Pasteur was born, Dole

Louis Pasteur was born on December 27, 1822, in Dole, Jura, France, to a Catholic family of a poor tanner. He was the third child of Jean-Joseph Pasteur and Jeanne-Etiennette Roqui. In 1827, the family moved to Arbois, where he entered primary school in 1831. He was an average student in his early years, and not particularly academic, as his interests were fishing and sketching. His pastels and portraits of his parents and friends, made when he was 15, were later kept in the museum of the Pasteur Institute in Paris. In 1838, he left for Paris to join the Institution Barbet, but became homesick and returned in November. In 1839, he entered the Collège Royal de Besançon and earned his baccalauréat (BA) degree in 1840. He was appointed teaching assistant at the Besançon college while continuing a degree science course with special mathematics. He failed his first examination in 1841. He managed to pass the baccalauréat scientifique (general science) degree in 1842 from Dijon but with a poor grade in chemistry. After one failed attempt for the entrance test for the École Normale Supérieure in Paris in 1842, he succeeded in 1844. In 1845 he received the licencié ès sciences (Bachelor of Science) degree. In 1846, he was appointed professor of physics at the Collège de Tournon at Ardèche, but Antoine Jérome Balard (one of the discoverers of the element bromine) wanted him back at the École Normale Supérieure as a graduate assistant (préparateur) for chemistry courses. He joined Balard and simultaneously started his research in crystallography and in 1847, he submitted his two theses, one in chemistry and the other in physics. After serving briefly as professor of physics at the Dijon Lycée in 1848, he became professor of chemistry at the University of Strasbourg, where he met and courted Marie Laurent, daughter of the university's rector in 1849. They were married on May 29, 1849, and together had five children, only two of whom survived to adulthood; the other three died of typhoid. These personal tragedies were his motivations for curing infectious diseases.[2][10]

Professional career

Louis Pasteur in 1857
Pasteur in 1857

Pasteur was appointed to the Chair of Chemistry in the faculty of sciences of the University of Strasbourg. In 1854, he was named dean of the new faculty of sciences at Lille University. It was on this occasion that Pasteur uttered his oft-quoted remark: "dans les champs de l'observation, le hasard ne favorise que les esprits préparés." (In the field of observation, chance favors only the prepared mind.[11])

In 1857, he moved to Paris as the director of scientific studies at the École Normale Supérieure where he took control from 1858 to 1867 and introduced a series of reforms. The examinations became more rigid, which led to better results, greater competition, and increased prestige. He raised the standard of scientific work, leading to two serious student revolts.[2] In 1862, he was appointed professor of geology, physics, and chemistry at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, the position which held until his resignation in 1867. In Paris, he established Hormuzakia aggregata

Taxonavigation

Species:

Name

Louis Pasteur Guşul.b|Pasteur separated the left and right crystal shapes from each other to form two piles of crystals: in solution one form rotated light to the left, the other to the right, while an equal mixture of the two forms canceled each other's effect, and does not rotate the polarized light.]] In Pasteur's early work as a chemist, he resolved a problem concerning the nature of tartaric acid (1848).[12][13][14][15][16] A solution of this compound derived from living things (specifically, wine lees) rotated the plane of polarization of light passing through it. The mystery was that tartaric acid derived by chemical synthesis had no such effect, even though its