Île-de-France tramway
Tram on line T2 in Issy-les-Moulineaux
Overview
Native name Tramways d'Île-de-France
Locale Paris, Île-de-France, France
Transit type Tram
Number of lines 7
Number of stations 148[1][2]
Operation
Began operation 1992
Operator(s) RATP / SNCF
Technical
System length 82.2 km (51.1 mi)[1][2]
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Tramway
Paris region public transport
Métro lines
Line 1 Line 7bis
Line 2 Line 8
Line 3 Line 9
Line 3bis Line 10
Line 4 Line 11
Line 5 Line 12
Line 6 Line 13
Line 7 Line 14
RER lines
Line A Line D
Line B Line E
Line C
Suburban rail (Transilien)
Saint-Lazare Nord
La Défense Est
Montparnasse Lyon
Airport shuttles
CDGVAL Orlyval
Bus
Bus (RATP) Noctilien
  Bus (Optile)  
Tramway
Tramway T1 Tramway T4
Tramway T2 Tramway T5
Tramway T3a Tramway T7
Tramway T3b
Other
Montmartre funicular

The French region of Île-de-France, encompassing the capital city of Paris, currently has seven tram lines (French: Tramways d'Île-de-France) – if counting Lines 3a and 3b as separate lines – and is planning additional lines. Of the existing lines, five are operated by its public transport authority, RATP, which also operates the Paris Métro and most bus services. One line (T4) is operated the French national rail operator SNCF. Three of the lines serve Paris. The seven lines are generally unconnected, although a connection between lines T2 and T3a and between T3a and T3b already exists, and a connection between T1 and the new T5 line opened in 2013, and the final design is fairly integrated.

History

Trams of the former network, seen near the Pont au Change in central Paris

From 1855 to 1938, Paris was served by an extensive tramway network, predating the metro by nearly a half-century. The last of these first generation tram routes, to Versailles, was closed in 1957.

Originally horse-powered, Paris trams used steam, and later pneumatic engines, and electricity.

The funicular that operated in Belleville from 1891 to 1924 is sometimes erroneously thought of as a tramway, but was actually a cable car system.

The first of a new generation of trams in Paris, line T1 opened in 1992, with line T2 opening in 1997, line T4 on November 18, 2006, and line T3 on December 16, 2006. The newest lines, T5 and T7, opened on July 29, 2013 and November 16, 2013, respectively.

Lines

Line Opening[1] Length Stations Operator
1992[3] 17 km (11 mi) 36 RATP
1997[3] 17.9 km (11.1 mi) 24 RATP
2006[3] 12.2 km (7.6 mi) 25 RATP
2012[3] 9.9 km (6.2 mi) 18 RATP
2006[2] 8 km (5.0 mi)[2] 11[2] SNCF
2013[3] 6.6 km (4.1 mi)[3] 16[3] RATP
2013[3] 11.2 km (7.0 mi)[3] 18[3] RATP
TOTAL: 82.2 km (51.1 mi)[1][2] 148[1][2]
Tram on line T1 in Noisy-le-Sec

T1

Line T1 connects Saint-Denis to Noisy-le-Sec, parallel to the Paris northern city limit. It opened in 1992, and the extension to Noisy-le-Sec was completed in December 2003. An extension west to Asnières and Gennevilliers opened in November 2012, and a continuation to Nanterre is planned. An eastwards extension to Montreuil and to the Val de Fontenay RER station is planned and expected to be open in 2017.

T2

Tram on line T2

Line T2 (Trans Val-de-Seine) connects Pont de Bezons with Porte de Versailles via La Défense. It opened in 1997 between La Défense and Issy Val-de-Seine, mostly on converted SNCF right-of-way. An extension from Issy Val-de-Seine to Porte de Versailles opened in 2009 and a second extension from La Défense to Pont de Bezons opened in 2012.

T3a and T3b

Tram on line T3a at Porte de Gentilly

Line T3 is the first modern tramway in Paris proper. It is divided into two sections called T3a and T3b. The line is also known as the tramway des Maréchaux because it follows the boulevards des maréchaux, a series of boulevards that encircle Paris along the route of the former Thiers Wall (built 1841–44). The boulevards are, with three exceptions, named for Napoleon's First Empire marshals (maréchaux).

T3a connects Boulevard Victor – Pont du Garigliano RER station in the western part of the 15th arrondissement with Porte de Vincennes metro station in the 12th arrondissement.

T3b connects Porte de Vincennes with Porte de la Chapelle in the 18th arrondissement. T3b should be extended to Porte d'Asnières in 2017.

T4

Tram on line T4 in Livry-Gargan

Line T4 is an 8-kilometre (5.0 mi), 11-stop[2] tram-train line, operating in part on SNCF lines, connecting Bondy RER station with Aulnay-sous-Bois station. It opened on November 18, 2006. Unlike the other tramways in Île-de-France, T4 is operated by SNCF. A new branch of this tram-train line will be opened in 2017.

T5

T5 uses Translohr technology, featuring rubber tyred vehicles guided by a single central rail.

Saint-Denis - Garges-Sarcelles

Tramway T5[4] runs on tyres (i.e. Translohr)[5] along a mainly segregated "track" on the busy Route Nationale 1 (similar to the systems in Nancy or Caen), replacing the often busy bus lines 168 and 268. The 6.6-kilometre (4.1 mi) route[5] serves 16 stops[5] between Saint-Denis, Pierrefitte-sur-Seine, Sarcelles and Garges-lès-Gonesse. It has an interchange with T1 at its southerly terminus marché de Saint-Denis and with RER D at Garges-Sarcelles.[6] Line T5 opened in July 2013.[7]

T7

An 11.2-kilometre (7.0 mi) route serving 18 stations[3] between Villejuif (terminus of Paris Métro Line 7) serving Rungis and Orly and terminating at Athis-Mons opened on 16 November 2013.[8] The line will be extended in 2018 to Juvisy-sur-Orge.

Planned lines

Several new lines of tramway and trams on tires have been planned in the region and on 11 February 2009 every project was re-assessed and given a "T" number by the STIF (the regional transport council of the Île-de-France). Posters began to appear in the metro from April 2009 promoting the entire 8‑route T system. In 2020 with all the new tram lines and extension planned the tram network will be 152 kilometres (94 mi) long.

T6

Construction work on T6

Châtillon - Viroflay

A 14-kilometre (8.7 mi) route on tires (with 1.6 kilometres (0.99 mi) in tunnel) serving 21 stations (including 2 underground) will be built from Châtillon - Montrouge (terminus of metro ligne 13) to Viroflay - Rive Droite (Transilien railway station). The line is scheduled to open in 2014.

T8

Saint-Denis (Porte de Paris) - Épinay-sur-Seine (Quartier d'Orgemont), with a branch to Villetaneuse

Formerly to be known as "Tram'y", this 8.46-kilometre (5.26 mi) line was planned to serve 17 stations by 2013. Villetaneuse is also planned to be a future station on the new Tangental North line. An extension was also planned to the future RER E station proposed at Évangile. Construction began in 2010, and services are expected to begin in 2014.[8]

T9

Planned line between Paris Porte de Choisy and the city of Orly, expected in 2020.

T10

Planned line from Antony to Clamart in the southwest suburbs of Paris, expected in 2021.

TVM

The Trans-Val-de-Marne (fr) bus line, which runs in a designated bus lane and is intended to provide rapid transit southeast of Paris in the département of Val-de-Marne, is operated by RATP. Despite beginning with a T, it is not a part of the tramway network.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e "RATP’s tram network in Île-de-France".  
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "BIENVENUE SUR LA LIGNE T4" [WELCOME TO THE T4 LINE]. sncf.com (in French). SNCF Transilien. 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-13. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "2013, another year of the tram".  
  4. ^ "Tramway 5 - le T5 en ligne" [Tramway 5 - The T5 line] (in French). RATP. Retrieved 2013-09-13. 
  5. ^ a b c "le T5 en ligne - Le projet - L'essentiel" [The T5 line - the project - essentials] (in French). RATP. Retrieved 2013-09-13. 
  6. ^ http://www.anous.fr/paris/traffic/un-nouveau-tram-en-banlieue/3897.html
  7. ^ "Home - In Ile-de-France - Extending the network - Tramway - Créations : T5". Retrieved 2013-09-12. 
  8. ^ a b "Citadis remains popular in Paris".  

External links

  • official websiteRATPTram line routes at the
  • T3 official website
  • RATP official extension information
  • (French) Comprehensive map of the Paris tramways network