Caroline Bartlett Crane

Caroline Bartlett Crane

Crane in 1912

Caroline Bartlett Crane (August 17, 1858 – March 24, 1935) was an American Unitarian minister, suffragist, civic reformer, educator and journalist. She was known as "America's housekeeper" for her efforts to improve urban sanitation.[1][2]


Caroline Bartlett was born in Hudson, Wisconsin. She studied at Carthage College, graduating in 1879. After being a teacher for four years, she became a journalist in 1884. In 1889 she was ordained and installed at the Unitarian church in Kalamazoo, Michigan. In summer 1891 she visited England, meeting James Martineau and investigating the slum work of the Salvation Army.[2]

Returning to Kalamazoo, she renamed her church the People's Church and moved it into a new building designed to offer a wide range of community amenities. In 1896 she married a local doctor and pioneer in X-ray research, Augustus Warren Crane. In 1898, after illness and differences with the board, she resigned her ministry.[2]

Turning to

  1. ^ Renee Zimelis Ruchotzke, Caroline Bartlett Crane, Dictionary of Unitarian and Universalist Biography, an on-line resource of the Unitarian Universalist History & Heritage Society.
  2. ^ a b c d e Charles R. Starring (1971). Edward T. James, ed. Notable American Women, 1607-1950: A Biographical Dictionary. Janet Wilson James; Paul S. Boyer. Harvard University Press. pp. 401–2.  


  • General sanitary survey of Erie, Pennsylvania, 1910
  • Report on a campaign to awaken public interest in sanitary and sociologic problems in the State of Minnesota, 1911
  • A sanitary survey of Saginaw, Michigan, 1911
  • Business versus the home, 1913
  • Everyman's house, 1925


She died in Kalamazoo aged 76, and her ashes were buried in Mountain Home Cemetery in Kalamazoo.[2]