South Bay (San Francisco Bay Area)
- For the valley in Ventura County, California, see Santa Clara River Valley. For the California wine region, see Santa Clara Valley AVA. For a discussion of the technological aspects of the Santa Clara Valley, see Silicon Valley.
The Santa Clara Valley (also known as Silicon Valley) is a valley just south of the San Francisco Bay in Northern California in the United States. It is also part of a region locally known as the "South Bay". Much of Santa Clara County and its county seat, San José, are in the Santa Clara Valley. The valley was originally known as the Valley of Heart’s Delight for its high concentration of orchards, flowering trees, and plants. Until the 1960s it was the largest fruit production and packing region in the world with 39 canneries.
Once primarily agricultural because of its highly fertile soil, it is now largely urbanized, although its far southern reaches south of Gilroy remain agrarian. Silicon Valley is roughly coterminous with the Santa Clara Valley, although since the former is as much a state of mind as an actual location, parts of the San Francisco Peninsula are often referred to as being part of Silicon Valley as well. Locally, the Santa Clara Valley is also referred to as the "South Bay."
Few traces of its agricultural past can still be found, one example the Santa Clara Valley American Viticultural Area remains a large wine-making region. It is the first commercial wine-producing region in California (and possibly the United States), utilizing high-quality French varietal vines imported from France.
The northern end of the Santa Clara Valley is at the southern tip of the San Francisco Bay, and the southern end is in the vicinity of Hollister. The valley is bounded by the Santa Cruz Mountains on the southwest and by the Diablo Range on the northeast. It is approximately 30 miles (50 km) long by 15 miles (20 km) wide. The valley's largest city, by an 86.7% margin, is San Jose. The population of the valley is 1.81 million along with approximately 865,700 wage and salary jobs. Santa Clara Valley has a Mediterranean semi-arid climate.
Cities and towns
Cities and towns in the Santa Clara Valley include (in alphabetical order):
- Los Gatos
- Los Altos
- Los Altos Hills
- Monte Sereno
- Morgan Hill
- Mountain View
- Palo Alto
- San Jose
- Santa Clara
Because so much high-tech industry has spread out from the Silicon Valley, Fremont and Newark, even though they are not in the Santa Clara County, are often included in discussions about the Silicon Valley or, in the case of Fremont, is referred to as the Gateway to the Silicon Valley (a title also claimed occasionally by San Jose, Union City, and several other locations). Similarly, Palo Alto, while in Santa Clara County and considered part of Silicon Valley, is on the San Francisco Peninsula.
San Francisco South Bay
The South Bay is a subregion of the San Francisco Bay Area, California, United States and is roughly synonymous with the Santa Clara Valley, Silicon Valley, and Santa Clara County (in general). The South Bay is one of several Subregions in the Bay Area including: San Francisco, the North Bay including parts of the Wine Country, the Peninsula, and the East Bay, among others.
In addition to the primary cities listed above, although physically separated by the Santa Cruz mountains and in another county (Santa Cruz County), the following incorporated cities are sometimes considered part of the region:
Some cities in the East Bay or especially on the Peninsula sometimes are referred to as part of the region. Many of these cities including Menlo Park, Redwood City, Newark, and Fremont are considered part of the Silicon Valley (and therefore the South Bay) because of their relative peripheral location to Santa Clara County, history, or concentration of high-tech companies. The conception of the South Bay as a region is relatively new compared to that of the Peninsula and coastal East Bay, and the cities of northwestern Santa Clara County (Palo Alto, Los Altos, Mountain View, and sometimes as far as Cupertino and Sunnyvale) maintain an identity more strongly connected to the Peninsula and the Stanford campus than the City of San Jose. Additionally, the counties of Santa Cruz and San Benito are considered part of the South Bay by the Bay Area media although the two counties are often considered to be their own subregion centered on the city of Santa Cruz.
There are a number of well known structures and sites of interest in the South Bay:
- Hewlett Packard, Palo Alto
- Stanford University, Palo Alto
- HP Pavilion at San José, San Jose
- Hayes Mansion, South San Jose
- Plaza de César Chávez, downtown San Jose
- Cathedral Basilica of Saint Joseph, downtown San Jose
- Winchester Mystery House, West San Jose
- Santana Row, West San Jose
- Lick Observatory, San Jose
- Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum, West San Jose
- Mexican Heritage Plaza, East San Jose
- History Park at Kelley Park, Central San Jose
- Children's Discovery Museum of San Jose, Downtown San Jose
- San Jose International Airport, San Jose
- San Jose Museum of Art, San Jose
- San Jose State University, San Jose
- Santa Clara University, Santa Clara (includes original Santa Clara Mission site)
- California's Great America, Santa Clara
- The Tech Museum of Innovation, San Jose
- Moffett Federal Airfield, Sunnyvale/Mountain View
Santa Clara Valley was created by the sudden growth of the Santa Cruz Mountains and the Diablo Range during the later Cenozoic era. This was a period of intense mountain building in California when the folding and thrusting of the Earth's crust, combined with active volcanism, gave shape to the present state of California. Hence, Santa Clara Valley is a structural valley, created by mountain building as opposed to an erosional valley, or a valley which has undergone the wearing away of the Earth's surface by natural agents. The underlying geology of the Santa Cruz Mountains was also formed by the sediment of the ancient seas, where marine shale points to Miocene origin. Today one can still find evidence of this in the Santa Cruz Mountains, where shark's teeth and the remains of maritime life are still found as high as Scotts Valley, a city nestled in the mountains. The highest peak on the Santa Cruz Mountains side of the valley is Loma Prieta at 3,790 feet. The highest peak in the Diablo Range side of the valley is Mount Hamilton, specifically Copernicus Peak at 4,370 feet elevation. This is the highest peak in Santa Clara County.