|Country of origin||Soviet Union|
|Operator||Soviet space program|
|Applications||Carry passengers and supplies to low Earth orbit and back|
|Regime||Low Earth orbit|
The Zarya spacecraft was a secret Soviet project of the late 1980s aiming to design and build a large, manned, vertical takeoff, vertical landing (VTVL) reusable space capsule, a much larger replacement for the Soyuz spacecraft. The project was shelved in 1989, "on the eve of the Soviet Union's collapse."
The Zarya spacecraft would have differed from all previous spacecraft by having an array of a dozen rockets for making a soft landing upon return to Earth, without using a parachute.
Zarya spacecraft would have brought crew and supplies to Mir, or supplies only in automated mode. It would have had a normal crew of one or two, and offered the possibility of carrying a maximum of eight to twelve if used as a Mir lifeboat.
Zak, Anatoly (2009-04-29). "'"Russia mulls rocket power 'first. BBC News. Retrieved 2011-10-11.
RKK Energia, ... in the 1980s ... worked on a highly classified project to develop a large manned capsule, called Zarya ("Dawn"), for a wide range of civilian and military missions.
- The Continuing Story of The International Space Station, By Peter Bond
- Soyuz: A Universal Spacecraft, Pages displayed by permission of Springer. Copyright. By Rex Hall, David Shayler