Halobacteria

Halobacteria

Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1, each cell about 5 µm in length.
Scientific classification
Domain: Archaea
Kingdom: Archaea
Phylum: Euryarchaeota
Class: Halobacteria
Order
Synonyms
  • Halobacteria Grant et al. 2002
Note: The word "halobacteria" is also the plural form of the word "halobacterium". Halobacteria are now recognized as archaea, rather than bacteria. The name 'halobacteria' was assigned to this group of organisms before the existence of the domain Archaea was realised, and remains valid according to taxonomic rules. In a non-taxonomic context, halophilic archaea are also sometimes referred to as haloarchaea to distinguish them from halophilic bacteria.

In taxonomy, the Halobacteria (also Halomebacteria) are a class of the Euryarchaeota,[1] found in water saturated or nearly saturated with salt. They are also called halophiles, though this name is also used for other organisms which live in somewhat less concentrated salt water. They are common in most environments where large amounts of salt, moisture, and organic material are available.

Halobacteria can grow aerobically or anaerobically. Parts of the membranes of halobacteria are purplish in color, and large blooms of Halobacteria appear reddish, from the pigment bacteriorhodopsin, related to the retinal pigment rhodopsin. Bacteriorhodopsin is used to absorb light, which provides energy to create ATP. Halobacteria also possess a second pigment, halorhodopsin, which pumps chloride ions in the cell in response to photons, creating a voltage gradient and assisting in the production of energy from light. The process is unrelated to other forms of photosynthesis involving electron transport however, and halobacteria are incapable of fixing carbon from carbon dioxide.[2]

Taxonomy

The extremely halophilic, aerobic members of Archaea are classified within the family Halobacteriaceae, order Halobacteriales in Class III. Halobacteria of the phylum Euryarchaeota (International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes, Subcommittee on the taxonomy of Halobacteriaceae. As of June 2012, the family Halobacteriaceae comprises 39 genera.

Domain : Archaea

Phylum: Euryarchaeota

  • Class: Halobacteria
    • Order: Halobacteriales
      • Family: Halobacteriaceae
        • Haladaptatus [Hap.]
          • Haladaptatus cibarius
          • Haladaptatus litoreus
          • Haladaptatus paucihalophilus (Type species)
        • Halalkalicoccus [Hac.]
          • Halalkalicoccus jeotgali
          • Halalkalicoccus tibetensis (Type species)
        • Halarchaeum [Hla.]
          • Halarchaeum acidiphilum (Type species)
        • Haloarchaeobius [Hab.]
          • Haloarchaeobius iranensis (Type species)
        • Haloarcula [Har.]
        • ´´Tambiien Hacen caca
          • Haloarcula amylolytica
          • Haloarcula argentinensis
          • Haloarcula hispanica
          • Haloarcula japonica
          • Haloarcula marismortui
          • Haloarcula quadrata
          • Haloarcula salaria
          • Haloarcula tradensis
          • Haloarcula vallismortis (Type species)
        • Halobacterium [Hbt.] (Type genus)
          • Halobacterium jilantaiense
          • Halobacterium noricense
          • Halobacterium piscisalsi (subjective junior synonym of Halobacterium salinarum)[3]
          • Halobacterium salinarum (Type species)
        • Halobaculum [Hbl.]
          • Halobaculum gomorrense (Type species)
          • "Halobaculum magnesiiphilum" (IJSEM in press)
        • Halobellus [Hbs.]
          • Halobellus clavatus (Type species)
          • Halobellus limi
          • Halobellus salinus
        • Halobiforma [Hbf.]
          • Halobiforma haloterrestris (Type species)
          • Halobiforma lacisalsi
          • Halobiforma nitratireducens
        • Halococcus [Hcc.]
          • Halococcus dombrowskii
          • Halococcus hamelinensis
          • Halococcus morrhuae (Type species)
          • Halococcus qingdaonensis
          • Halococcus saccharolyticus
          • Halococcus salifodinae
          • Halococcus thailandensis
        • Haloferax [Hfx.]
          • Haloferax alexandrinus
          • Haloferax denitrificans
          • Haloferax elongans
          • Haloferax gibbonsii
          • Haloferax larsenii
          • Haloferax lucentense
          • Haloferax mediterranei
          • Haloferax mucosum
          • Haloferax prahovense
          • Haloferax sulfurifontis
          • Haloferax volcanii (Type species)
        • Halogeometricum [Hgm.]
          • Halogeometricum borinquense (Type species)
          • Halogeometricum rufum
        • Halogranum [Hgn.]
          • Halogranum amylolyticum
          • Halogranum gelatinilyticum
          • Halogranum rubrum (Type species)
          • "Halogranum salarium" (Type species) (SAM in press)
        • Halolamina [Hlm.]
          • Halolamina pelagica (Type species)
        • Halomarina [Hmr.]
          • Halomarina oriensis (Type species)
        • Halomicrobium [Hmc.]
          • Halomicrobium katesii
          • Halomicrobium mukohataei (Type species)
          • Halomicrobium zhouii
        • Halonotius [Hns.]
          • Halonotius pteroides (Type species)
        • Halopelagius [Hpl.]
          • Halopelagius inordinatus (Type species)
        • "Halopenitus" [Hpt.]
          • "Halopenitus persicus" (Type species) (IJSEM in press)
        • Halopiger [Hpg.]
          • Halopiger aswanensis
          • Halopiger xanaduensis (Type species)
        • Haloplanus [Hpn.]
          • Haloplanus aerogenes
          • Haloplanus natans (Type species)
          • Haloplanus vescus
        • Haloquadratum [Hqr.]
          • Haloquadratum walsbyi (Type species)
        • Halorhabdus [Hrd.]
          • Halorhabdus tiamatea
          • Halorhabdus utahensis (Type species)
        • Halorientalis [Hos.]
          • Halorientalis regularis (Type species)
        • "Halorubellus" ["Hrb".]
          • "Halorubellus litoreus" (SAM in press)
          • "Halorubellus salinus" (Type species) (SAM in press)
        • Halorubrum [Hrr.]
          • Halorubrum aquaticum
          • Halorubrum aidingense
          • Halorubrum alkaliphilum
          • Halorubrum arcis
          • Halorubrum californiense
          • Halorubrum chaoviator
          • Halorubrum cibi
          • Halorubrum coriense
          • Halorubrum distributum
          • Halorubrum ejinorense
          • Halorubrum ezzemoulense
          • Halorubrum kocurii
          • Halorubrum lacusprofundi
          • Halorubrum lipolyticum
          • Halorubrum litoreum
          • Halorubrum luteum
          • Halorubrum orientale
          • Halorubrum saccharovorum (Type species)
          • Halorubrum sodomense
          • Halorubrum tebenquichense
          • Halorubrum terrestre
          • Halorubrum tibetense
          • Halorubrum trapanicum
          • Halorubrum vacuolatum
          • Halorubrum xinjiangense
        • "Halorussus" ["Hrs".]
          • "Halorussus rarus" (Type species) (Extremophiles [Epub ahead of print])
        • Halosarcina [Hsn.]
          • Halosarcina limi
          • Halosarcina pallida (Type species)
        • Halosimplex [Hsx.]
          • Halosimplex carlsbadense (Type species)
        • Halostagnicola [Hst.]
          • Halostagnicola alkaliphila
          • Halostagnicola kamekurae
          • Halostagnicola larsenii (Type species)
        • Haloterrigena [Htg.]
          • Haloterrigena daqingensis
          • Haloterrigena hispanica
          • Haloterrigena jeotgali
          • Haloterrigena limicola
          • Haloterrigena longa
          • Haloterrigena saccharevitans
          • Haloterrigena salina
          • Haloterrigena thermotolerans
          • Haloterrigena turkmenica (Type species)
        • Halovenus [Hvn.]
          • Halovenus aranensis (Type species) (IJSEM in press)
        • Halovivax [Hvx.]
          • Halovivax asiaticus (Type species)
          • Halovivax ruber
        • Natrialba [Nab.]
          • Natrialba aegyptia
          • Natrialba asiatica (Type species)
          • Natrialba chahannaoensis
          • Natrialba hulunbeirensis
          • Natrialba magadii
          • Natrialba taiwanensis
        • Natrinema [Nnm.]
          • Natrinema altunense
          • Natrinema ejinorense
          • Natrinema gari
          • Natrinema pallidum
          • Natrinema pellirubrum (Type species)
          • Natrinema versiforme
        • Natronoarchaeum [Nac.]
          • Natronoarchaeum mannanilyticum (Type species)
          • "Natronoarchaeum philippinense" (IJSEM in press)
        • Natronobacterium [Nbt.]
          • Natronobacterium gregoryi (Type species)
        • Natronococcus [Ncc.]
          • Natronococcus amylolyticus
          • Natronococcus jeotgali
          • Natronococcus occultus (Type species)
          • "Natronococcus roseus" (IJSEM in press)
        • Natronolimnobius [Nln.]
          • Natronolimnobius baerhuensis (Type species)
          • Natronolimnobius innermongolicus
        • Natronomonas [Nmn.]
          • Natronomonas moolapensis
          • Natronomonas pharaonis (Type species)
        • Natronorubrum [Nrr.]
          • Natronorubrum aibiense
          • Natronorubrum bangense (Type species)
          • Natronorubrum sediminis
          • Natronorubrum sulfidifaciens
          • Natronorubrum tibetense
        • Salarchaeum [Sar.]
          • Salarchaeum japonicum (Type species)
        • "Salinarchaeum" [Saa.]
          • "Salinarchaeum laminariae" (Type species) (Extremophiles [Epub ahead of print])

References

Further reading

Scientific journals

Scientific books

Scientific databases

  • PubMed references for Halobacteria
  • PubMed Central references for Halobacteria
  • Google Scholar references for Halobacteria

External links

  • NCBI taxonomy page for Halobacteria
  • Search Tree of Life taxonomy pages for Halobacteria
  • Search Species2000 page for Halobacteria
  • MicrobeWiki page for Halobacteria
  • LSPN page for Halobacteria