Xi'an

Xi'an

Xi'an
西安市
Sub-provincial city
From top: Xian Terracotta Warriors Museum, Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Drum Tower of Xi'an, Bell Tower of Xi'an, City wall of Xi'an, Tang Paradise at night
Location of Xi'an City jurisdiction in Shaanxi
Location of Xi'an City jurisdiction in Shaanxi
Xi'an is located in China
Xi'an
Xi'an
Location in Northwest of China
Coordinates:
Country  People's Republic of China
Province Shaanxi
Government
 • CPC Xi'an Wei Minzhou
 • Mayor Dong Jun (董军)
Area
 • Sub-provincial city 9,983 km2 (3,854 sq mi)
 • Urban 2,420.7 km2 (934.6 sq mi)
 • Metro 3,866.25 km2 (1,492.77 sq mi)
Elevation 405 m (1,329 ft)
Population (2010 census)
 • Sub-provincial city 8,467,837
 • Density 850/km2 (2,200/sq mi)
 • Urban 5,566,711
 • Urban density 2,300/km2 (6,000/sq mi)
 • Metro 6,501,189
 • Metro density 1,700/km2 (4,400/sq mi)
  Data comes from 2010 National Census (urban population data excludes Yanliang, Lintong and Gaoling not urbanized yet)
Time zone CST (UTC+8)
Postal code 710000 - 710090
Area code(s) +86/29
GDP (2014)
- Total CNY547.48 billion
(US$89.12 billion)
- Per capita $10394
License plate prefixes A
City flower Pomegranate flower
City tree Pagoda tree
Website http://www.xa.gov.cn/
Xi'an
"Xi'an", as written in Chinese
Chinese 西安
Postal Sian
Literal meaning "Western peace"
Chang'an
Simplified Chinese 长安
Traditional Chinese 長安
Literal meaning "Perpetual peace"

Xi'an (; Chinese: 西安), formerly romanized as Sian,[1][2] is the capital of Shaanxi province, located in the northwest of the People's Republic of China, in the center of the Guanzhong Plain.[3] One of the oldest cities in China, the city was known as Chang'an before the Ming dynasty.[1] Xi'an is the oldest of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, having held the position under several of the most important dynasties in Chinese history,[4] including Zhou, Qin, Han, Sui, and Tang.[4] Xi'an is the starting point of the Silk Road and home to the Terracotta Army of Emperor Qin Shi Huang.[1]

Since the 1990s, as part of the economic revival of interior China especially for the central and northwest regions, the city of Xi'an has re-emerged as an important cultural, industrial and educational centre of the central-northwest region, with facilities for research and development, national security and China's space exploration program. Xi'an currently holds sub-provincial status, administering 9 districts and 4 counties.[5] According to the 2010 Census, Xi'an has an urban population of 5,566,711 in its built-up area made of 7 out of 10 districts (all but Yanliang, Lintong and Gaoling not urbanized yet),[6] while the total population of the Municipality is up to 8,467,837.[7][8] It is the most populous city in Northwest China, as well as one of the three most populous cities in Western China.[9] According to a July 2012 report by the Economist Intelligence Unit, it was recently named as one of the 13 emerging megacities, or megalopolises, in China.[10] The report pinpoints and highlights the demographic and income trends that are shaping these cities' development.

Contents

  • Toponymy 1
  • History 2
    • 11th century BCE to 19th century CE 2.1
    • 20th century and after 2.2
  • Geography and climate 3
    • National Time Service Centre 3.1
    • Climate 3.2
  • Demographics 4
  • Administrative divisions 5
  • Transportation 6
    • Metro 6.1
    • Taxi 6.2
    • Rail 6.3
    • Expressways 6.4
    • Air 6.5
  • Culture 7
    • Opera 7.1
    • Cinema 7.2
  • Religion 8
    • Chinese traditional religion and Taoism 8.1
    • Buddhism 8.2
    • Christianity 8.3
    • Islam 8.4
  • Economy 9
    • Industrial zones 9.1
    • Software and outsourcing industries 9.2
    • Aerospace industry 9.3
    • Notable businessmen 9.4
  • Education 10
    • Public 10.1
    • Military 10.2
    • Private 10.3
  • International events 11
    • World Horticultural Expo 2011 11.1
  • Tourism 12
    • Sites 12.1
    • Museums 12.2
    • National parks 12.3
  • Sports 13
  • Media 14
    • Television and radio 14.1
    • Printed media 14.2
    • Online media 14.3
  • International relations 15
  • See also 16
  • Notes and references 17
  • External links 18

Toponymy

The two Chinese characters "西安" in the name Xi'an mean "Western Peace". During the Zhou dynasty, the area was called Fenghao, with the portion of the city on the west bank of the Feng River called Feng and the portion on the east called Hao.[11] It was renamed Chang'an, meaning "Perpetual Peace", during the Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE), although it was sometimes referred to as the Western Capital or Xijing (西京) during the Han dynasty after the capital was moved further east to Luoyang during Eastern Han. It changed in 581 CE to Daxing (大興) during the Sui dynasty then again became Chang'an from 618 during the Tang dynasty. During the Yuan dynasty (1270–1368), the city was first given the name Fengyuan (奉元), followed by Anxi (安西) then Jingzhao (京兆).

It finally became Xi'an in 1369 at the time of the Ming dynasty. This name remained until 1928, then in 1930 it was renamed Xijing (西京), or "Western Capital". The city's name once again reverted to its Ming-era designation of Xi'an in 1943.

Xi'an currently does not have a widely accepted one-character abbreviation as many other Chinese cities do, possibly due to fact that it was historically called Jing () or Du (), both meaning "the Capital". Several suggested abbreviations include Feng (, the city's first name when it was founded as the new capital of Zhou, meaning abundance, greatness, and bumper harvest), Hao (Chinese: ; pinyin: Hào, derived from the name of Zhou dynasty's capital Haojing), or Tang (Chinese: ; pinyin: Táng, from the name of the Tang dynasty).

History

Remains of carriages and horses in Fenghao of the Western Zhou period (1046–771 BC)
Terracotta Army inside the Qin Shi Huang Mausoleum, 3rd century BC.
Site of Hanyuan Hall of Daming Palace, Tang dynasty
Statues in the Imperial Tomb of Tang Emperor Gaozong
Xi'an in 1908
Statue of Lady Congsun, a sword-dance master of the Tang Dynasty

Xi'an has a rich and culturally significant history. The Neolithic settlements carbon dated to 5600–6700 years ago.[12][13][14][15] The site is now home to the Xi'an Banpo Museum, built in 1957 to preserve the archaeological collection.[16]

11th century BCE to 19th century CE

Xi'an became a cultural and political centre of China in the 11th century BCE with the founding of the Zhou dynasty. The capital of Zhou was established in the twin settlements of Fengjing (丰京) and Haojing, together known as Fenghao, located southwest of contemporary Xi'an. The settlement was also known as Zhōngzhōu to indicate its role as the capital of the vassal states.[17] In 770 BC, the capital was moved to Luoyang due to political unrest.[18] Following the Warring States period, China was unified under the Qin dynasty (221–206 BCE) for the first time, with the capital located at Xianyang, just northwest of modern Xi'an.[19] The first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang ordered the construction of the Terracotta Army and his mausoleum just to the east of Xi'an almost immediately after his ascension to the throne.[20][21]

In 202 BCE, the founding emperor Liu Bang of the Han dynasty established his capital in Chang'an County; his first palace, Changle Palace (長樂宮, perpetual happiness) was built across the river from the ruin of the Qin capital. This is traditionally regarded as the founding date of Chang'an, or Xi'an. Two years later, Liu Bang built Weiyang Palace (未央宮, (perpetual happiness) hasn't reached its midpoint yet) north of modern Xi'an. Weiyang Palace was the largest palace ever built on Earth, covering 4.8 km² (1,200 acres), which is 6.7 times the size of the current Forbidden City, or 11 times the size of the Vatican City.[22] The original Xi'an city wall was started in 194 BCE and took 4 years to finish. Upon completion, the wall measured 25.7 km (15.97 mi) in length and 12 to 16 m (39.37–52.49 ft) in thickness at the base, enclosing an area of 36 km2 (13.90 sq mi). In the year 190, amidst uprisings and rebellions just prior to the Three Kingdoms Period, a powerful warlord named Dong Zhuo moved the court from Luoyang to Chang'an in a bid to avoid a coalition of other powerful warlords against him.

Following several hundred years of unrest, the Sui dynasty united China again in 582. The emperor of Sui ordered a new capital to be built southeast of the Han capital, called Daxing (大興, great prosperity). It consisted of three sections: the Imperial City, the palace section, and the civilian section, with a total area of 84 km2 (32 sq mi) within the city walls. At the time, it was the largest city in the world. The city was renamed Chang'an (長安, Perpetual Peace or Eternal Peace) by the Tang Dynasty.[23] In the mid-7th century, after returning from his pilgrimage to India, Buddhist monk Xuanzang (popularly known as Tang Sanzang) established a translation centre for Sanskrit scriptures.

Construction of the Great Wild Goose Pagoda began in 652. This pagoda was 64 m (209.97 ft) in height, and was built to store the translations of Buddhist sutras obtained from India by Xuanzang. In 707, construction of the Small Wild Goose Pagoda began. This pagoda measured 45 m (147.64 ft) tall at the time of completion, and was built to store the translations of Buddhist sutras by Yijing. The massive 1556 Shaanxi earthquake eventually damaged the tower and reduced its height to 43.4 m (142.39 ft).[24]

Chang'an was devastated at the end of the Tang dynasty in 904. Residents were forced to move to the new capital city in Luoyang. Only a small area in the city continued to be occupied thereafter. During the Ming dynasty, a new wall was constructed in 1370 and remains intact to this day. The wall measures 11.9 km (7.4 mi) in circumference, 12 m (39.37 ft) in height, and 15 to 18 m (49.21–59.06 ft) in thickness at the base; a moat was also built outside the walls. The new wall and moat would protect a much smaller city of 12 km2 (4.6 sq mi).

20th century and after

In October 1911, during the revolution in which the Qing dynasty was overthrown, the Manchus living in the northeastern zone within the city walls were massacred.[25] In 1936, the Xi'an Incident took place inside the city during the Chinese Civil War. The incident brought the Kuomintang (KMT) and Communist Party of China to a truce in order to concentrate on fighting against the Japanese Invasion.[26] On May 20, 1949, The Communist-controlled People's Liberation Army captured the city of Xi'an from the Kuomintang force.[27]

Geography and climate

Xi'an
Climate chart ()
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
6.9
 
 
5
−4
 
 
9.6
 
 
8
−1
 
 
29
 
 
14
4
 
 
43
 
 
21
10
 
 
60
 
 
26
14
 
 
54
 
 
31
19
 
 
99
 
 
32
22
 
 
71
 
 
31
21
 
 
92
 
 
25
16
 
 
60
 
 
20
10
 
 
24
 
 
12
3
 
 
5.8
 
 
6
−3
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: China Meteorological Administration

Xi'an lies on the Guanzhong Plain in the south-central part of Shaanxi province, on a flood plain created by the eight surrounding rivers and streams. The city has an average elevation of 400 metres (1,312 ft) above sea level and an annual precipitation of 553 mm (21.8 in). The urban area of Xi'an is located at . The Wei River provides potable water to the city.

The city borders the northern foot of the Qin Mountains (Qinling) to the south, and the banks of the Wei River to the north. Hua Shan, one of the five sacred Taoist mountains, is located 100 km (62 mi) away to the east of the city. Not far to the north is the Loess Plateau.

At the beginning of Han dynasty, Prime Minister Zhang Liang advised the emperor Liu Bang to choose Guanzhong as the capital of the Han dynasty: 'Guanzhong Plain, which is located behind Xiao Pass and Hangu Pass, connects Long (Gansu) and Shu (Sichuan). Land of thousands miles and rich in harvest can be found here, as if this place is belongs to the nation of the heaven.' (《关中左崤函,右陇蜀,沃野千里,此所谓金城千里,天府之国也》) Since then, Guanzhong is also known as the 'Nation of the Heaven'.[28]

National Time Service Centre

The Shaanxi Astronomical Observatory was established in 1966. In 1975, according to the Geodetic Origin Report of the People's Republic of China, 'in order to avoid bias in the mensuration as much as possible, the Geodetic Origin would be in central mainland China.' Lintong (临潼), a town near Xi'an was chosen. Since 1986, Chinese Standard Time (CST) was set from NTSC. The NTSC in Lintong is 36 km (22 mi) away from Xi'an.

National Time Service Centre (NTSC), the Chinese Academy of Sciences is an institute which is mainly engaged in the service and research on time and frequency. NTSC takes charge of generating and maintaining the national standard time scale, disseminating the time and frequency signals. The autonomous standard time scales of universal time and atomic time and the dissemination techniques with LF radio and HF radio were established successively during the 1970s and 1980s, which meet all the requirements for different applications on the whole, such as the scientific researches, national economy, etc.[29]

Climate

Xi'an has a temperate climate that is influenced by the East Asian monsoon, classified under the Köppen climate classification as situated on the borderline between a semi-arid climate (BSk) and humid subtropical climate (Cwa). The Wei River valley is characterised by hot, humid summers, cold, dry winters, and dry springs and autumns. Most of the annual precipitation is delivered from July to late October. Snow occasionally falls in winter but rarely settles for long. Dust storms often occur during March and April as the city rapidly warms up. Summer months also experience frequent but short thunderstorms. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from around the freezing mark in January to 26.6 °C (79.9 °F) in July, with an annual mean of 13.68 °C (56.6 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 31 percent in December to 47 percent in August, the city receives 1,646 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −20.6 °C (−5 °F) to 42.9 °C (109 °F).[30]

Demographics

Muslim Quarter in Xi'an

By the end of 2005, Xi'an had a population of 8.07 million.[32] Compared to the census data from 2000, the population has increased by 656,700 persons from 7.41 million.[32] The population is 51.66 percent male and 48.34 percent female.[32] Among its districts, Yanta has the largest population, with 1.08 million inhabitants.[32]

The majority of Xi'an residents are Han Chinese, who make up 99.1 percent of the city's total population. There are around 81,500 people belonging to ethnic minorities living in Xi'an, including 50,000 Hui people.

During World War II, Xi'an became a destination for many refugees from other provinces of China, especially neighboring Henan Province. Because Xi'an was far inland, the invading Japanese army only managed a few aerial assaults on the city. As a result, Xi'an suffered minimal destruction. After 1949, the national government tried to balance the development in different regions of China, and relocated a number of factories and universities from other cities to Xi'an. Modern Xi'an Jiaotong University was relocated from its original campus in Shanghai.
Breakdown of Xi'an population by district and county
Division Permanent residents[33] Hukou residents[34]
Total Percentage Population density (persons/km2)
Xi'an City 8,467,837 100 838.66 7,827,260
Xincheng District 589,739 6.96 19,574.51 503,641
Beilin District 614,710 7.26 26,298.54 732,494
Lianhu District 698,513 8.25 18,226.61 640,911
Baqiao District 595,124 7.03 1,833.97 508,535
Weiyang District 806,811 9.53 3,051.39 516,968
Yanta District 1,178,529 13.92 7,782.38 793,103
Yanliang District 278,604 3.29 1,139.26 252,449
Lintong District 655,874 7.75 716.04 697,586
Chang'an District 1,083,285 12.79 681.94 980,803
Gaoling District 333,477 3.94 1,169.98 294,507
Lantian County 514,026 6.07 256.25 643,605
Zhouzhi County 562,768 6.65 191.08 665,587
Hu County 556,377 6.57 434.87 597,071

Administrative divisions

The sub-provincial city of Xi'an has direct jurisdiction over 10 districts and 3 counties:

ISO 3166-2[35] English Chinese Pinyin Area in km2[36] Seat Postal code Subdivisions[37]
Subdistricts Towns Townships Residential communities Villages
610100 Xi'an 西安市 Xī'ān Shì 10,096.81 Weiyang District 710000 106 69 1 721 3025
610102 Xincheng District 新城区 Xīnchéng Qū 30.13 Xiyi Road Subdistrict
(西一路街道)
710000 9 104 1
610103 Beilin District 碑林区 Bēilín Qū 23.37 Zhangjiacun Subdistrict
(张家村街道)
710000 8 103
610104 Lianhu District 莲湖区 Liánhú Qū 38.32 Beiyuanmen Subdistrict
(北院门街道)
710000 9 127 5
610111 Baqiao District 灞桥区 Bàqiáo Qū 324.50 Fangzhicheng Subdistrict
(纺织城街道)
710000 9 37 223
610112 Weiyang District 未央区 Wèiyāng Qū 264.41 Zhangjiabao Subdistrict
(张家堡街道)
710000 10 93 181
610113 Yanta District 雁塔区 Yàntǎ Qū 151.44 Xiaozhai Road Subdistrict
(小寨路街道)
710000 8 117 92
610114 Yanliang District 阎良区 Yánliáng Qū 244.55 Fenghuang Road Subdistrict
(凤凰路街道)
710089 5 2 23 80
610115 Lintong District 临潼区 Líntóng Qū 915.97 Lishan Subdistrict
(骊山街道)
710600 23 38 284
610116 Chang'an District 长安区 Cháng'ān Qū 1,588.53 Weiqu Subdistrict
(韦曲街道)
710100 25 31 668
610117 Gaoling District 高陵区 Gāolíng Xiàn 285.03 Luyuan
(鹿苑街道)
710200 7 1 4 88
610122 Lantian County 蓝田县 Lántián Xiàn 2,005.95 Languan
(蓝关镇)
710500 22 9 519
610124 Zhouzhi County 周至县 Zhōuzhì Xiàn 2,945.20 Erqu
(二曲镇)
710400 22 14 376
610125 Hu County 户县 Hù Xiàn 1,279.42 Ganting
(甘亭镇)
710300 16 21 518

Transportation

Xi'an has many areas that are easily accessible on foot. In many commercial, residential, educations zones in the city, especially in the shopping and entertainment districts around the Bell Tower, underpasses and overpasses have been built for the safety and convenience of pedestrians.

Electric bikes are very popular among students and offer easy transportation in and around the city for many residents. Taxi services are numerous but many citizens of Xi'an still commute to work on one of about 280 bus routes. There are more than 2 million registered automobiles [38] in Xi'an, so cars play a very important role in people's daily life, which also means frequent traffic jams.

Metro

Currently the metro system is designed with six lines.

Line 2, running through the city from north (North Railway Station) to south (Weiqu Nan), was the first opened to the public on September 16, 2011.[39] Operations began on 28 September 2011.[39][40] This line is 19.9 km long with 17 stations.[41] Line 1 opened on 15 September 2013. As a west-east railway, its 19 stations connects Houweizhai and Fangzhicheng. Construction of Xi'an Metro's Line 3 broke ground in May 2011[42] and is set to finish in 2015.

The rest are planned to be finished around 2020. When completed, the system will span 251.8 km (156.5 mi); it will mainly service the urban and suburban districts of Xi'an municipality and part of Xianyang City.[43]

The subway line covers some of the most famous attractions, such as Banpo Museum (Banpo Station, Line 1), Bell and Drum Tower (Line 2), City Wall (Line 2) and Shaanxi History Museum, etc.[44]

On 30 December 2008, a fire accident occurred that was extinguished within an hour and all workers evacuated safely. Sixty six hours later, on 2 January, another fire occurred at another station on Line 2.[45]

Taxi

Taxis in Xi'an are predominantly BYD Auto made in Xi'an. Most, if not all, taxis in Xi'an run on compressed natural gas. For the taxis' fare, during the 06:00-23:00,¥9/2 km for the fare fall and ¥2.3/Km later, at night ¥10 for the fare fall and ¥2.7/Km later.

Rail

There are 6 passenger transport railway stations in Xi'an. Xi'an Railway Station, located just north of Xi'an walled city, is one of the eight major national railway stations, and the main railway transportation hub of Shaanxi Province. The new Xi'an North Railway Station, situated a few miles to the north, is the station for the high-speed trains of the Zhengzhou–Xi'an High-Speed Railway. With 34 platforms, it is the largest railway station in Northwest China.[46] Construction of the station began on September 19, 2008.[47] The station was opened on January 11, 2011.[46] As of May 2012, Xi'an North Station is served only by the fast (G-series and D-series) trains running on the Zhengzhou–Xi'an High-Speed Railway; one of them continues south to Hankou.[48] The city's other stations include Xi'an West, Xi'an East, Xi'an South, Sanmincun, and Fangzhicheng railway stations.

Xi'an Railway Station covers 597 thousand square meters, has 5 passenger platforms, and 24 tracks. It provides 112 services to 80 000 people daily. Among the destinations served by direct trains from Xi'an are Beijing, Zhengzhou, Lanzhou, Baoji, and Mount Hua. China Railway High-speed 2 now run an express services from Xi'an to Baoji and Xi'an to Zhengzhou; with a total running time to Baoji of under 90 minutes, and 2 hours to Zhengzhou. The Zhengzhou–Xi'an High-Speed Railway also serves Xi'an. Construction work began on September 25, 2005, the railway opened for service on February 6, 2010.[49][50][51] The railway has made air service between Zhengzhou and Xi'an uncompetitive. All passenger flights between the two cities were suspended within 48 days of start of regular high-speed rail service.[52]

Expressways

Xi'an currently has three ring road systems, the Second Ring road and the Third Ring road which encircle the city. These ring roads are similar to freeways, except where there are traffic signals on the Second Ring road.

As a tourist city, Xi'an has built expressways to Lintong, Tongchuan and Baoji, with well-maintained roads to famous scenic spots in suburban counties and to the north slope of the Qin Mountains. Since its construction in September 2007, the Xi'an–Hanzhong Expressway connects Hanzhong and Xi'an through the Qinling.

Air

Xi'an Xianyang International Airport (airport code: XIY) is the major airport serving the city and is the largest airport in the northwestern part of China. It is 41 kilometres (25 mi) northwest of Xi'an city centre, and 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) northeast of the centre of Xianyang.[53] China Eastern Airlines, Hainan Airlines and China Southern Airlines are the main airlines using the airport. Terminal 3 and the second runway were opened on 3 May 2012.[54]

International Routes: There are direct flights from Xi'an to many major cities in Asia, including Bangkok, Fukuoka, Hong Kong, Osaka, Pusan, Sapporo, Singapore and Seoul and Taipei. First direct route between Xi'an and Europe was launched by Finnair on 14 June 2013. There are 3 three frequencies per week via Helsinki hub to many major cities in Europe during the summer season.

Germany's Fraport, the operator of Frankfurt Airport, has paid 490 million yuan to obtain a 24.5 percent stake in the Xianyang International Airport, offering opportunities to upgrade and expand the facility.

Figures along the Airport Express highway leading to Xi'an Xianyang International Airport
  • On 6 June 1994, China Northwest Airlines Flight 2303 broke up in mid-air and crashed near Xi'an, en route to Guangzhou from Xian.[55][56] A maintenance error was responsible. All 160 people on board died. As of 2013, it remains the deadliest airplane crash ever to occur in mainland China.[57]

Culture

The culture of Xi'an descends from one of the world's earliest civilizations. The Guanzhong Ren (simplified Chinese: 关中人; traditional Chinese: 關中人; pinyin: Guānzhōng rén) culture is considered the cultural antecedent of Xi'anese; their features are satirized as the "Ten Strangenesses of Guanzhong Ren" (simplified Chinese: 关中十大怪; traditional Chinese: 關中十大怪; pinyin: Guānzhōng shí dà guài). Xi'an is also known for the "Eight Great Sights of Chang'an" (simplified Chinese: 长安八景; traditional Chinese: 長安八景; pinyin: Cháng'ān bājǐng), a collection of scenic areas in the region.

Much like Beijing 798 and Shanghai 1933, Xi'an has an art district called Textile Town (Chinese: 纺织城; pinyin: Fǎngzhī chéng). The district is not an actual town but derives its name from the many textile factories built there since the 1950s. Today it is no longer a centre for the textile industry but a new art factory with 4 workshops in total. Since March 2007, more than 40 artists have taken a part in these workshops.

Xi'an is home to contemporary Chinese stars such as Xu Wei,[58] Zhang Chu and Zheng Jun.

Paomo yangrou (flat bread soaked in lamb soup; simplified Chinese: 羊肉泡馍; traditional Chinese: 羊肉泡饃; pinyin: Yángròu pàomó) [59] is well known Xi'anese dish.

Opera

Qinqiang (Voice of Qin) is the oldest and most extensive of the four major types of Chinese opera.[60] Also called "random pluck" (Chinese: 乱弹; pinyin: Luàntán), Qinqiang is the main type of drama in Shaanxi province.[61] As the earliest ancestor of Beijing Opera, Yu Opera, Chuan Opera and Hebei Opera, Qinqiang has developed its own system of unique vocal music, spoken parts, facial makeup, posture, role, category and acting. It can be traced to Xi Qinqiang (Chinese: 西秦腔; pinyin: Xi qínqiāng; literally: "Voice of West Qin") in Qin dynasty, and blossomed until Qing dynasty, with direct influences on many branches of Chinese Opera.[62]

Cinema

Tuya's Marriage. They are produced by Xi'an Filmmaking Factory (now called Xi'an Qujiang Filmmaking Group) and Xi'an Filmmaking Company, respectively.

Religion

Chinese traditional religion and Taoism

A pavilion of the City God Temple of Xian.

The most influential religions in Xi'an are the Chinese traditional religion and Taoist schools, represented by many major and minor temples. Among these there are a City God Temple, completely reconstructed in the 2010s, and a Temple of Confucius.

Buddhism

Chinese Buddhist nuns and laywomen at a temple in Xi'an.

Buddhism has a large presence in the city, with temples of the Chinese and Tibetan schools.

Christianity

The first recorded Christian missionary in China was Alopen, a Syriac-speaker, who arrived in Xi'an (then known as Chang'an) in 635 along the Silk Road. The Nestorian Stele, now located in Xi'an's Beilin Museum, is a Tang Chinese stele erected in 781 that documents the 150 years of early Christianity in China following Alopen.[63] It is a 279 cm tall limestone block with text in both Chinese and Syriac describing the existence of Christian communities in several cities in northern China. The Daqin Pagoda, a Buddhist pagoda in Zhouzhi County of Xi'an, has been suggested to have originally been a Nestorian Christian church from the Tang Dynasty.[64]

In Xi'an there was formerly a Baptist mission from England. The Baptist missionaries ran a hospital.[65] In 1892, Arthur Gostick Shorrock[66] and Moir Duncan[67] founded the Sianfu Mission, in present-day Xi'an.[68][69][70]

Islam

Xi'an was the first city in China to be introduced to Islam. Emperor Gaozong of the Tang dynasty officially allowed the practice of Islam in 651 AD. Xi'an has a large Muslim community, the significant majority are from the Hui group, there are an estimated 50,000 Hui Muslims in Xi’an.[71] There are seven mosques in Xi'an, the best known being the Great Mosque.[72]

Economy

Erhuan Road of Xi'an

As part of the China Western Development policy, Xi’an became a major target for accelerated attention. From 1997 to 2006, the industrial output value of Xi’an’s service industry increased at an annual average rate of 13.74 percent, compared to traditional service industries of 0.74 percent, representing a growth from US$8.113 billion to US$25.85 billion.[73] Xi'an is the largest economy of the Shaanxi province, with a GDP of 324.1 billion Yuan in 2010. On average this value increases by 14.5 percent annually, and accounts for approximately 41.8 percent of Shaanxi's total GDP.[73][74] At least fifty-eight countries have established over 2,560 enterprises in Xian, including nineteen of the Fortune 500 enterprises. These include ABB Group, Mitsubishi, Panasonic, Toshiba, Fujitsu, Coca-Cola, and Boeing.[75]

Important industries include equipment manufacturing, tourism, and service outsourcing.[76] The manufacturing industry had an annual output of RMB 36.5 billion, accounting for 44.5 percent of the city's total.[74] Furthermore, as one of China's four ancient capitals,[77] Xi'an's many cultural sites, including the Terracotta Army, the City Wall of Xi'an, and the Famen Temple, make tourism an important industry as well. In 2010, 52 million domestic tourists visited Xi'an, earning a total income of RMB 40.52 billion. On average, revenue increases by 36.4 percent per year, and foreign-exchange earnings (530 million in 2009) increase by around 35.8 percent.[74]

Xi'an is also one of the first service outsourcing cities in China, with over 800 corporations in the industry. The city's output value from this sector exceeded RMB 23 billion in 2008. Employment in the sector doubled from 1997–2006, from a base of 60,000, and computer consulting also doubled from 16,000 to 32,000.[73] As a result of the importance of the software-outsourcing industry, the city planned construction of a Software New Town, which is scheduled to be completed in 2015 with 30 billion RMB investment.[74] Other major export goods include lighting equipment and automobile parts, while its major import goods are mechanical and electrical products. Internationally, Xi'an's largest trade partner is the United States.[74]

Xi'an is part of the West Triangle Economic Zone, along with Chengdu and Chongqing.

Industrial zones

Xi'an Hi-Tech Industries Development Zone

Major industrial zones in Xi'an include:

a daily average of 3.7 technology enterprises established in Xi'an Hi-Tech Industries Development Zone in the year of 2005,from XINHUANET.com 7/28/2005[78] Xi'an Hi-Tech Industries Development Zone has more than 16,000 enterprises which ranked second place in all the 88 hi-tech ZONES in China, achieved a total revenue of 522.223 billion yuan. It is worth mentioning that 13 enterprise's annual income is over a hundred billion yuan, 19 enterprise's annual income more than 50 billion, more than 265 enterprise earns over billion yuan each year, Listed companies at home and abroad have accumulated 50, of which the domestic A-share market issued 21 of them, accounting for more than 60% of the province; 4 GEM listed companies, ranking first in the Midwest high-tech zones.

Software and outsourcing industries

The growing economy of Xi'an supports the development of a software industry, and the city is a pioneer in software industry in China.

A Silicon.com article describes Xi'an: "But Xi'an is selling on its own merits—with a large pool of cheap human resources from the 100 universities in the area, it hoovers up around 3,000 computer graduates every year, each earning approximately $120 a month—half the wages for the equivalent job in Beijing."[79][80]

Aerospace industry

In November 2006, Xi'an and the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation jointly set up Xi'an Aerospace Science and Technology Industrial Base. From its establishment, the base has focused on the development of the civil space industry, including equipment manufacturing, software and service outsourcing, new materials and solar photovoltaics.

Apart from the core area, the base will cover Xi'an and the Guanzhong area and the expansion zone will reach other parts of Northwest China and Southwest China. It is expected that by 2012 the total industry output can reach 2.8 billion us dollars with about 10 to 20 brand products with intellectual property rights and 5 to 8 products with global competitiveness.

In 2008, after the launch of the initial aerospace centre in Shanghai, the PRC is constructing another civil aerospace centre in the Shaanxi province. The State Development and Reform Commission approved the planning of Xi'an National Civil Aerospace Industrial Base on December 26, 2007. The National Civil Aerospace Industrial Base of Xi'an, set to cover 23 km2 (8.9 sq mi), will focus on developing satellites, new materials, energies, IT and other technologies for civil applications.

Notable businessmen

Zhang Chaoyang (张朝阳), the CEO of SOHU (Nasdaq) company, born and grew up in Xi'an, is a prominent leader in the Chinese Internet industry. Liu Chuanzhi, the founder and president of Lenovo Group Limited, completed his tertiary degree from Xidian University in 1960s.

Education

Public

Xi'an Jiaotong University

Military

Private

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.

International events

World Horticultural Expo 2011

Xi’an was chosen to host the 2011 World Horticultural Exposition by the Association of International Producers of Horticulture (AIPH) at its 59th congress, held in Brighton, United Kingdom on September 4, 2007. The 2011 World Horti-Expo was held from April 28 to October 28, 2011. The exhibition was located in a new district of the city, Chanba district, and was expected to bring some 10 million visitors to Xi’an.[81]

Tourism

Reconstructed Danfeng Gate in Daming Palace National Heritage Park

The number of travelers is often greater during Summer (May–August), although the most pleasant season for visiting Xi'an is Autumn.

Sites

Because of the city's many historical monuments and a plethora of ancient ruins and tombs in the vicinity,[1] tourism has been an important component of the local economy, and the Xi'an region is one of the most popular tourist destinations in China.[1]

The city has many important historical sites, and some are ongoing archaeological projects, such as the Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang and his Terracotta Army. There are several burial mounds, tombs of the Zhou dynasty kings located in the city.[4] Xi'an also contains some 800 royal mausoleums and tombs from the Han dynasty,[82] with some of them yielding hundreds of sculpted clay soldiers, and remains of sacrificial temples from the Han era.[82] The city has numerous Tang dynasty pagodas and is noted for its history museum and its stele forest, which is housed in an 11th-century Confucian temple containing large stone tablets from various dynasties.[82]

Some of the most well-known sites in Xi'an are:

Museums

  • Terracotta Army Museum
  • Shaanxi History Museum
  • Han Yangling Museum, the tomb of Emperor Jing of Han. The first underground museum in China, it was opened in 2006.
  • Stele Forest
  • Xi'an Museum (located next to the Small Wild Goose Pagoda). On October 20, 2006, international council of monuments sites (ICOMOS) international protection centre (IICC) was formally established here.

National parks

Sports

Cuju is a very old football game:

It was improved during the Tang dynasty (618–907). First of all, the feather-stuffed ball was replaced by an air-filled ball with a two-layered hull. Also, two different types of goalposts emerged: One was made by setting up posts with a net between them and the other consisted of just one goal post in the middle of the field. Chang'an was filled with cuju football fields, in the backyards of large mansions, and some were even established in the grounds of the palaces. The level of female cuju teams also improved. Records indicate that once a 17-year-old girl beat a team of army soldiers. Cuju football became popular among the scholars and intellectuals, and if a courtier lacked skill in the game, he could pardon himself by acting as a scorekeeper.

Professional sports teams in Xi'an include:

Former Professional sports teams in Xi'an:

Xi'an is also the Chinese Boxing training base for the national team.

Media

Television and radio

Printed media

  • Chinese Business View (华商报) is a popular daily newspaper.
  • Xi'an Evening News (Xi'an Wanbao) (西安晚报), with a history of more than 50 years, is one of the oldest newspapers.
  • Sanqin Daily (三秦都市报) covers the news of Shaanxi Province.
  • Shaanxi Daily (陕西日报) covers the news of Shaanxi Province and Xi'an.

Online media

  • New dynasty (新潮) is a popular multilingual online magazine in Xi'an.

International relations

Xi'an's twin towns and sister cities are:

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c d e
  2. ^ It is also called "Sianfu" by many Western authors of the early 20th century. For example, the Catholic Archdiocese of Xian used to be called the Vicariate Apostolic of Sianfu. Adolf S. Waley, The Re-making of China, New York: E.P. Dutton and Company, 1914.
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b c
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^ Supersized cities: China’s 13 megalopolises
  11. ^ Zhongguo Gujin Diming Dacidian 中国古今地名大词典, 2005. (Shanghai: Shanghai Cishu Chubanshe), 1540.
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^ Third scroll of the Chang'an Annals (长安志) interpreted by Huangfu Mi in his Age of Kings (book) (帝王世紀)
  18. ^
  19. ^ Zhongguo Gujin Diming Dacidian 中国古今地名大词典, 2005. (Shanghai: Shanghai Cishu Chubanshe), 2134.
  20. ^
  21. ^ The precise coordinates are )
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^ Kiang, 12.
  25. ^ Ernest Frank Borst-Smith, Caught in the Chinese Revolution: a record of risks and rescue. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1912.
  26. ^ Guo Rugui,中国抗日战争正面战场作战记 ,第二部分:从“九一八”事变到西安事变 绥远抗战的巨大影响和军事上的经验
  27. ^
  28. ^ 《史记·留侯世家》
  29. ^ NTSC 国家授时中心简介
  30. ^ a b
  31. ^
  32. ^ a b c d
  33. ^
  34. ^ People's Republic of China County-level Division Population Statistics (《中华人民共和国全国分县市人口统计资料2010》).
  35. ^ 国家统计局统计用区划代码
  36. ^ 《贵阳统计年鉴2011》
  37. ^ 《中国民政统计年鉴2011》
  38. ^
  39. ^ a b
  40. ^
  41. ^
  42. ^
  43. ^
  44. ^ "Xi'an Transportation" ChinaTour.Net Accessed 2014-12-4
  45. ^
  46. ^ a b
  47. ^
  48. ^ 西安北列车时刻表 - Xi'an North train schedule
  49. ^ Zhengzhou-Xi'an high-speed train starts operation. China Daily. February 6, 2010 [Retrieved February 6, 2010].
  50. ^ High-speed rail linking central, western China starts operation. iStockAnalyst. February 6, 2010 [Retrieved February 6, 2010].
  51. ^ High-speed train debuts in W. China. CCTV. February 6, 2010 [Retrieved February 6, 2010].
  52. ^ China express train forces airlines to stop flights. 03-26-2010 [Retrieved 03-28-2010]. Reuters.
  53. ^
  54. ^ Xian Airport opens new terminal building with strong focus on retail growth
  55. ^ News report from the New York Times.
  56. ^ News report from the Kingston Gleaner. NewspaperArchive.com
  57. ^ Accident description at the Aviation Safety Network
  58. ^ Xu Wei to rock fans in grand concert. Shenzhen Daily. 2005-07-05 [Retrieved 2014-05-28]. China Daily.
  59. ^
  60. ^ (English)
  61. ^
  62. ^
  63. ^ Hill, Henry, ed (1988). Light from the East: A Symposium on the Oriental Orthodox and Assyrian Churches. Toronto, Canada. pp. 108–109
  64. ^ Martin Palmer, The Jesus Sutras: Rediscovering the Lost Religion of Taoist Christianity, ISBN 0-7499-2250-8, 2001
  65. ^ Fleming, Peter (1936) News from Tartary. London: Jonathan Cape; pp. 46–48
  66. ^
  67. ^
  68. ^
  69. ^
  70. ^
  71. ^ 中国七大中心城市人口资源大调查 "Population survey of the seven central cities of China", Zhang Zhizhong, National Family Planning Commission
  72. ^ Mosques in Xian from www.muslim2china.com
  73. ^ a b c
  74. ^ a b c d e
  75. ^
  76. ^
  77. ^
  78. ^ http://news.xinhuanet.com/newscenter/2005-07/28/content_3280013.htm
  79. ^ People's Daily
  80. ^ Bureau of Commerce of Xi'an Municipal Government
  81. ^ "Xi'an to Host World Horticultural Expo" China.org.cn
  82. ^ a b c
  83. ^
  84. ^
  85. ^
  86. ^
  • Heng Chye Kiang. (1999). Cities of Aristocrats and Bureaucrats: The Development of Medieval Chinese Cityscapes. Singapore: Singapore University Press. ISBN 9971-69-223-6.

External links

  • Xi'an Government official website
  • Xi'an National Hi-tech Development Zone
  • Xian in history
Preceded by
Yin
Capital of China (as Hao)
1046 BC-771 BC
Succeeded by
Luoyang
Preceded by
Xianyang
Capital of China (as Chang'an)
206 BC-25
Succeeded by
Luoyang
Preceded by
Luoyang
Capital of China (as Chang'an)
190-196
Succeeded by
Xuchang
Preceded by
Jiankang
Capital of China (as Daxing)
581-618
Succeeded by
itself, as Chang'an
Preceded by
itself, as Daxing
Capital of China (as Chang'an)
618-907
Succeeded by
Kaifeng