|35th United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom|
March 8, 1905 – December 15, 1912
William Howard Taft
|Preceded by||Joseph H. Choate|
|Succeeded by||Walter Hines Page|
|28th United States Ambassador to France|
March 23, 1889 – March 25, 1892
|Preceded by||Robert M. McLane|
|Succeeded by||T. Jefferson Coolidge|
October 27, 1837
Cedarville, Ohio, USA
December 15, 1912
Whitelaw Reid (October 27, 1837 – December 15, 1912) was an American politician and newspaper editor, as well as the author of a popular history of Ohio in the Civil War. After assisting Horace Greeley as editor of the powerful Republican newspaper, the New York Tribune, Reid purchased the paper after Greeley's death in 1872 and controlled it until his own death. The circulation grew to about 60,000 a day, but the weekly edition became less important. He invested heavily in new technology, such as the Hoe printing press and the Linotype machine, but bitterly fought against the unionized workers for control of his shop. As a famous voice of the Republican Party, he was honored with appointments as ambassador to France (1889) and Great Britain (1905), as well as numerous other honorific positions. In 1898 President William McKinley appointed him to the American commission that negotiated peace with Spain after the Spanish-American War.
- Early life 1
- Career 2
- Death 3
- Publications 4
- References 5
- Further reading 6
- External links 7
Born on a farm near Xenia, Ohio, Reid attended Xenia Academy and went on to graduate from Miami University with honors in 1856. At Miami, he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon (Kappa chapter), and lobbied for the expulsion of the six members who ultimately founded Sigma Chi.
During the war he wrote under the by-line "Agate".
In 1892, Reid became the Republican vice presidential nominee when President Benjamin Harrison chose to drop Vice President Levi P. Morton from the ticket. Harrison and Reid lost to the Democratic ticket of Grover Cleveland and Adlai Stevenson, as Cleveland became the first former president to recapture the office.
Reid Continue to the role of the Tribune As one of the foremost Republican newspapers in the country. He emphasized the importance of partisan newspapers in a speech in 1879:
- The true statesman and the really influential editor are those who are able to control and guide parties....There is an old question as to whether a newspaper controls public opinion or public opinion controls the newspaper. This at least is true: that editor best succeeds who best interprets the prevailing and the better tendencies of public opinion, and, who, whatever his personal views concerning it, does not get himself too far out of relations to it. He will understand that a party is not an end, but a means; will use it if it lead to his end, -- will use some other if that serve better, but will never commit the folly of attempting to reach the end without the means....Of all the puerile follies that have masqueraded before High Heaven in the guise of Reform, the most childish has been the idea that the editor could vindicate his independence only by sitting on the fence and throwing stones with impartial vigor alike at friend and foe.
- After The War: A Southern Tour (May 1, 1865 to May 1, 1866.) London: Samson Low, Son, & Marston, 1866. Full text.
- Ohio in the War: Her Statesmen Generals and Soldiers. Cincinnati: Robert Clarke Co., 1895. Vol. 1 & Vol. 2.
- The Greatest Fact in Modern History. New York: Crowell, 1907. Full text.
- American and English studies. New York: Scribner, 1913. Vol. 1 (Government and Education) & Vol. 2 (Biography, History, and Journalism)
- Michael P. Riccards. "Reid, Whitelaw"; Feb. 2000American National Biography Online
- American Authors 1600-1900: A Biographical Dictionary of American Literature (H. W. Wilson Co., New York, 1938)
- Whitelaw Reid, American and English Studies, Vol. II (1913), pp. 258-60
- "University intelligence" The Times (London). Friday, 6 June 1902. (36787), p. 11.
- Baehr, Harry William. The New York Tribune Since the Civil War (Octagon Press, Limited, 1972)
- Cortissoz, Royal. The Life of Whitelaw Reid (2 Vol. Scribner's Sons, 1921). online
- Duncan, Bingham. Whitelaw Reid: journalist, politician, diplomat (University of Georgia Press, 1975), A standard scholarly biography
- Works by Whitelaw Reid at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Whitelaw Reid at Internet Archive
- Modern Eloquence: Vol III, After-Dinner Speeches P-Z at Project Gutenberg, contains two speeches by Reid.
- by Whitelaw ReidAbraham Lincoln
- by Whitelaw ReidByron. Address at University College, Nottingham, on Speech day, 29th Nov., 1910, for the Byron chair of English literature
- by Whitelaw ReidOne Welshman: a glance at a great career. Inaugural address, autumn session, University College of Wales, Aberystwyth, October 31st, 1912
- by Whitelaw ReidOur new duties: a commencement address at the seventy-fifth anniversary of Miami university, Thursday, June 15, 1899
- Whitelaw Reid at Find a Grave
Robert M. McLane
United States Ambassador to France
1889 – 1892
T. Jefferson Coolidge
Joseph H. Choate
United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom
Walter Hines Page
|Party political offices|
Levi P. Morton
Republican vice presidential nominee