G-20 major economies
2015 summit guest nations
|Abbreviation||G-20 or G20|
2008 (Heads of State Summits)
|Purpose||Bring together systemically important industrialized and developing economies to discuss key issues in the global economy.|
|Ahmet Davutoğlu (2015)|
The Group of Twenty (also known as the G-20 or G20) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 20 major economies. The members include 19 individual countries—Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States—along with the European Union (EU). The EU is represented by the European Commission and by the European Central Bank.
The G-20 was founded in 1999 with the aim of studying, reviewing, and promoting high-level discussion of policy issues pertaining to the promotion of international financial stability. It seeks to address issues that go beyond the responsibilities of any one organization. Collectively, the G-20 economies account for around 85% of the gross world product (GWP), 80% of world trade (or, if excluding EU intra-trade, 75%), and two-thirds of the world population. The G-20 heads of government or heads of state have periodically conferred at summits since their initial meeting in 2008, and the group also hosts separate meetings of finance ministers and central bank governors.
With the G-20 growing in stature after its inaugural leaders' summit in 2008, its leaders announced on 25 September 2009 that the group would replace the G8 as the main economic council of wealthy nations. Since its inception, the G-20's membership policies have been criticized by numerous intellectuals, and its summits have been a focus for major protests by anti-globalists, nationalists and others.
The heads of the G-20 nations met semi-annually at G-20 summits between 2008 and 2011. Since the November 2011 Cannes summit, all G-20 summits have been held annually. In December 2014, Turkey took over the presidency of the G-20 from Australia, and will host the group's 2015 summit in Antalya.
- Summits 1.1
- G-20 leaders' chair rotation 1.2
- Proposed permanent secretariat 2.1
List of members 3
- Leaders 3.1
- Member country data 3.2
- Role of Asian countries 3.3
Member facts 4
- Official languages in two members or more 4.1
- Nuclear weapons 4.2
- Permanent guest invitations 5.1
Exclusivity of membership 6.1
- Norwegian and Polish perspectives 6.1.1
- Global Governance Group (3G) response 6.1.2
- Foreign Policy critiques 6.1.3
- Wider concerns 6.2
- Exclusivity of membership 6.1
- See also 7
- Notes 8
- References 9
- Further reading 10
- External links 11
The G-20 is the latest in a series of post-
- Official G-20 website
- G-20 website of the OECD
- G-20 Information Centre from the University of Toronto
- A Guide To Committees, Groups, And Clubs from the International Monetary Fund
- G-20 Special Report from The Guardian
- IPS News – G-20 Special Report
- The G-20's role in the post-crisis world by FRIDE
- The Group of Twenty—A History, 2007
- Economics for Everyone: G20 – Gearing for Growth
- Haas, P.M. (1992). "Introduction. Epistemic communities and international policy coordination," International Organization 46,1:1–35.
- Hajnal, Peter I. (1999). The G8 system and the G20 : Evolution, Role and Documentation. Aldershot, Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-4550-4; OCLC 277231920.
- Reinalda, Bob and Bertjan Verbeek. (1998). Autonomous Policy Making by International Organizations. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-16486-3; ISBN 978-0-203-45085-7; OCLC 39013643.
- Augusto Lopez-Claros, Augusto, Richard Samans and Marc Uzan (2007). The international monetary system and the IMF, and the G-20 : a great transformation in the making? Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-52495-8; OCLC 255621756.
- Danish Institute for International Studies (2011). The G-20 and beyond: towards effective global economic governance. Copenhagen, Denmark: Jakob Vestergaard.
- "FAQ #5: What are the criteria for G-20 membership?". G20.org. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- "G20 Members". G20.org. Retrieved 15 January 2014.
- "Officials: G-20 to supplant G-8 as international economic council". CNN. 25 September 2009. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
- "'"Norway Takes Aim at G-20:'One of the Greatest Setbacks Since World War II.
- Bosco, David (19 April 2012). "Who would replace Argentina on the G20?".
- Mahoney, Jill; Ann Hui (29 June 2010). "G20-related mass arrests unique in Canadian history". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). Retrieved 21 July 2010.
- See, e.g., Ngaire Woods (2006), The Globalizers: the IMF, World Bank, and their Borrowers, Cornell University Press. Robert Gilpin (2001), Global Political Economy: Understanding the International Economic Order. Donald Markwell (2006), John Maynard Keynes and International Relations: Economic Paths to War and Peace, Oxford University Press.
- "What is the G20?". University of Toronto. 2010. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- "Global Economics". Brookings Institution. 2004. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- "Who gets to rule the world". Macleans (Canada). 1 July 2010; Thomas Axworthy. "Eight is not enough at summit." Toronto Star (Canada). 8 June 2007. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- John Kirton (2013). G20 Governance for a Globalized World. Ashgate Publishing via Google Books.
- "The G-20 Summit: What’s It All About?". Brookings Institution. 27 October 2008. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
- D+C 2011/01 – Berensmann/Fues/Volz – The G20: an informal power broker with growing developmental relevance – Development and Cooperation – International Journal. Inwent.org. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- d+c-focus-sachin– Indian scholar says global leaders should focus on food security and access to essential pharmaceuticals – Development and Cooperation – International Journal. Inwent.org. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- "US to host next G20 world meeting". BBC News. 28 May 2009. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- "Leaders' statement, the Pittsburgh Summit," p. 19 §50 (PDF). G20.org. 25 September 2009.
- "G20 summit picks BCEC as official venue". TTGmice. 8 August 2012. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- "G20". Bond.org.uk. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
- "G20 Ministerial Meetings". G20 Research Group. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Canberra considers barring Vladimir Putin from G20 in Brisbane over Crimea crisis". The Australian. 20 March 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
- "Chairperson's Statement on the BRICS Foreign Ministers Meeting held on 24 March 2014 in The Hague, Netherlands". dfa.gov.za. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
- "The G-20 Leaders Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy". G-20 Information Centre. University of Toronto. 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- Canada (25 September 2009). "Canada to host 'transition' summit in 2010". Toronto: Theglobeandmail.com. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
- "The Group of 20: The premier forum for international economic cooperation". CanadaInternational.gc.ca. 2010. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
- "Korea to Host G20 in November". The
- "Korea to Host G20 in November," Korea Times, 25 September 2009; retrieved 12 November 2010.
- "French G20 summit to be November 2011 in Cannes". Business Recorder. 12 November 2010. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- "Cannes albergará próxima cumbre del G20 en noviembre de 2011". AFP via Emol.com. 12 November 2010. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
- "Cannes albergará próxima cumbre del G20 en noviembre de 2011," Agence France Presse. 12 November 2010.
- Robinson, Dale. "G20 Commits to Deficit Reduction Time Line". Voice of America. 27 June 2010; "Mexico hosted G20 summit in 2012". Xinhua. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- "Los Cabos to Host G20 Summit in 2012". PRNewswire.com. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
- "Mexico to host G20 summit in 2012," Xinhua, 28 June 2010.
- "French G20 LEADERS SUMMIT – FINAL COMMUNIQUÉ". G20-G8. 4 November 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
- "Cannes Summit Final Declaration," G-20 Official Website, 4 November 2011.
- Saint Petersburg to hold G20 Summit of 2013, Voice of Russia
- "G20 Leaders’ Communiqué". whitehouse.gov. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "Erdoğan says he’ll lead G-20 Summit this year".
- "快讯：杭州获得2016年G20峰会举办权". ifeng.com.
- "India to hold G20 Chair in 2018, Delhi may play host". The Hindu. 1 October 2015. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
- Carin, Barry (4 November 2010). "The Future of the G20 Process".
- "Who Would Host a G20 Secretariat?" Chosun Ilbo. 15 November 2010. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Wouters, Jan; Van Kerckhoven, Sven (2011). "OECD and the G20: An Ever Closer Relationship". George Washington International Law Review 43 (2): 345.
- "What is the G-20". G20.org. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
- "Van Rompuy and Barroso to both represent EU at G20". EUobserver.com. 19 March 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2012. "The permanent president of the EU Council, former Belgian premier Herman Van Rompuy, also represents the bloc abroad in foreign policy and security matters...in other areas, such as climate change, President Barroso will speak on behalf of the 27-member club."
- "Gross domestic product". IMF World Economic Outlook. October 2015. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- "World Economic Outlook data". IMF. 2015. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- "Gross domestic product, current prices". IMF World Economic Outlook. April 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
- "Gross domestic product based on purchasing-power-parity (PPP) valuation of country GDP". IMF World Economic Outlook. April 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
- The G20 monitor systemic seven countries to try to rebalance the world economy. Economics Newspaper. 26 June 2011. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
- España será invitado permanente en el G-20. Elpais.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 December 2011.
- "Asia to play bigger role on world stage, G20: ADB report". The People's Daily. 26 April 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- "G20 and the world". G20.org. 2015. Retrieved 16 April 2015.
- "International Organisations". G-20 Australia. 2014. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
- "About G-20". G20.org. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- Kelly Chernenkoff. "Obama to Usher In New World Order at G-20". Fox News. 25 September 2009. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- Vestergaard, Jakob (April 2011). "The G20 and Beyond: Towards Effective Global Economic Governance" (PDF). DIIS Report. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- "The G20 and Its Regional Critics: The Search for Inclusion". Global Policy. May 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- "Norway and the UN". Norway.org. 12 May 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
- "Polska w G-20 - warto się bić?". gospodarka.dziennik.pl (in Polski). 3 February 2010. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- Tim Ferguson (9 April 2012). "G20: Boot Argentina, Include Poland". Forbes. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- "Who would replace Argentina on the G20?". Foreign Policy.
- Marcin Sobczyk. "G20 Needs Poland". WSJ.
- Grupa Wirtualna Polska. "Eksperci nie mają wątpliwości: Polska powinna należeć do G20". biztok.pl.
- "Polska w grupie G20: jeśli tam nie będziemy, inni będą decydować za nas". PolskieRadio.pl.
- "STATEMENT BY AMBASSADOR VANU GOPALA MENON, PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVE OF SINGAPORE TO THE UNITED NATIONS". Singapore UN Mission. 8 June 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
- "SIIA welcomes new 3G initiative for small states". Singapore Institute of International Affairs. 12 February 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
- "Statement by Singapore on behalf of the Global Governance Group" (PDF). United Nations. 2 June 2010. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- "Singapore among five non-G20 nations to attend Seoul Summit". International Business Times. 25 September 2010. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- Truman, Edwin M. (12 April 2012). "The G-20 Is Failing".
- Brill, Alex M.; Glassman, James K. (14 June 2012). "Who Should the Twenty Be? A New Membership System to Boost the Legitimacy of the G20 at a Critical Time for the Global Economy" (PDF).
- Daniele Archibugi. "The G-20 ought to be increased to 6 Billion". OpenDemocracy.net. 31 March 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
- Stewart, Frances and Daws, Sam. "An Economic and Social Security Council at the United Nations" (PDF). Oxford University. March 2001. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
- There is no official language at the federal level in the United States
- Emerging power
- Global Governance, an academic journal on international relations
- Great power
- Middle power
- Regional power
The cost and extent of summit-related security is often a contentious issue in the hosting country, and G-20 summits have attracted protesters from a variety of backgrounds, including information activists, nationalists, and opponents of fractional-reserve banking and crony capitalism. In 2010, the Toronto G-20 summit sparked mass protests and rioting, leading to the largest mass arrest in Canadian history.
The G-20's transparency and accountability have been questioned by critics, who call attention to the absence of a formal charter and the fact that the most important G-20 meetings are closed-door. In 2001, the economist Frances Stewart proposed an Economic Security Council within the United Nations as an alternative to the G-20. In such a council, members would be elected by the General Assembly based on their importance in the world economy, and the contribution they are willing to provide to world economic development.
On 14 June 2012, an essay published by the National Taxpayers Union was forwarded to Foreign Policy, espousing a critical view of the application of G-20 membership. The essay's authors, Alex Brill and James K. Glassman, used a numerical table with seven criteria to conclude that Indonesia, Argentina, Russia and Mexico do not qualify for G-20 membership, and that Switzerland, Singapore, Norway and Malaysia had overtaken some of the current members. However, the gap between current members Mexico and Russia and the lower-ranked entries in the authors' list (Malaysia and Saudi Arabia) was only slight. Thus, it was concluded that there is no obvious group of twenty nations that should be included in the G20, and that fair and transparent metrics are essential, as they justify the difficult decisions that will be required in order to differentiate among similarly situated countries.
The American magazine Foreign Policy has published articles condemning the G-20, in terms of its principal function as an alternative to the supposedly exclusive G8. It questions the actions of some of the G-20 members, and advances the notion that some nations should not have membership in the first place. For example, it has suggested that Argentina should be formally replaced in the group by Poland or Spain. Furthermore, with the effects of the Great Recession still ongoing, the magazine has criticized the G-20's efforts to implement reforms of the world's financial institutions, branding such efforts as failed.
Foreign Policy critiques
In June 2010, Singapore's representative to the United Nations warned the G-20 that its decisions would affect "all countries, big and small", and asserted that prominent non-G-20 members should be included in financial reform discussions. Singapore thereafter took a leading role in organizing the Global Governance Group (3G), an informal grouping of 28 non-G-20 countries (including several micronations and many Third World countries) with the aim of collectively channelling their views into the G-20 process more effectively. Singapore's chairing of the 3G was cited as a rationale for inviting Singapore to the November 2010 G-20 summit in South Korea.
Global Governance Group (3G) response
The Polish government has also repeatedly expressed an interest in joining the G-20. During a 2010 meeting with foreign diplomats, former Polish president Lech Kaczyński stated that, as one of the world's 20 largest economies, Poland deserved inclusion in the G-20. In 2012, Tim Ferguson of Forbes magazine wrote that Poland should take Argentina's place among the G-20, as its economy was rapidly developing towards a "leadership role" in Europe. Similar opinions were later expressed by commentators in Foreign Policy, the Wall Street Journal and the World Bank. In 2014, the global consultancy Ernst & Young described Poland as an "optimal" choice for inclusion in the G-20, after analyzing the country's trade, institutional and investment links.
The G-20 is a self-appointed group. Its composition is determined by the major countries and powers. It may be more representative than the G-7 or the G-8, in which only the richest countries are represented, but it is still arbitrary. We no longer live in the 19th century, a time when the major powers met and redrew the map of the world. No one needs a new Congress of Vienna.— Jonas Gahr Støre, 2010
In a 2010 interview with Der Spiegel, Norwegian Foreign Minister Jonas Gahr Støre called the G-20 "one of the greatest setbacks since World War II." Although Norway is a major developed economy and the seventh-largest contributor to UN international development programs, it is not a member of the EU, and thus is not represented in the G-20 even indirectly. Norway, like the other 173 nations not among the G-20, has little or no voice within the group. Støre characterized the G-20 as a "self-appointed group", arguing that it undermines the legitimacy of international organizations set up in the aftermath of World War II, such as the IMF, World Bank and United Nations:
Norwegian and Polish perspectives
 stated in 2011 that the G-20's exclusivity is not an insurmountable problem, and proposed mechanisms by which it could become more inclusive.Global Policy However,  A 2011 report for the  its legitimacy has been challenged. With respect to the membership issue, U.S. President Barack Obama has noted the difficulty of pleasing everyone: "everybody wants the smallest possible group that includes them. So, if they're the 21st largest nation in the world, they want the G-21, and think it's highly unfair if they have been cut out." Although the G-20 has stated that the group's "economic weight and broad membership gives it a high degree of legitimacy and influence over the management of the global economy and financial system,"
Exclusivity of membership
|African Union (AU)||Robert Mugabe||Zimbabwe||
|Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)||Najib Razak||Malaysia||
|Lê Lương Minh||Vietnam||Secretary-General|
|Financial Stability Board (FSB)||Mark Carney||
|International Labour Organization (ILO)||Guy Ryder||United Kingdom||Director General|
|International Monetary Fund (IMF)||Christine Lagarde||France||Managing Director|
|Spain||Mariano Rajoy||Spain||Prime Minister|
|New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD)||Macky Sall||Senegal||
|Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)||José Ángel Gurría||Mexico||Secretary-General|
|United Nations (UN)||Ban Ki-moon||South Korea||Secretary-General|
|World Bank Group (WBG)||Jim Yong Kim||United States||President|
|World Trade Organization (WTO)||Roberto Azevêdo||Brazil||Director General|
Permanent guest invitations
As of 2014, leaders from the following nations have been invited to the G20 summits: Azerbaijan, Benin, Brunei, Cambodia, Chile, Colombia, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Kazakhstan, Malawi, Malaysia, Mauritania, Myanmar, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Senegal, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, Thailand, the United Arab Emirates, Vietnam, and Zimbabwe.
Other invitees are chosen by the host country, usually one or two countries from its own region. For example, South Korea invited Singapore. International organisations which have been invited in the past include the Global Governance Group (3G) and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Previously, the Netherlands had a similar status to Spain while the rotating presidency of the Council of the European Union would also receive an invitation, but only in that capacity and not as their own state's leader (such as the Czech premiers Mirek Topolánek and Jan Fischer during the 2009 summits).
 Spain is a permanent non-member invitee. Typically, several participants that are not permanent members of the G20 are extended invitations to participate in the summits. Each year, the Chair of the
- The US, Russia, France, the UK and China are NPT-designated Nuclear Weapon States (NWS)
- India is a nuclear weapons state but is a non-signatory to NPT.
- Germany, Italy and Turkey are nuclear weapons sharing states.
- English: 6 (Australia, Canada, EU, India, South Africa, UK)[note 1]
- French: 3 (Canada, France, EU)
- Spanish: 3 (Argentina, EU, Mexico)
- German: 2 (EU, Germany)
- Italian: 2 (EU, Italy)
- Portuguese: 2 (Brazil, EU)
Official languages in two members or more
A 2011 report released by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) predicted that large Asian economies such as China and India would play a more important role in global economic governance in the future. The report claimed that the rise of emerging market economies heralded a new world order, in which the G-20 would become the global economic steering committee. The ADB furthermore noted that Asian countries had led the global recovery following the late-2000s recession. It predicted that the region would have a greater presence on the global stage, shaping the G-20's agenda for balanced and sustainable growth through strengthening intraregional trade and stimulating domestic demand.
Role of Asian countries
As such, a Spanish delegation has been invited to, and has attended, every G-20 heads of state summit since the G-20's inception. 
When the countries' GDP is measured at purchasing power parity (PPP) rates, all 19 members are among the top 29 in the world for the year of 2014, according to the IMF. Iran (18), Taiwan (20), Nigeria (21), Thailand (22), Egypt (25), Pakistan (26), and Malaysia (28) are not G-20 members, while Spain (16), Poland (23) and the Netherlands (27) are only included in the EU slot. However, in a list of average GDP, calculated for the years since the group's creation (1999–2008) at both nominal and PPP rates, only Spain, the Netherlands, Nigeria, Poland, Taiwan, Iran and Thailand appear above any G-20 member in both lists simultaneously.
All 19 member nations are among the top 33 economies as measured in GDP at nominal prices in a list published by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) for 2014. Not represented by membership in the G-20 are Switzerland (ranked 20th by the IMF), Nigeria (21), Taiwan (26), Norway (27), the United Arab Emirates (29), Iran (30), Colombia (31), and Thailand (32), even though they rank higher than some members. Spain (14), the Netherlands (17), Sweden (22), Poland (23), Belgium (25), and Austria (28) are included only as part of the EU, and not independently.
|“||In a forum such as the G-20, it is particularly important for the number of countries involved to be restricted and fixed to ensure the effectiveness and continuity of its activity. There are no formal criteria for G-20 membership and the composition of the group has remained unchanged since it was established. In view of the objectives of the G-20, it was considered important that countries and regions of systemic significance for the international financial system be included. Aspects such as geographical balance and population representation also played a major part.||”|
The G-20's membership does not reflect exactly the 19 largest national economies of the world in any given year. The organization states:
In addition to these 20 members, the chief executive officers of several other international forums and institutions participate in meetings of the G-20. These include the managing director and Chairman of the International Monetary Fund, the President of the World Bank, the International Monetary and Financial Committee and the Chairman of the Development Assistance Committee.
|Member||Trade mil. USD (2014)||Nom. GDP mil. USD (2014)||PPP GDP mil. USD (2014)||Nom. GDP per capita USD (2014)||PPP GDP per capita USD (2014)||HDI (2014)||Population (2014)||P5||G4||G7||BRICS||MIKTA||DAC||OECD||C'wth||Economic classification (IMF)|
Member country data
Currently, there are 20 members of the group. These include, at the leaders summits, the leaders of 19 countries and of the European Union, and, at the ministerial-level meetings, the finance ministers and central bank governors of 19 countries and of the European Union. In addition each year, the G20’s guests include G7 and BRICS. Total GDP figures are given in millions of US dollars.
List of members
In 2010, President of France Nicolas Sarkozy proposed the establishment of a permanent G-20 secretariat, similar to the United Nations. Seoul and Paris were suggested as possible locations for its headquarters. Brazil and China supported the establishment of a secretariat, while Italy and Japan expressed opposition to the proposal. South Korea proposed a "cyber secretariat" as an alternative. It has been argued that the G-20 has been using the OECD as a secretariat.
Proposed permanent secretariat
The G-20 operates without a permanent secretariat or staff. The group's chair rotates annually among the members and is selected from a different regional grouping of countries. The chair is part of a revolving three-member management group of past, present and future chairs, referred to as the "Turkey; the chair was handed over from Australia after the 2014 G-20 summit. Turkey will host the 2015 summit in Antalya, while China will host the 2016 summit in Hangzhou.
|Group 1||Group 2||Group 3||Group 4||Group 5|
|Saudi Arabia||South Africa||Mexico||Italy||Japan|
|United States||Turkey||—||United Kingdom||South Korea|
To decide which member nation gets to chair the G-20 leaders' meeting for a given year, all 19 sovereign nations are assigned to one of five different groupings. Each group holds a maximum of four nations. This system has been in place since 2010, when South Korea, which is in Group 5, held the G-20 chair. Australia, the host of the 2014 G-20 summit, is in Group 1. Turkey, which will host the 2015 summit, is in Group 2. The table below lists the nations' groupings:
G-20 leaders' chair rotation
In March 2014, Australian Foreign Minister Julie Bishop, as host of the 2014 G20 summit in Brisbane, proposed to ban Russia from the summit over its role in the 2014 Crimean crisis. The BRICS foreign ministers subsequently released a communiqué reminding Bishop that "the custodianship of the G20 belongs to all Member States equally and no one Member State can unilaterally determine its nature and character."
A number of other ministerial-level G20 meetings have been held since 2010. Agriculture ministerial meetings were conducted in 2011 and 2012; meetings of foreign ministers were held in 2012 and 2013; trade ministers met in 2012 and 2014 and employment ministerial meetings have taken place annually since 2010.
Since 2011, when France chaired and hosted the G-20, the summits have been held only once a year. The most recent summit was held in Australia in 2014, and Turkey will host the 2015 summit.
The G-20 Summit was created as a response both to the financial crisis of 2007–2010 and to a growing recognition that key emerging countries were not adequately included in the core of global economic discussion and governance. The G-20 Summits of heads of state or government were held in addition to the G-20 Meetings of Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors, who continued to meet to prepare the leaders' summit and implement their decisions. After the 2008 debut summit in Washington, D.C., G-20 leaders met twice a year in London and Pittsburgh in 2009, Toronto and Seoul in 2010.
Despite lacking any formal ability to enforce rules, the G-20's prominent membership gives it a strong input on global policy. However, there remain disputes over the legitimacy of the G-20, and criticisms of its organisation and the efficacy of its declarations.
Though the G-20's primary focus is global economic governance, the themes of its summits vary from year to year. For example, the theme of the economic crisis of 2008. An initiative by French President Nicolas Sarkozy and British Prime Minister Gordon Brown led to a special meeting of the G-20, a G-20 Leaders Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy, on 15 November 2008. Spain and the Netherlands were included in the summit by French invitation.
"Geithner and Koch-Weser went down the list of countries saying, Canada in, Spain out, South Africa in, Nigeria and Egypt out, and so on; they sent their list to the other G7 finance ministries; and the invitations to the first meeting went out."
According to researchers at the Brookings Institution, the group was founded primarily at the initiative of Eichel, who was also concurrently chair of the G7. However, some sources identify the G-20 as a joint creation of Germany and the United States. According to University of Toronto political science professor John Kirton, the membership of the G-20 was decided by Eichel's deputy Caio Koch-Weser and then US Treasury Secretary Larry Summers' deputy Timothy Geithner. In Kirton's book G20 Governance for a Globalised World, he claims that:
 hosted the inaugural meeting.Hans Eichel was chosen to be the first chairman and German finance minister Paul Martin in June 1999, but was only formally established at the G7 Finance Ministers' meeting on 26 September 1999. The inaugural meeting took place on 15–16 December 1999 in Berlin. Canadian finance minister G7), and was foreshadowed at the Cologne Summit of the G22 (which had itself superseded the G33 The G-20 superseded the