United States nationality law
Article I, section 8, clause 4 of the United States Constitution expressly gives the United States Congress the power to establish a uniform rule of naturalization. The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 sets forth the legal requirements for the acquisition of, and divestiture from, American nationality. The requirements have become more explicit since the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, with the most recent changes to statutory law having been made by the United States Congress in 2001.
Rights and responsibilities of U.S. citizens 1
- Rights of citizens 1.1
- Responsibilities of citizens 1.2
Acquisition of citizenship 2
- Birth within the United States 2.1
Through birth abroad to United States citizens 2.2
- Birth abroad to two United States citizens 2.2.1
- Birth abroad to one United States citizen 2.2.2
- Adoption 2.2.3
- Eligibility for naturalization 2.3.1
- Citizenship test 2.3.2
- Eligibility for public office 2.3.3
- Expeditious naturalization of children 2.4
- Child Citizenship Act of 2000 2.5
- Dual citizenship 3
- Nationals who are not citizens 4
- Citizenship at birth on the U.S. territories and former U.S. territories 5
- Loss of citizenship 6
- Emigration from United States 7
- Notes and references 8
- See also 9
- Further reading 10
- External links 11
Rights and responsibilities of U.S. citizens
Rights of citizens
Adult citizens of the United States who are residents of one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia (Washington, D.C.) have the right to participate in the political system of the United States, as well as their state and local governments (with most states having restrictions on voting by persons convicted of felonies, and a federal constitutional prohibition on naturalized persons running for President and Vice President of the United States), to be represented and protected abroad by the United States (through U.S. embassies and consulates), and to live in the United States and certain territories without any immigration requirements.
Responsibilities of citizens
Some U.S. citizens have the obligation to serve in a jury, if selected and legally qualified. Citizens are also required (under the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code) to pay taxes on their total income from all sources worldwide, including income earned abroad while living abroad. Under certain circumstances, however, U.S. citizens living and working abroad may be able to reduce or eliminate their U.S. federal income tax via the Foreign Earned Income Exclusion and/or the Foreign Tax Credit. U.S. taxes payable may be alternatively reduced by credits for foreign income taxes regardless of the length of stay abroad. The United States Government also insists that U.S. citizens travel into and out of the United States on a U.S. passport, regardless of any other nationality they may possess.
Male U.S. citizens (including those living permanently abroad and/or with dual U.S./other citizenship) from 18–25 years of age are required to register with the Selective Service System at age 18 for possible conscription into the armed forces. Although no one has been drafted in the U.S. since 1973, draft registration continues in the case of a possible reinstatement on some future date.
In the Oath of Citizenship, immigrants becoming naturalized U.S. citizens swear that when required by law they will bear arms on behalf of the United States, will perform noncombatant service in the U.S. Armed Forces, and will perform work of national importance under civilian direction. In some cases, the USCIS allows the oath to be taken without the clauses regarding the first two of these three sworn commitments.
Acquisition of citizenship
There are various ways a person can acquire United States citizenship, either at birth or later on in life.
Birth within the United States
Section 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution provides that "All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside."
In the case of United States v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649 (1898), the Supreme Court ruled that a person becomes a citizen of the United States at the time of birth, by virtue of the first clause of the 14th Amendment, if that person:
- Is born in the United States
- Has parents that are subjects of a foreign power, but not in any diplomatic or official capacity of that foreign power
- Has parents that have permanent domicile and residence in the United States
- Has parents that are in the United States for business
The Supreme Court has never explicitly ruled on whether children born in the United States to illegal immigrant parents are entitled to birthright citizenship via the 14th Amendment, but it has generally been assumed that they are.
Through birth abroad to United States citizens
Birth abroad to two United States citizens
A child is automatically granted citizenship if:
- Both parents were U.S. citizens at the time of the child's birth;
- The parents are married; and
- At least one parent lived in the United States prior to the child's birth. INA 301(c) and INA 301(a)(3) state, "and one of whom has had a residence."
The FAM (Foreign Affairs Manual) states "no amount of time specified."
A person's record of birth abroad, if registered with a U.S. consulate or embassy, is proof of citizenship. They may also apply for a passport or a Certificate of Citizenship as proof of citizenship.
Birth abroad to one United States citizen
A person born on or after November 14, 1986, is a U.S. citizen if all of the following are true:
- The person's parents were married at time of birth
- One of the person's parents was a U.S. citizen when the person in question was born
- The citizen parent lived at least five years in the United States before the child's birth
- A minimum of two of these five years in the United States were after the citizen parent's 14th birthday.
INA 301(g) makes additional provisions to satisfy the physical-presence requirements for periods citizens spent abroad in "dependent unmarried son or daughter and a member of the household of a person" in any of the previously mentioned organizations can also be counted.
A person's record of birth abroad, if registered with a U.S. consulate or embassy, is proof of citizenship. Such a person may also apply for a passport or a Certificate of Citizenship to have a record of citizenship. Such documentation is often useful to prove citizenship in lieu of the availability of an American birth certificate.
Different rules apply for persons born abroad to one U.S. citizen before November 14, 1986. United States law on this subject changed multiple times throughout the twentieth century, and the law is applicable as it existed at the time of the individual's birth.
For persons born between December 24, 1952 and November 14, 1986, a person is a U.S. citizen if all of the following are true:
- The person's parents were married at the time of birth
- One of the person's parents was a U.S. citizen when the person was born
- The citizen parent lived at least ten years in the United States before the child's birth;
- A minimum of 5 of these 10 years in the United States were after the citizen parent's 14th birthday.
For persons born out of wedlock, the person is a U.S. citizen if all the following apply:
- the mother was a U.S. citizen at the time of the person's birth and
- the mother was physically present in the United States or one of its outlying possessions for a continuous period of one year prior to the person's birth. (See link for those born to a U.S. father out of wedlock)
The Child Citizenship Act of 2000 (CCA), which went into effect on February 27, 2001, amends the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) to provide U.S. citizenship to certain foreign-born children—including adopted children—of U.S. citizens.
A person who was not born a U.S. citizen may acquire U.S. citizenship through a process known as naturalization.
Eligibility for naturalization
To become a naturalized United States citizen, one must be at least eighteen years of age at the time of filing, a legal permanent resident (or non-citizen national) of the United States, and have had a status of a legal permanent resident in the United States for five years before they apply (this requirement is reduced to three years if they (a) acquired legal permanent resident status, (b) have been married to and living with a citizen for the past three years and (c) the spouse has been a U.S. citizen for at least three years prior to the applicant applying for naturalization.) They must have been physically present for at least 30 months of 60 months prior to the date of filing their application. Also during those 60 months if the legal permanent resident was outside of the U.S. for a continuous period of 6 months or more they are disqualified from naturalizing (certain exceptions apply for those continuous periods of six months to 1 year). They must be a "person of good moral character", and must pass a test on United States history and government. Most applicants must also have a working knowledge of the English language. There are exceptions, introduced in 1990, for long-resident older applicants and those with mental or physical disabilities.
A non-citizen U.S. national (see below) is also eligible for naturalization after becoming a resident of any state.
Applicants for citizenship are asked ten questions, and must answer at least six with the expected answers. U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services has published a list of 100 sample questions (with the answers that should be given when taking the test), from which the questions asked are always drawn. The full list of questions is in the document "A Guide to Naturalization", available for free from the USCIS. The test examines the applicant's knowledge of American society and the English language. Sample questions and answers are published by the USCIS in English, Spanish, Chinese, Tagalog, Vietnamese and Azerbaijani.
Besides passing the citizenship test, citizenship applicants must also satisfy other specific requirements of naturalization to successfully obtain U.S. citizenship.
An applicant will also be required to submit to an in-person interview.
Eligibility for public office
A person who becomes a U.S. citizen through naturalization is not considered a Henry Kissinger and Madeleine Albright, each of whom would have been fourth in line as Secretary of State had they been natural born citizens.
Whether this restriction applies to children born to non-U.S. citizens but adopted as minors by U.S. citizens is a matter of some debate, since the Child Citizenship Act of 2000 is ambiguous as to whether acquisition of citizenship by that route is to be regarded as naturalized or natural-born. Those who argue that the restriction does not apply point out that the child automatically becomes a citizen even though violating every single requirement of eligibility for naturalization, and thus the case falls closer to the situation of birth abroad to U.S. citizens than to naturalization. This interpretation is in concert with the wording of the Naturalization Act of 1790, that "the children of citizens of the United States that may be born beyond the sea, or out of the limits of the United States, shall be considered as natural born citizens", which does not draw a distinction between biological children and adopted children, even though the process of adoption was certainly well known at the time.
Some argue that the phrase "natural born citizen" describes a category of citizenship distinct from that described by the phrase "U.S. Citizen" in Article Two of the United States Constitution, and this was discussed during the constitutional convention of 1787. While it is true that "natural born citizen" is not defined anywhere within the text of the Constitution and that the Constitution makes use of the phrase "citizen" and "natural born citizen", Supreme Court Decisions from United States v. Wong Kim Ark to the present have considered the distinction to be between natural-born and naturalized citizenship.
In her 1988 article in the Yale Law Journal, Jill Pryor wrote, "It is well settled that 'native-born' citizens, those born in the United States, qualify as natural born. It is also clear that persons born abroad of alien parents, who later become citizens by naturalization, do not. But whether a person born abroad of American parents, or of one American and one alien parent, qualifies as natural born has never been resolved."An April 2000 CRS report by the Congressional Research Service, asserts that most constitutional scholars interpret the phrase "natural born citizen" as including citizens born outside the United States to parents who are U.S. citizens under the "natural born" requirement.
Barry Goldwater and John McCain (born in U.S. territories), were never seriously challenged on the basis of their "natural born" citizenship, but no candidate falling under this classification has been elected President.
Expeditious naturalization of children
Effective April 1, 1995, a child born outside the U.S. to a U.S. citizen parent, if not already a citizen by birth because the parent does not meet the residency requirement (see above), may qualify for expeditious naturalization based on the physical presence of the child's grandparent in the U.S. In general the grandparent should have spent five years in the U.S., at least two of which were after the age of 14.
The process of naturalization, including the oath of allegiance, must be completed before the child's 18th birthday. It is not necessary for the child to be admitted to the U.S. as a lawful permanent resident.
Child Citizenship Act of 2000
Effective February 27, 2001, the Child Citizenship Act of 2000 provided that a non-U.S. citizen child (aged under 18) with a U.S. citizen parent, and in the custody of that parent while resident in the United States, automatically acquired U.S. citizenship. To be eligible, a child must meet the definition of "child" for naturalization purposes under immigration law, and must also meet the following requirements:
- The child has at least one United States citizen parent (by birth or naturalization)
- The child is under 18 years of age
- The child is currently residing permanently in the United States in the legal and physical custody of the United States citizen parent
- The child has been admitted to the United States as a lawful permanent resident or has been adjusted to this status
- An adopted child must also meet the requirements applicable to the particular provision under which they qualified for admission as an adopted child under immigration law
Based on the U.S. Department of State regulation on dual citizenship (7 FAM 1162), the Supreme Court of the United States has stated that dual citizenship is a "status long recognized in the law" and that "a person may have and exercise rights of nationality in two countries and be subject to the responsibilities of both. The mere fact he asserts the rights of one citizenship does not without more mean that he renounces the other", (Kawakita v. U.S., 343 U.S. 717) (1952). In Schneider v. Rusk 377 U.S. 163 (1964), the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a naturalized U.S. citizen has the right to return to his native country and to resume his former citizenship, and also to remain a U.S. citizen even if he never returns to the United States.
The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) neither defines dual citizenship nor takes a position for it or against it. There has been no prohibition against dual citizenship, but some provisions of the INA and earlier U.S. nationality laws were designed to reduce situations in which dual citizenship exists. Although naturalizing citizens are required to undertake an oath renouncing previous allegiances, the oath has never been enforced to require the actual termination of original citizenship.
Although the U.S. government does not endorse dual citizenship as a matter of policy, it recognizes the existence of dual citizenship and completely tolerates the maintenance of multiple citizenship by U.S. citizens. In the past, claims of other countries on dual-national U.S. citizens sometimes placed them in situations where their obligations to one country were in conflict with the laws of the other. An example is the 2012 case of American-Thai dual national Joe Gordon, who entered Thailand using a U.S. passport but was convicted and imprisoned in May 2011 for lèse majesté in Thailand. However, as fewer countries require military service and most base other obligations (such as the payment of taxes) on residence and not citizenship, these conflicts have become less frequent. As a result, there has been a dramatic increase in recent years in the number of people who maintain U.S. citizenship despite residing in other countries.
A U.S. citizen may lose his dual citizenship by obtaining naturalization in a foreign state, taking an oath or making an affirmation or other formal declaration of allegiance to a foreign state or political subdivision thereof, or serving in the armed forces of a foreign state, but only if it was "performed with the intention of renouncing U.S. citizenship".
One circumstance where dual citizenship may run counter to expectations of government agencies is in matters of security clearance. For example, any person granted a Yankee White vetting must be absolutely free of foreign influence, and for other security clearances one of the grounds that may result in a rejected application is an actual or potential conflict of national allegiances.
Nationals who are not citizens
Although all U.S. citizens are also U.S. nationals, the reverse is not true. As specified in 8 U.S.C. § 1408, a person whose only connection to the U.S. is through birth in an outlying possession (which is defined in 8 U.S.C. § 1101 as American Samoa and Swains Island (which is administered as part of American Samoa)), or through descent from a person so born, acquires U.S. nationality but not U.S. citizenship. This was formerly the case in only four other current or former U.S. overseas possessions.
- Guam Organic Act of 1950).
- the Philippines (1898–1935) (Granted independence in 1946; National status rescinded in 1935; Citizenship never accorded)
- Puerto Rico (1898–1917) (Citizenship granted by an Act of Congress through the Jones–Shafroth Act of 1917).
- the U.S. Virgin Islands (1917–1927) (Citizenship granted by an Act of Congress in 1927).
The nationality status of a person born in an unincorporated U.S. Minor Outlying Island is not specifically mentioned by law, but under international law and Supreme Court dicta, they are also regarded as non-citizen U.S. nationals.
In addition, residents of the Northern Mariana Islands who automatically gained U.S. citizenship in 1986 as a result of the Covenant between the Northern Marianas and the U.S. could elect to become non-citizen nationals within 6 months of the implementation of the Covenant or within 6 months of turning 18.
The U.S. passport issued to non-citizen nationals contains the endorsement code 9 which states: "THE BEARER IS A UNITED STATES NATIONAL AND NOT A UNITED STATES CITIZEN." on the annotations page.
Non-citizen U.S. nationals may reside and work in the United States without restrictions, and may apply for citizenship under the same rules as resident aliens. Like resident aliens, they are not presently allowed by any U.S. state to vote in federal or state elections, although, as with resident aliens, there is no constitutional prohibition against their doing so.
Like U.S. citizens, non-citizen U.S. nationals may transmit their non-citizen U.S. nationality to children born abroad, although the rules are somewhat different than for U.S. citizens.
Citizenship at birth on the U.S. territories and former U.S. territories
Separate sections of law handle territories that the United States has acquired over time, such as Alaska 8 U.S.C. § 1404 and Hawaii 8 U.S.C. § 1405, both incorporated, and unincorporated Puerto Rico 8 U.S.C. § 1402, the U.S. Virgin Islands 8 U.S.C. § 1406, and Guam 8 U.S.C. § 1407. Each of these sections confer citizenship on persons living in these territories as of a certain date, and usually confer native-born status on persons born in incorporated territories after that date.
For example, for Puerto Rico, all persons born in Puerto Rico between April 11, 1899, and January 12, 1941, are automatically conferred citizenship as of the date the law was signed by the President Harry S. Truman on June 27, 1952. Additionally, all persons born in Puerto Rico on or after January 13, 1941, are native-born citizens of Puerto Rico, but only naturalized citizens at birth of the United States. Note that because of when the law was passed, for some, the citizenship status was retroactive.
The law contains one other section of historical note, concerning the Panama Canal Zone and the nation of Panama. In 8 U.S.C. § 1403, the law states that anyone born in the Canal Zone or in Panama itself, on or after February 26, 1904, to a mother and/or father who is a United States citizen, was "declared" to be a (naturalized) United States citizen at birth.
All persons born in the U.S. Virgin Islands on or after February 25, 1927, are native-born citizens of the United States. The 8 U.S.C. § 1406 also indicate that all the persons and their children born in the U.S. Virgin Islands subsequent to January 17, 1917, and prior to February 25, 1927, are declared to be citizens of the United States as of February 25, 1927 if complied with the U.S. law dispositions.
All persons born in Alaska on or after June 2, 1924, are native-born citizens of the United States. Alaska was declared a U.S. State on January 3, 1959.
All persons born in Hawaii on or after April 30, 1900, are native-born citizens of the United States. Hawaii was declared a U.S. State on August 21, 1959.
All persons born in the island of Guam on or after April 11, 1899 (whether before or after August 1, 1950) subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, are declared to be citizens of the United States.
Currently under the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 (INA) effective from December 24, 1952 to present the definition of the "United States" for nationality purposes, was expanded to add Guam; and, effective November 3, 1986, the Northern Mariana Islands (in addition to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands of the United States). Persons born in these territories on or after December 24, 1952 acquire U.S. citizenship at birth on the same terms as persons born in other parts of the United States; and "Outlying possessions of the United States" was restricted to American Samoa and Swains Island.
Loss of citizenship
As a historical matter, U.S. citizenship could be forfeited upon the undertaking of various acts, including naturalization in a foreign state (with a willful intent to renounce U.S. citizenship) or service in foreign armed forces. In addition, before 1967 it was possible to lose the citizenship due to voting in foreign elections. However, the Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional the provisions of Section 349(a) which provided for loss of nationality by voting in a foreign election in the case Afroyim v. Rusk, 387 U.S. 253, 8 U.S.C. § 1481 specifically outlines how loss of nationality may occur, which predominantly involves willful acts over the age of 18 with the intention of relinquishing United States nationality. U.S. Supreme Court decisions beginning with Afroyim v. Rusk constitutionally limited the government's capacity to terminate citizenship to those cases in which an individual engaged in conduct with an intention of abandoning their citizenship.
In 1990, the U.S. State Department adopted new regulations which presume that an individual does not intend to give up citizenship when performing one of the above potentially expatriating acts. If asked, the individual can always answer that they did not intend to give it up; this is sufficient to retain their citizenship. Hence, the U.S. effectively allows citizens to acquire new citizenships while remaining a U.S. citizen, becoming a dual citizen.
After a U.S. citizen satisfies the Department of State procedures, the Department of State issues a Certificate of Loss of Nationality (CLN) signifying that the Department of State has accepted the U.S. Embassy/Consulate's recommendation to allow the renunciation. Renunciation of citizenship includes renunciation of all rights and privileges of citizenship. A person who wants to renounce U.S. citizenship cannot decide to retain some of the privileges of citizenship, as the State Department regards this as logically inconsistent with the concept of renunciation. Thus, such a person can be said to lack a full understanding of renouncing citizenship and/or lack the necessary intent to renounce citizenship, and the Department of State will not approve a loss of citizenship in such instances.
People giving up U.S. citizenship may be subject to an expatriation tax. Originally, under the Foreign Investors Tax Act of 1966, people determined to be giving up citizenship for the purpose of avoiding U.S. taxation were subject to 10 years of continued taxation on their U.S.-source income, to prevent ex-citizens from taking advantage of special tax incentives offered to foreigners investing in the United States. Since 2008, these provisions no longer apply; instead, ex-citizens who meet certain asset or tax liability thresholds pay a one-time capital gains tax on a deemed sale of their U.S. and non-U.S. assets, regardless of their reasons for giving up citizenship. The Reed Amendment, a 1996 law, makes former citizens inadmissible to the U.S. if the Attorney General finds that they renounced citizenship for purposes of avoiding taxes; however, it has never been enforced. Proposals such as the Ex-PATRIOT Act to rewrite the Reed Amendment and make it enforceable failed in 2012 and 2013.
It is also possible to forfeit U.S. citizenship upon conviction for an act of treason against the United States. Prominent former Nazi officers who acquired American citizenship have also had it revoked if the Office of Special Investigations has been able to prove that the citizenship was obtained by concealing their involvement in war crimes committed by the Nazis in World War II.
Emigration from United States
Notes and references
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- The relevant enumerated power reads: "To establish a uniform Rule of Naturalization..."
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- WHO MUST REGISTER, U.S. Selective Service System website.
- Judges Bring History to Naturalization Ceremonies, May 2008 issue of The Third Branch, The Newsletter of the Federal Courts.
- The Heritage Foundation (2005). The Heritage Guide to the Constitution. Washington, D.C.: Heritage Foundation. pp. 385–389.
- Erler, Edward J; Thomas G West; John A Marini (2007). The Founders on Citizenship and Immigration: Principles and Challenges in America. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 67. ; cf. also the opinion in 7 FAM 1117.d: "All children born in and subject, at the time of birth, to the jurisdiction of the United States acquire U.S. citizenship at birth even if their parents were in the United States illegally at the time of birth."
- "Acquisition of U.S. Citizenship By a Child Born Abroad". U.S. Department of State.
- INA Section 309(c)
- "Fact Sheet – Child Citizenship Act". U.S. Department of justice.
- "Naturalization". U.S.Citizenship and Immigration Services. Retrieved 2007-10-01.
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- "A Guide to Naturalization". U.S.Citizenship and Immigration Services. Retrieved 2009-04-25. (USCIS Publication M-476 (rev. 01/09))
- "Civics and Citizenship Study Materials". USCIS. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
- "Form M-685 Pathway to U.S. Citizenship". USCIS. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
- John R. Vile (2005). "President, Qualifications". The Constitutional Convention of 1787: a comprehensive encyclopedia of America's founding. ABC-CLIO. pp. 605–606.
- Jill Pryor, The Natural-Born Citizen Clause and Presidential Eligibility: An Approach for Resolving Two Hundred Years of Uncertainty
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- "Imprisoned U.S./Thai Citizen Joe Gordon Denied Access to Adequate Medical Treatment, Enters Thailand as U.S. Citizen". Prachatai. June 9, 2011.
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- In the Panama Canal Zone only those persons born there prior to January 1, 2000 with at least one parent as a U.S. citizen were recognized as U.S. citizens and were both nationals and citizens. Also in the former Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands the residents were considered nationals and citizens of the Trust Territory and not U.S. nationals.
- M. Licudine v. D. Winter, JR 1086, p. 5 (U.S. District Court for D.C. 2008) (“"[f]rom the time the United States obtained dominion over the Philippines in 1899 until it granted independence to the islands in 1946, [the United States] Congress classified natives of the Philippines as Philippine citizens, as non-citizen United States nationals, and as aliens, but never as United States citizens."”).
- "Act confering U.S Citizenship 1927" (PDF). The Statutes at Large of the United State of America. from December 1, 1925 to March 1927, (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1927), XLiV, part 2, 1927, 1234–1235. December 1, 1925 to March 1927. Retrieved 2008-11-22.
- "U.S. Department of State Foreign Affairs Manual Volume 7 – Consular Affairs 1120 ACQUISITION OF U.S. NATIONALITY IN U.S. TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS" (PDF). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2014-07-18. 7 FAM 1121.4-3 Status of Inhabitants of Territories Not Mentioned in the Immigration and Nationality Act(INA)
- "U.S. Department of State Foreign Affairs Manual Volume 7 – Consular Affairs 1120 ACQUISITION OF U.S. NATIONALITY IN U.S. TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS" (PDF). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2014-07-07. 7 FAM 1126.9 CNMI Applicants Claiming National Status
- "U.S. Department of State Foreign Affairs Manual Volume 7 – Consular Affairs 7 FAM 1140 ACQUISITION OF NONCITIZEN U.S. NATIONALITY BY BIRTH ABROAD" (PDF). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2008-12-23.
- 7 FAM 1140 Acquisition of non-citizen U.S. nationality by birth abroad. Foreign Affairs Manual. U.S. Department of State.
- "U.S. Department of State Foreign Affairs Manual Volume 7 – Consular Affairs 1120 ACQUISITION OF U.S. NATIONALITY IN U.S. TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS" (PDF). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2014-07-18. 7 FAM 1121.2-1 Definition of Terms
- "Constitutional Topic: Citizenship". U.S. Constitution Online. Retrieved 2008-11-22.
- See 8 U.S.C. § 1101(a)(36) and 8 U.S.C. § 1101(a)(38) Providing the term "State" and "United States" definitions on the U.S. Federal Code, Immigration and Nationality Act 8 U.S.C. § 1101a.
- "7 FAM 1120 ACQUISITION OF U.S. NATIONALITY IN U.S. TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS" (PDF). U.S. Department of State Foreign Affairs Manual Volume 7- Consular Affairs. U.S. Department of State. 06-01-05. Retrieved 2008-11-28.
- "PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS IN THE UNITED STATES: A PRIMER" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. United States Congressional Research Service. 2000-04-17. Retrieved 2009-12-03.
- "Advice about Possible Loss of U.S. Citizenship and Foreign Military Service". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2011-02-09.
- Carmen A. DiPlacido; Meszaros, Michael (1996-06-12). "22 CFR Part 50: Nationality Rules". Federal Register 61 (114): 29651. Retrieved 2014-02-16.
- "Possible Loss of U.S. Citizenship and Dual Nationality". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2007-10-01.
- "Alberto O. LOZADA COLON, Plaintiff, v. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, et al., Defendants". The United States District Court, District of Columbia. Retrieved 2010-01-09.
- "Renunciation of U.S. Citizenship". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2010-01-14.
- "Foreign Investors Tax Act of 1966; Presidential Election Fund Act; and other amendments".
- Pfeifer, Michael G. (2009-09-28). "United States: The Final State of Expatriation? Omissions and Technical Issues Under the HEART Act". Mondaq.com. Retrieved 2012-05-12.
- Buss, David; Hryck, Alan; Granwell (August 2007). "The U.S. Tax Consequences of Expatriation: Is It a Tax Planning Opportunity or a Trap for the Unwary?". International Tax Strategies. Retrieved 2012-05-18.
- Virginia La Torre Jeker (2013-12-30). "Past And Proposed Anti-Expat Legislation: Interview With Bill Yates, Former IRS Attorney (International)". AngloInfo. Retrieved 2014-01-18.
- "THE LAST". Bozeman Daily Chronicle (Bozeman, Mont.). April 4, 2010. p. H.8.
- Carter, Mike (December 12, 2009). "U.S. citizenship trial delayed for elderly Washington state man allegedly involved in Nazi death squad". McClatchy – Tribune News Service (Washington).
- Robert James McWhirter (2007). The citizenship flowchart. American Bar Association.
- 1952 Immigration and Nationality Act
- U.S. Citizenship Information
- U.S. Naturalization
- Citizenship & Nationality Law – U.S. State Department
- Regulations regarding loss of citizenship
- Free Online U.S. Citizenship Practice Test
- Common U.S. Citizenship Test & Interview Questions
- American Overseas Network
- U.S. Citizenship Practice Test