|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Intravenous, Intramuscular, formerly used orally|
|Protein binding||60 %|
|Biological half-life||30 min|
|CAS Registry Number||
69-57-8 (sodium salt)
|ATC code||J01 S01 QJ51|
|Molecular mass||334.4 g/mol|
Specific indications for benzylpenicillin include:
- Infective endocarditis
- Aspiration pneumonia, lung abscess
- Community-acquired pneumonia
- Septicemia in children
- Septic Arthritis
Adverse effects can include hypersensitivity reactions including urticaria, fever, joint pains, rashes, angioedema, anaphylaxis, serum sickness-like reaction. Rarely CNS toxicity including convulsions (especially with high doses or in severe renal impairment), interstitial nephritis, haemolytic anaemia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, and coagulation disorders. Also reported diarrhoea (including antibiotic-associated colitis).
Benzylpenicillin serum concentrations can be monitored either by traditional microbiological assay or by more modern chromatographic techniques. Such measurements can be useful to avoid central nervous system toxicity in any person receiving large doses of the drug on a chronic basis, but they are especially relevant to patients with renal failure, who may accumulate the drug due to reduced urinary excretion rates.
- Fossieck B Jr, Parker RH. Neurotoxicity during intravenous infusion of penicillin. A review. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 14: 504- 512, 1974.
- R. Baselt, Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man, 8th edition, Biomedical Publications, Foster City, CA, 2008, pp. 1195-1196.