- viral: polio vaccine (Salk vaccine) and influenza vaccine
- bacterial: typhoid vaccine, cholera vaccine, plague vaccine, and pertussis vaccine
Inactivated vaccines are contrasted with attenuated vaccines, or "live" vaccines. Examples of "live" (i.e. attenuated) vaccines include:
- Viral: measles vaccine, mumps vaccine, rubella vaccine, chicken pox vaccine, yellow fever vaccine, and nasal-spray flu vaccine (including the seasonal flu nasal spray and the 2009 H1N1 flu nasal spray). Rabies vaccines are now available in two different attenuated forms, one for use in humans, and one for animal usage.
- Bacterial: BCG vaccine, typhoid vaccine
The virus particles are destroyed and cannot replicate, but the virus capsid proteins are intact enough to be recognized by the immune system and evoke a response. When manufactured correctly, the vaccine is not infectious, but improper inactivation can result in intact and infectious particles. Because the properly produced vaccine does not reproduce, booster shots are required periodically to reinforce the immune response.