Valonia ventricosa

Valonia ventricosa

Valonia ventricosa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Viridiplantae
Phylum: Chlorophyta
Class: Chlorophyceae
Order: Siphonocladales
Family: Valoniaceae
Genus: Valonia
Species: V. ventricosa
Binomial name
Valonia ventricosa
J.Agardh 1887[1]

Ventricaria ventricosa

Valonia ventricosa, also known as "bubble algae" and "sailors' eyeballs",[2] is a species of [2][3]

Valonia ventricosa in the Red Sea


Valonia ventricosa typically grow individually, but in rare cases they can grow in groups.


They appear in tidal zones of tropical and subtropical areas, like the Caribbean, north through Florida, south to Brazil, and in the Indo-Pacific.[2] Overall, they inhabit virtually every ocean throughout the world,[4] often living in coral rubble.[5] The farthest depth for viability has been seen as approximately 80 metres (260 ft).

Physiology and reproduction

The single-cell organism has forms ranging from spherical to ovoid, and the color varies from grass green to dark green, although in water they may appear to be silver, teal, or even blackish.[2] This is determined by the quantity of chloroplasts of the specimen.[5] The surface of the cell shines like glass. The thallus consists of a thin-walled, tough, multinucleic cell with a diameter that ranges typically from 1 to 4 centimetres (0.39 to 1.57 in) although it may achieve a diameter of up to 5.1 centimetres (2.0 in) in rarer cases. The "bubble" alga is attached by rhizoids to the substrate fibers.[2]

Reproduction occurs by segregative cell division, where the multinucleic mother cell makes daughter cells, and individual rhizoids form new bubbles, which become separate from the mother cell.


Valonia ventricosa has been studied particularly because the cells are so unusually large that they provided a convenient subject for studying the transfer of water and water-soluble molecules across biological membranes. It was concluded that the properties of permeability in both osmosis and diffusion were identical, and that urea and formaldehyde molecules did not require any kind of postulated water-filled pores in the membrane to move through it.[2][6][7] In studying the cellulose lattice, and its orientation in biological structures, Valonia ventricosa has undergone extensive X-ray analytical procedures.[8] It has also been studied for its electrical properties, due to its unusually high electrical potential relative to the seawater that surrounds it.[6]

See also


  1. ^ "Valonia ventricosa J. Agardh". ITIS. Retrieved 27 August 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Bauer, Becky (October 2008). "Gazing Balls in the Sea". All at Sea. Retrieved 26 September 2013. 
  3. ^ John Wesley Tunnell, Ernesto A. Chávez, Kim Withers (2007). Coral reefs of the southern Gulf of Mexico. Texas A&M University Press. p. 91.  
  4. ^ Overview Occurrence, Valonia ventricosa, GBIF, accessed 27 August 2010
  5. ^ a b Lee, Robert Edward (2008). "Siphonoclades". Phycology. Cambridge University Press. p. 189.  
  6. ^ a b Thellier, M. (1977). Échanges ioniques transmembranaires chez les végétaux. Publication Univ Rouen Havre. p. 341.  
  7. ^ Gutknecht, John (1967). : Apparent Absence of Water-Filled Pores"Valonia ventricosa"Membranes of 158 (3802). Science Magazine. pp. 787–788. Retrieved 10 September 2014. 
  8. ^ Astbury, W.T; Marwick, T. C.; Bernal, J. D. (1932). "X-Ray Analysis of the Structure of the Wall of Valonia ventricosa.--I". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B 109 (764): 443.  

External links