University of Bristol
|University of Bristol|
|Latin: Universitas Bristolliensis (Bris.)|
|Motto||Vim promovet insitam|
|Motto in English||"[Learning] promotes one's innate power" – from Horace, Ode 4.4|
|Established||1909 (received Royal Charter)|
|Chancellor||Baroness Hale of Richmond|
|Visitor||The Lord President of the Council ex officio|
Bristol, England, United Kingdom
Worldwide Universities Network
The University of Bristol is a red brick research university located in Bristol, United Kingdom. It received its Royal Charter in 1909, and its predecessor institution, University College, Bristol, had been in existence since 1876.
Bristol has been ranked 29th by the QS World University Rankings, and is ranked amongst the top ten of UK universities by QS, THE, and ARWU. A highly selective institution, it has an average of 14 applicants for each undergraduate place.
Bristol is organised into six academic faculties composed of multiple schools and departments running over 200 undergraduate courses situated in the Clifton area along with three of its nine halls of residence. The other six halls are located in Stoke Bishop, an outer city suburb located 1.8 miles away. The University had a total income of £459.2 million in 2012/13, of which £120.1 million was from research grants and contracts. It is the largest independent employer in Bristol.
Bristol is a member of the Russell Group of research-intensive British universities, the European-wide Coimbra Group and the Worldwide Universities Network, of which the University's Vice-Chancellor Eric Thomas was chairman from 2005 to 2007. In addition, the University holds an Erasmus Charter, sending more than 500 students per year to partner institutions in Europe.
- Foundation 1.1
Historical development 1.2
- Early years 1.2.1
- Post-war development 1.2.2
- 2003 admissions controversy 1.2.3
- Campus 2
- Academic reputation 3
Academic structure 4
- Faculty of Arts 4.1
- Faculty of Engineering 4.2
- Faculty of Medical and Veterinary Sciences 4.3
- Faculty of Science 4.4
- Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry 4.5
- Faculty of Social Sciences and Law 4.6
- Degrees 4.7
- Governance 5
Student life 6
- Students' Union 6.1
- Halls of residence 6.2
- Academic dress 7.1
- Logo and arms 7.2
Notable people 8
- Alumni 8.1
- See also 9
- Notes and references 10
- Further reading 11
- External links 12
The earliest antecedent of the university was the engineering department of the Merchant Venturers' Technical College (founded as a school as early as 1595) which became the Engineering faculty of Bristol University. The University was also preceded by Bristol Medical School (1833) and University College, Bristol, founded in 1876, where its first lecture was attended by only 99 students. The University was able to apply for a Royal Charter due to the financial support of the Wills and Fry families, who made their fortunes in tobacco plantations and chocolate, respectively. The Wills Family made a vast fortune from the tobacco industry and gave generously to the city and University. The Royal Charter was gained in May 1909, with 288 undergraduates and 400 other students entering the University in October 1909. Henry Overton Wills III became its first chancellor. The University College was the first such institution in the country to admit women on the same basis as men. However, women were forbidden to take examinations in medicine until 1906.
Since the founding of the University itself in 1909, it has grown considerably and is now one of the largest employers in the local area, although it is smaller by student numbers than the nearby University of the West of England. Bristol does not have a campus but is spread over a considerable geographic area. Most of its activities, however, are concentrated in the area of the city centre, referred to as the "University Precinct". It is a member of the Russell Group of research-led UK universities, the Coimbra Group of leading European universities and the Worldwide Universities Network (WUN).
After the founding of the University College in 1876, Government support began in 1889. After mergers with the Bristol Medical School in 1893 and the Merchant Venturers' Technical College in 1909, this funding allowed the opening of a new Medical School and an Engineering School—two subjects that remain among the University's greatest strengths. In 1908, gifts from the Harry built the Wills Memorial Building, starting in 1913 and finally finishing in 1925. Today, it houses parts of the academic provision for earth sciences and law, and graduation ceremonies are held in its Great Hall. The Wills Memorial Building is a Grade II* listed building.
At the point of foundation, the University was required to provide for the local community. This mission was behind the creation of the Department of Extra-Mural Adult Education in 1924 to provide courses to the local community. This mission continues today; a new admissions policy specifically caters to the 'BS' postcode area of Bristol.
Among the famous names associated with Bristol in this early period is Paul Dirac, who graduated in 1921 with a degree in engineering, before obtaining a second degree in mathematics in 1923 from Cambridge. For his subsequent pioneering work on quantum mechanics, he was awarded the 1933 Nobel Prize for Physics. Later in the 1920s, the H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory was opened by Ernest Rutherford. It has since housed several Nobel Prize winners: Cecil Frank Powell (1950); Hans Albrecht Bethe (1967); and Sir Nevill Francis Mott (1977). The Laboratory stands on the same site today, close to the Bristol Grammar School and the city museum.
Sir Winston Churchill became the University's third Chancellor in 1929, serving the University in that capacity until 1965. He succeeded Richard Haldane who had held the office from 1912 following the death of Henry Wills.
During World War II, the Wills Memorial was bombed, destroying the Great Hall and the organ it housed. It has since been restored to its former glory, complete with oak panelled walls and a new organ.
In 1946, the University established the first drama department in the country. In the same year, Bristol began offering special entrance exams and grants to aid the resettlement of servicemen returning home. Student numbers continued to increase, and the Faculty of Engineering eventually needed the new premises that were to become Queen's Building in 1955. This substantial building housed all of the University's engineers until 1996, when Electrical Engineering and Computer Science moved over the road into the new Merchant Venturers' Building to make space for these rapidly expanding fields. Today, Queen's Building caters for most of the teaching needs of the Faculty and provides academic space for the "heavy" engineering subjects (civil, mechanical, and aeronautical).
With unprecedented growth in the 1960s, particularly in undergraduate numbers, the Student's Union eventually acquired larger premises in a new building in the
- Media related to at Wikimedia Commons
- University of Bristol website
- University of Bristol Students’ Union
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Notes and references
- Education in Bristol
- Third oldest university in England debate
- List of modern universities in Europe (1801–1945)
Notable alumni from the Film and Television Production department include film directors Mick Jackson, Michael Winterbottom, Marc Evans, Christopher Smith, Alex Cox and Peter Webber amongst many others.
The University also has a comedy pedigree. Little Britain stars Matt Lucas and David Walliams, attended the university, as did Simon Pegg (of Hot Fuzz fame), Chris Morris, creator of the controversial Brass Eye and Jon Richardson. Other comedy stars include Laura Crane-Brewer of The Office fame and Chris Langham, of The Thick of It fame, standup comic Marcus Brigstocke, and Radio 4 favourite Danny Robbins. More recently, Bristol students established a satirical newspaper, The Tart, which received national press attention.
Notable alumni of the University of Bristol include writers Dick King-Smith, Sarah Kane, Angela Carter and David Nicholls, author of the novel Starter for Ten, turned into a screenplay set in the University of Bristol. Other high-profile former students include BBC News' Chief Political Correspondent James Landale (who founded the Bristol University independent newspaper, Epigram), Paul Dirac (Lucasian Professor at Cambridge and Nobel Laureate), editor-in-chief of the Telegraph Media Group William Lewis, illusionist Derren Brown, author of business books Mark Simmons, Global Economist, author, commentator and Executive Vice Chair of the Work Foundation Will Hutton, Serial award winning entrepreneur Mike Bennett (businessman) of digital agency E3 Media, Prince of Monaco Albert II, TV newsreader Alastair Stewart, the Sky News US Correspondent Dominic Waghorn, as well as musician James Blunt. Radio 4 presenter Sue Lawley was also a student there, whilst former Liberal Democrat MP Lembit Öpik was President of Bristol University Students' Union during his time there. Jack Harries, of YouTube fame for his channel JacksGap, attended the university for a semester in 2012, before dropping out to pursue a career in filmmaking with his brother Finn. He read Drama.
University of Bristol is associated with 2 Ig Nobel Prizes. Sir Michael Berry shared the award (with Andre Geim, a Nobel Laureate) for using magnets to levitate a frog. Gareth Jones also shared an Ig Nobel prize for scientifically documenting fellatio in fruit bats.
Patricia Broadfoot, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Gloucestershire, and Nigel Thrift, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Warwick both were previously faculty at Bristol. Anthony Epstein, co-discoverer of the Epstein-Barr virus, was Professor of Pathology at the University from 1968–1982. Historical academics include Sir John Lennard-Jones, discoverer of the Lennard-Jones potential in physics and Alfred Marshall, one of the University College's Principals and influential economist in the latter part of the 19th century. Rohit Parikh lectured in the mathematics department from 1965 to 1967, as did Brian Rotman for twenty years.
- Sir Michael Berry, knighted in 1996, one of the discoverers of quantum mechanics' 'geometric phase'
- John Rarity who, in 2001, set a then world-record 1.9 km range for free-space secure key exchange using quantum cryptography
- David May, founder of XMOS and lead architect for the transputer
- Marc Van der Kamp (analytical chemist), winner of 'Friendliest man: Netherlands 2013'
- Mark Horton, a British maritime and historical archaeologist and one of the presenters of the BBC's Coast television series
- Anne McClain, member of the 2013 NASA Astronaut Class 
Bristol is associated with 11 Nobel Laureates, and current academics include 18 Fellows of the Academy of Medical Sciences, 10 Fellows of the British Academy, 13 Fellows of the Royal Academy of Engineering and 31 Fellows of the Royal Society.
The inscription on the book is the Latin opening of the 124th Psalm, "If the Lord Himself had not (been on our side...)".
argent on a cross quadrate gules the arms of the City of Bristol between in pale and a sun in splendour (for Wills) and an open book proper, leaved and clasped or, and inscribed with the words Nisi quia Dominus, and in fesse to the sinister a dolphin embowed (for Colston), and to the dexter a horse courant (for Fry), both of the third.
In 2004, the University unveiled its new logo. The icons in the logo are the sun for the Wills family, the dolphin for Colston, the horse for Fry and the ship-and-castle from the mediaeval seal of the City of Bristol, as also used in the coat of arms. The shape of the whole logo represents the open book of learning. This logo has replaced the University arms shown, but the arms continue to be used where there is a specific historical or ceremonial requirement. The arms comprise:
Logo and arms
The University specifies a mix of Cambridge and Oxford academic dress. For the most part, it uses Oxford-style gowns and Cambridge-style hoods, which are required to be 'University red' (see the logo at the top of the page)
On the central precinct sits The Hawthorns, a student house accommodating 115 undergraduate students. The house started life as a collection of villas built somewhere between 1888 and 1924 that were later converted, bit by bit, into a hotel by John Dingle. The Hawthorns also houses conferencing facilities, the staff refectory and bar, the Accommodation Office and the Student Houses Office. Several of the residences in the central precinct are more recent and have been built and are managed by third-party organisations under exclusivity arrangements with the University. These include Unite House and Chantry Court, opened in 2000 and 2003 respectively by the UNITE Group, as well as Dean's Court (2001, postgraduates only) and Woodland Court (2005), both run by the Dominion Housing Group.Goldney Hall has beautiful gardens and modern accommodation complexes. Clifton Hill House has more dated facilities, but as with all the Clifton residences also possesses attractive gardens. Manor Hall houses the largest and most dated rooms, some dating back to the early 20th century. One of its annexes, Manor House, has recently been refurbished and officially 'reopened' in 1999.
 Accommodation for students is primarily in the central precinct of the University and two areas of Bristol:
Halls of residence
' awarded for sporting excellence at Oxford and Cambridge, Bristol's outstanding athletes are awarded 'reds'.blues In distinction to the '.British Universities & Colleges Sport. There is a separate union for postgraduate students, as well as an athletic union, which is a member of the Lembit Öpik MP Liberal Democrat and former Sue Lawley of student societies. Previous presidents have included  The
Responsibility for running the University is held at an executive level by the Vice-Chancellor, but the Council is the only body that can recommend changes to the University's statutes and Charter, with the exception of academic ordinances. These can only be made with the consent of the Senate, the chief academic body in the University which also holds responsibility for teaching and learning, examinations and research and enterprise. The Chancellor and Pro Chancellors are nominated by Council and appointed formally by Court, whose additional powers are now limited to these appointments and a few others, including some lay members of Council. Finally, Convocation, the body of all staff, ceremonial officers and graduates of the University, returns 100 members to Court and one member to Council, but is otherwise principally a forum for discussion and to ensure graduates stay in touch with the University.
In common with most UK universities, Bristol is headed formally by the Chancellor, currently Baroness Hale of Richmond and led on a day-to-day basis by the Vice-Chancellor, currently Eric Thomas, who is the academic leader and chief executive. There are two Pro Vice-Chancellors and three ceremonial Pro-Chancellors. The Chancellor may hold office for up to ten years and the Pro-Chancellors for up to three, unless the University Court determines otherwise, but the Vice-Chancellor and Pro-Vice-Chancellors have no term limits. The Vice-Chancellor is supported by a Deputy Vice-Chancellor.
The degrees of D.Litt., DSc, DEng, LL.D. and D.Mus., whilst having regulations specifying the grounds for award, are most often conferred as honorary degrees (in honoris causa). Those used most commonly are the D.Litt., D.Sc. and LL.D., with the M.A. (and occasionally the M.Litt.) also sometimes conferred honorarily for distinction in the local area or within the University.
Bristol notably does not award by title any Bachelor's degrees in music, which is available for study but awarded B.A. (although it does award MMus and DMus), nor any degree in divinity, since divinity is not available for study (students of theology are awarded a B.A.). Similarly, the University does not award BLitt (Bachelor of Letters), although it does award both MLitt and D.Litt. In regulations, the University does not name MD or D.D.S. as higher doctorates, although they are in many universities. as these degrees are normally accredited professional doctorates.
Bristol awards a range of academic degrees spanning bachelor's and master's degrees as well as junior doctorates and higher doctorates. The postnominals awarded are the degree abbreviations used commonly among British universities. The University is part of the Engineering Doctorate scheme, and awards the Eng. D. in systems engineering, engineering management, aerospace engineering and non-destructive evaluation.
- Social Work
- Education (Graduate School of)
- Geographical Sciences (affiliated)
- Policy Studies
- Economics, Finance and Management (EFM)
- Maritime Law
- Sociology Politics and International Studies (SPAIS)
- The Centre for Deaf Studies was wound down between 2010-2014 and the Senate finally elected to close it. There was a vigorous campaign to save it.
Faculty of Social Sciences and Law
- Clinical Sciences
- Social and Community Medicine
- Oral and Dental Sciences
Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry
- Physical Anthropology
- Biological Sciences
- Earth Sciences
- Experimental Psychology
- Geographical Sciences
Faculty of Science
- Comparative and Clinical Anatomy
- Cellular and Molecular Medicine
- Veterinary Sciences
- Physiology and Pharmacology
Faculty of Medical and Veterinary Sciences
- Aerospace Engineering
- Civil Engineering
- Computer Science
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering
- Engineering Mathematics
- Mechanical Engineering
Faculty of Engineering
- Archaeology and Anthropology
- Drama: Theatre, Film and Television
- History of Art
- Classics and Ancient History
- Maritime Archaeology
- Religion and Theology
- Hispanic, Portuguese and Latin American Studies
- Russian (which also includes Czech)
Faculty of Arts
The University is made up of a number of schools and departments organised into six faculties:
In The Complete University Guide 2013, Bristol ranked 5th for German, 4th for Russian, 3rd for Mechanical and Civil Engineering, 3rd for Music and 2nd for Drama. Bristol is also known for its research strength, having 15 departments gaining the top grade of 5* in the 2001 Research Assessment Exercise. Overall, 36 out of 46 departments rated gained the top two ratings of 5 or 5*, and 76% of all the academic staff working in departments scored these top two levels. In terms of teaching strength, Bristol had an average Teaching Quality Assessment score of 22.05/24 before the TQA was abolished. For admission in October 2010, Bristol reported an average of 10.2 applications per place with the average A-level score on admission being 478.5. Bristol's drop-out rate is also lower than the benchmark set by HEFCE of no more than 3.1%.
In 2011, The Guardian also ranked Bristol as 3rd in the UK for Geography, just behind 2nd place Oxford and ranked Bristol as 1st in the UK for Music.
In addition, Bristol is particularly strong in the field of social sciences, particularly in Economics, Finance and Management, and was recently rated 4th in the 2008 Guardian University Guide for Business and Management Studies.
The following courses offered by University of Bristol, managed to reach top 5 in the Times ranking (2008): Computer Science(3rd); Electrical and Electronic Engineering(3rd); Civil Engineering(5th); Biological Sciences(3rd); Mathematics (3rd); and Psychology (4th). Furthermore, the QS World University Rankings place Bristol in the world's top 100 universities for all subject areas in 2011: Arts and Humanities (57th), Natural Sciences (40th), Engineering & IT (83rd), Social Sciences (65th) and Life Sciences (70th). A further breakdown of the QS World University Natural Sciences Ranking shows the following: Earth Sciences (25th), Mathematics (35th), Environmental Sciences (39th), Physics (41st), and Chemistry (48th).
According to data published in The Sunday Times Bristol has the sixth-highest percentage of 'good honours' of any UK university. In the 2010 Centre for Higher Education's Development's Excellence Rankings, Bristol is one of only four UK Universities (Oxford, UCL and Manchester) to be rated Excellent in all seven departments.
League tables usually place Bristol within the top ten universities in the United Kingdom and it attracts many academically gifted students. For example, 21 July 2011 edition of Times Higher Education reported that Bristol was fifth in a UK league table for the highest proportion of students with A-level grades AAB or better. Internationally, the 2012/2013 QS World University Rankings placed Bristol at 28th overall in the world. The rankings also placed Bristol at 15th in the world in terms of reputation with employers, placing higher than several American Ivy League universities, including Princeton University, Cornell and UPenn. Another international ranking, the Shanghai Jiao Tong University Academic Ranking of World Universities, placed Bristol 64th globally in 2013 The Times Higher Education World University Ranking placed Bristol at 66th in 2011. Competition for places is high with an average 7.7 applications per place according to the 2014 Sunday Times League Tables, making it the joint 11th most competitive university in the UK.
|7 (joint 5th)|
|29 (joint 24th)|
Many of the more modern buildings, including Senate House and the newer parts of the HH Wills Physics Laboratory, were designed by Royal Fort House, Clifton Hill House and Goldney Hall despite some additions. The Victoria Rooms which house the Music Department were designed by Charles Dyer and is seen as a good example of a Greek revival movement in British architecture. The tympanum of the building depicts a scene from The Advent of Morning designed by Jabez Tyley. Its major feature was a large organ which has since been destroyed by fire.Burwalls, a mansion house on the other side of the
Some of the University of Bristol's buildings date to its pre-charter days when it was Park Street suffered from an awkward slope and a desirability to link the building with the Museum and Art Gallery situated adjacent to the plot. The architecture critic Roger Gill has stated that the building is "remarkable in size" but noted that the "ambience of a medieval University was strangely lacking". He goes on to criticise the building as a "sham" and a "folly". The armorials on the Founder's Window represent all of the interests present at the founding of the University of Bristol including the Wills and Fry families. The Tyndalls Park Estate and Royal Fort House were also purchased from the trustees of the Tyndall family allowing the University to expand. Many Departments in the Faculty of Arts are housed in large Victorian houses which have been converted for teaching.
The University has been regarded as being elitist by some commentators, taking 41% of its undergraduate students from non-state schools, according to the most recent 2009/2010 figures, despite the fact that such pupils make up just 7% of the population and 18% of 16+ year old pupils across the UK. The intake of state school pupils at Bristol is lower than many Oxbridge colleges. The high ratio of undergraduates from non-state school has led to some tension at the university. In late February and early March 2003, Bristol became embroiled in a row about admissions policies, with some private schools threatening a boycott based on their claims that, in an effort to improve equality of access, the University was discriminating against their students. These claims were hotly denied by the University. In August 2005, following a large-scale survey, the Independent Schools Council publicly acknowledged that there was no evidence of bias against applicants from the schools it represented. The University has a new admissions policy, which lays out in considerable detail the basis on which any greater or lesser weight may be given to particular parts of an applicant's backgrounds — in particular, what account may be taken of which school the applicant hails from. This new policy also encourages greater participation from locally resident applicants.
2003 admissions controversy
There is also a plan to significantly redevelop the centre of the University Precinct in the coming years. The first step began in September 2011, with the start of construction of a state-of-the-art Life Sciences building. In a time of heavy financial pressures on all Universities, this £50 million project is a clear statement that Bristol is committed to world class research and teaching facilities.
September 2009 saw the opening of the University's Centre for Nanoscience and Quantum Information. This £11 million state of the art building is dubbed as the quietest building in the world and has other technologically sophisticated features such as self-cleaning glass. Advanced research into quantum computing, nanotechnology, materials and other disciplines are being undertaken in the building.
In January 2005, The School of Chemistry was awarded £4.5m by the Higher Education Funding Council for England to create Bristol ChemLabS: a Centre for Excellence in Teaching & Learning (CETL), with an additional £350k announced for the capital part of the project in February 2006. Bristol ChemLabS stands for Bristol Chemical Laboratory Sciences; it is the only Chemistry CETL in the UK.
Expansion of teaching and research activities continues. In 2004, the Faculty of Engineering completed work on the Bristol Laboratory for Advanced Dynamics Engineering (BLADE). This £18.5m project provides cutting-edge technology to further the study of dynamics and is the most advanced such facility in Europe. It was built as an extension to the Queen's Building and was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II in March 2005.
In 2002, the University opened a new Centre for Sports, Exercise and Health in the heart of the University precinct. At a cost, local residents are also able to use the facilities.
As the number of postgraduate students has grown (particularly the numbers pursuing taught Master's Degrees), there eventually became a need for separate representation on University bodies and the Postgraduate Union (PGU) was established in 2000. Universities are increasingly expected to exploit the intellectual property generated by their research activities and, in 2000, Bristol established the Research and Enterprise Division (RED) to further this cause (particularly for technology-based businesses). In 2001, the university signed a 25-year research funding deal with IP2IPO, an intellectual property commercialisation company. In 2007, research activities were expanded further with the opening of the Advanced Composites Centre for Innovation and Science (ACCIS) and The Bristol Institute for Public Affairs (BIPA).
In 2002, the University was involved in argument over press intrusion after details of the son of then-Prime Minister Tony Blair's application to university were published in national newspapers.
One of the few Centres for Deaf Studies in the United Kingdom was established in Bristol in 1981, followed in 1988 by the Norah Fry Centre for research into learning difficulties. Also in 1988, and again in 2004, the Students' Union AGM voted to disaffiliate from the National Union of Students (NUS). On both occasions, however, the subsequent referendum of all students reversed that decision and Bristol remains affiliated to the NUS.
As the age of mass higher education dawned, Bristol continued to build its student numbers. The various undergraduate residences were repeatedly expanded and, more recently, some postgraduate residences have been constructed. These more recent ventures have been funded (and are run) by external companies in agreement with the University.
The 1960s were a time of considerable student activism in the United Kingdom, and Bristol was no exception. In 1968, many students marched in support of the Anderson Report, which called for higher student grants. This discontent culminated in an 11-day sit-in at the Senate House (the administrative headquarters of the University). A series of Chancellors and Vice-Chancellors led the University through these decades, with Henry Somerset, 10th Duke of Beaufort taking over from Churchill as Chancellor in 1965 before being succeeded by Dorothy Hodgkin in 1970 who spent the next 18 years in the office.
 More recently, plans for redevelopment of the current building have been proposed. The University has proposed relocating the Union to a more central location as part of its development 'masterplan'. poll to find the worst architectural eyesores in Britain.BBC and out of character compared to the architecture of the rest of the Clifton area, having been mentioned in a