Timeline of Mars Science Laboratory
Timeline of Mars Science Laboratory is a timeline of the Mars Science Laboratory mission and its rover, Curiosity. As of January 25, 2015, Curiosity has been on the planet Mars for 878 sols (902 days). (see Current Status)
- 1 Prelaunch (2004–11)
- 2 Launch (2011)
- 3 Landing (2012)
- 4 2012 events
- 5 2013 events
- 6 2014 events
- 7 Current status
- 8 Images
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
In April 2004, the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) called for scientific experiments and instruments proposals for the Mars Science Laboratory and rover mission. Launch was proposed for September 2009. By December 14, 2004, eight proposals were selected, including instruments from Russia and Spain.
Testing of components also began in late 2004, including Aerojet's monopropellant engine with the ability to throttle from 15–100 percent thrust with a fixed propellant inlet pressure. By November 2008 most hardware and software development was complete, and testing continued. At this point, cost overruns were approximately $400 million. On December 2008, lift-off was delayed to November 2011 due to insufficient time for testing and integration.
Between March 23–29, 2009, the general public ranked nine finalist rover names (Adventure, Amelia, Journey, Perception, Pursuit, Sunrise, Vision, Wonder, and Curiosity) through a public poll on the NASA website. On May 27, 2009, the winning name was announced to be Curiosity. The name had been submitted in an essay contest by Clara Ma, a then sixth-grader from Kansas.
Landing site selection
At the first MSL Landing Site workshop, 33 potential landing sites were identified. By the second workshop in late 2007, the list had grown to include almost 50 sites, and by the end of the workshop, the list was reduced to six; in November 2008, project leaders at a third workshop reduced the list to these four landing sites:
|Eberswalde Crater||−1,450 m (−4,760 ft)||Ancient river delta.|
|Holden Crater||−1,940 m (−6,360 ft)||Dry lake bed.|
|Gale Crater||−4,451 m (−14,603 ft)||
Features 5 km (3.1 mi) tall mountain
of layered material near center. selected.
|Mawrth Vallis||−2,246 m (−7,369 ft)||Channel carved by catastrophic floods.|
A fourth landing site workshop was held in late September 2010, and the fifth and final workshop May 16–18, 2011. On July 22, 2011, it was announced that Gale Crater had been selected as the landing site of the Mars Science Laboratory mission.
MSL was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 41 on November 26, 2011, at 10:02 EST (15:02 UTC) aboard an Atlas V 541 provided by United Launch Alliance. The first and second rocket stages, along with the rocket motors, were stacked on October 9, 2011 near the launch pad. The fairing containing the spacecraft was transported to the launch pad on November 3, 2011.
The interplanetary journey to Mars took more than eight months, time during which, the spacecraft performed four trajectory corrections: on January 11, March 26, June 26 and on July 28. Mission design had allowed for a maximum of 6 trajectory correction opportunities.
Curiosity landed in the Gale Crater at 05:17 UTC on August 6, 2012. Upon reaching Mars, an automated precision landing sequence took over the entire landing events. A cable cutter separated the cruise stage from the aeroshell and then the cruise stage was diverted into a trajectory for burn-up in the atmosphere. Landing was confirmed simultaneously by 3 monitoring Mars orbiters. Curiosity landed on target and only 2.4 km (1.5 mi) from its center. The coordinates of the landing site (named "Bradbury Landing") are: .
Some low resolution Hazcam images were beamed to Earth by relay orbiters confirming the rover's wheels were deployed correctly and on the ground. Three hours later, the rover begins to beam detailed data on its systems' status as well as on its entry, descent and landing experience. Aerial 3-D images of the landing site are available and include: roverCuriositythe and related Parachute (HiRISE, October 10, 2012).
On August 8, 2012, Mission Control began upgrading the rover's dual computers by deleting the entry-descent-landing software, then uploading and installing the surface operation software; the switchover was completed by August 15.
The Curiosity rover lands on the surface of Mars (video-03:26; August 6, 2012).
2012 events The first laser testing of the ChemCam by Curiosity on Mars was performed on a rock, N165 ("Coronation" rock), near Bradbury Landing on August 19, 2012. The science and operations teams have identified at least six possible routes to the base of Mount Sharp, and estimate about a year studying the rocks and soil of the crater floor while Curiosity slowly makes its way to the base of the mountain. The ChemCam team expects to take approximately one dozen compositional measurements of rocks per day.
Curiosity rover - Temperature, Pressure, Humidity at Gale Crater on Mars (August 2012 - February 2013).
Having completed its mobility tests, the rover's first drive began on August 29, 2012 to a place called Glenelg about 400 m (1,300 ft) to the east. Glenelg is a location where three types of terrain intersect, and is the mission's first major driving destination. The drive across may take up to two months, after which Curiosity will stay at Glenelg for a month.
On the way, Curiosity studied a pyramidal rock dubbed "Jake Matijevic" after a mathematician-turned-rover-engineer who played a critical role in the design of the six-wheeled rover, but died just days after Curiosity landed in August.  The Jake rock measures about 25 cm (9.8 in) tall and 40 cm (16 in) wide. It is an igneous rock and may be a mugearite, a sodium rich oligoclase-bearing basaltic trachyandesite. Afterwards, on September 30, 2012, a finely-grained rock, named "Bathurst Inlet", was examined by Curiosity 's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) and Alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS). The rock was named after Bathurst Inlet, a deep inlet located along the northern coast of the Canadian mainland. Also, a sand patch, named "Rocknest", is a test target for the first use of the scoop on the arm of the Curiosity rover.
Evidence for ancient waterOn September 27, 2012, NASA scientists announced that the Curiosity rover found evidence for an ancient streambed suggesting a "vigorous flow" of water on Mars.
Evidence of water on Mars
Curiosity rover on the way to Glenelg (September 26, 2012).
"Bright particles" found by the Curiosity rover at Rocknest (October, 2012)
On October 17, 2012, at Rocknest, the first X-ray diffraction analysis of Martian soil was performed. The results revealed the presence of several minerals, including feldspar, pyroxenes and olivine, and suggested that the Martian soil in the sample was similar to the weathered basaltic soils of Hawaiian volcanoes. The sample used is composed of dust distributed from global dust storms and local fine sand. So far, the materials Curiosity has analyzed are consistent with the initial ideas of deposits in Gale Crater recording a transition through time from a wet to dry environment. On November 22, 2012, the Curiosity rover analyzed a rock named "Rocknest 3" with the APXS and then resumed traveling toward "Point Lake" overlook on its way to Glenelg Intrigue.
Evidence for ancient habitability
In February 2013, the rover used its drill for the first time.
Curiosity rover - First drilling tests ("John Klein" rock, Yellowknife Bay, February 2–6, 2013). Curiosity rover - Chemical analysis (drilled sample of "John Klein" rock, Yellowknife Bay, February 27, 2013).
Evidence for atmospheric loss
On July 19, 2013, NASA scientists published the results of a new analysis of the atmosphere of Mars, reporting a lack of methane around the landing site of the Curiosity rover. In addition, the scientists found evidence that Mars "has lost a good deal of its atmosphere over time", based on the abundance of isotopic compositions of gases, particularly those related to argon and carbon.
Other 2013 events
On February 28, 2013, NASA was forced to switch to the backup computer due to an issue with the then active computer's flash memory which resulted in the computer continuously rebooting in a loop. The backup computer was turned on in safe mode and was converted to operational status on March 19, 2013.
On March 18, 2013, NASA reported evidence of mineral hydration, likely hydrated calcium sulfate, in several rock samples including the broken fragments of "Tintina" rock and "Sutton Inlier" rock as well as in veins and nodules in other rocks like "Knorr" rock and "Wernicke" rock. Analysis using the rover's DAN instrument provided evidence of subsurface water, amounting to as much as 4% water content, down to a depth of 60 cm (2.0 ft), in the rover's traverse from the Bradbury Landing site to the Yellowknife Bay area in the Glenelg terrain.
Between April 4 and May 1, 2013, Curiosity operated autonomously due to a Martian solar conjunction with Earth. While Curiosity transmitted a beep to Earth each day and the Odyssey spacecraft continued to relay information from the rover, no commands were sent from mission control since there was a possibility of data corruption due to interference from the Sun. Curiosity continued to perform stationary science at Yellowknife Bay for the duration of the conjunction.
On June 5, 2013, NASA announced that Curiosity will soon begin a 8 km (5.0 mi) journey from the Glenelg area to the base of Mount Sharp. The trip is expected to take nine months to a year with stops along the way to study the local terrain.
On July 16, 2013, the Curiosity rover reached a milestone in its journey across Mars, having traveled 1 km (0.62 mi), since its landing in 2012; on August 1, 2013, the rover traveled over "One-Mile", 1.686 km (1.048 mi).
On August 6, 2013, NASA celebrated Curiosity 's first year on Mars (August 6, 2012 to August 5, 2013) by programming the rover to perform the "Happy Birthday" song to itself. NASA also released several videos (video-1, video-2) summarizing the rover's accomplishments over the year. Primarily, the mission found evidence of "ancient environments suitable for life" on Mars. The rover drove over one-mile across the Martian terrain, transmitted more than 190 gigabits of data to Earth, including 70,000 images (36,700 full images and 35,000 thumbnails), and the rover's laser fired more than 75,000 times at 2,000 targets.
On September 19, 2013, NASA scientists, on the basis of further measurements by Curiosity, reported no detection of atmospheric methane with a measured value of 0.18±0.67 ppbv corresponding to an upper limit of only 1.3 ppbv (95% confidence limit) and, as a result, conclude that the probability of current methanogenic microbial activity on Mars is reduced.
On September 26, 2013, NASA scientists reported the Phoenix lander) suggesting a "global distribution of these salts". NASA also reported that Jake M rock, a rock encountered by Curiosity on the way to Glenelg, was a mugearite and very similar to terrestrial mugearite rocks.
On November 13, 2013, NASA announced the names of two features on Mars important to two active Mars exploration rovers in honor of planetary scientist Bruce C. Murray (1931-2013): "Murray Buttes", an entryway the Curiosity rover will traverse on its way to Mount Sharp and "Murray Ridge", an uplifted crater that the Opportunity rover is exploring.
On November 25, 2013, NASA reported that Curiosity has resumed full science operations, with no apparent loss of capability, after completing the diagnosis of an electrical problem first observed on November 17. Apparently, an internal short in the rover's power source, the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator, caused an unusual and intermittent decrease in a voltage indicator on the rover.
On November 27, 2013, an overview (titled, "The World of Mars") of current and proposed Mars exploration by John Grotzinger, chief scientist of the Curiosity rover mission, was published in the New York Times.
On December 9, 2013, NASA reported that the planet Mars had a large freshwater lake (which could have been a hospitable environment for microbial life) based on evidence from the Curiosity rover studying Aeolis Palus near Mount Sharp in Gale Crater.
On December 9, 2013, NASA researchers described, in a series of six articles in the journal Sheepbed mudstone”. The samples were named John Klein and Cumberland. Microbes could be living on Mars by obtaining energy from chemical imbalances between minerals in a process called chemolithotrophy which means “eating rock.” However, in this process only a very tiny amount of carbon is involved — much less than was found at Yellowknife Bay.
Using SAM’s mass spectrometer, scientists measured isotopes of helium, neon, and argon that cosmic rays produce as they go through rock. The fewer of these isotopes they find, the more recently the rock has been exposed near the surface. The 4-billion-year-old lakebed rock drilled by Curiosity was uncovered between 30 million and 110 million years ago by winds which sandblasted away 2 meters of overlying rock. Next, they hope to find a site tens of millions of years younger by drilling close to an overhanging outcrop.
The absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and biosignatures can be preserved. This study estimates that a 1-meter depth drill is necessary to access possible viable radioresistant microbe cells. The actual absorbed dose measured by the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) is 76 mGy/yr at the surface. Based on these measurements, for a round trip Mars surface mission with 180 days (each way) cruise, and 500 days on the Martian surface for this current solar cycle, an astronaut would be exposed to a total mission dose equivalent of ~1.01 sievert. Exposure to 1 sievert is associated with a 5 percent increase in risk for developing fatal cancer. NASA's current lifetime limit for increased risk for its astronauts operating in low-Earth orbit is 3 percent. Maximum shielding from galactic cosmic rays can be obtained with about 3 meters of Martian soil.
The samples examined were probably once mud that for millions to tens of millions of years could have hosted living organisms. This wet environment had neutral  C, H, O, S, N, and P were measured directly as key biogenic elements, and by inference, P is assumed to have been there as well. The two samples, John Klein and Cumberland, contain basaltic minerals, Ca-sulfates, Fe oxide/hydroxides, Fe-sulfides, amorphous material, and trioctahedral smectites (a type of clay). Basaltic minerals in the mudstone are similar to those in nearby aeolian deposits. However, the mudstone has far less Fe-forsterite plus magnetite, so Fe-forsterite (type of olivine) was probably altered to form smectite (a type of clay) and magnetite. A Late Noachian/Early Hesperian or younger age indicates that clay mineral formation on Mars extended beyond Noachian time; therefore, in this location neutral pH lasted longer than previously thought.
On December 20, 2013, NASA reported that Curiosity has successfully upgraded, for the third time since landing, its software programs and is now operating with version 11. The new software is expected to provide the rover with better robotic arm and autonomous driving abilities. Due to wheel wear, a concern to drive more carefully, over the rough terrain the rover is currently traveling on its way to Mount Sharp, was also reported.
Search for ancient life
Arrival at Mount Sharp
On September 11, 2014 (Sol 746), Curiosity reached the slopes of Aeolis Mons (or Mount Sharp), the rover mission's long-term prime destination and where the rover is expected to learn more about the history of Mars. Curiosity had traveled an estimated linear distance of 6.9 km (4.3 mi) to the mountain slopes since leaving its "start" point in Yellowknife Bay on July 4, 2013.
Overview map - blue oval marks "Base of Mount Sharp" (August 17, 2012).
Close-up map - Mount Sharp slopes - with few craters (bottom) (September 11, 2014).
"Murray Buttes" mesa - Mount Sharp slopes (September 11, 2014).
"Murray Formation" bands - Mount Sharp slopes (September 11, 2014).
"Pahrump Hills" - Notable places at base of Mount Sharp (Autumn, 2014).
"Pahrump Hills" sand - viewed by Curiosity (November 13, 2014).
"Pahrump Hills" sand - Curiosity 's tracks (November 7, 2014).
"Pahrump Hills" bedrock on Mars - viewed by Curiosity (November 9, 2014).
"Pink Cliffs" rock outcrop on Mars - viewed by Curiosity (October 7, 2014).
"Alexander Hills" bedrock on Mars - viewed by Curiosity (November 23, 2014).
Comet C/2013 A1 flyby
On October 19, 2014, the Curiosity rover viewed the flyby of Comet C/2013 A1.
Other 2014 events
On February 6, 2014, the Curiosity rover, in order to reduce wear on its wheels by avoiding rougher terrain, successfully crossed (image) the "Dingo Gap" sand dune and is now expected to travel a smoother route to Mount Sharp.
On May 19, 2014, scientists announced that numerous microbes, like Tersicoccus phoenicis, may be resistant to methods usually used in spacecraft assembly clean rooms. It's not currently known if such resistant microbes could have withstood space travel and are present on the Curiosity rover now on Mars.
On June 24, 2014, Curiosity completed a Martian year—687 Earth days—after finding that Mars once had environmental conditions favorable for microbial life.
On June 27, 2014, Curiosity crossed the boundary line of its "3-sigma safe-to-land ellipse" and is now in territory that may get even more interesting, especially in terms of Martian geology and landscape (view from space).
On December 8, 2014, a panel of NASA scientists discussed (archive 62:03) the latest observations of Curiosity, including findings about how water may have helped shape the landscape of Mars and had a climate long ago that could have produced long-lasting lakes at many Martian locations.
As of January 25, 2015, Curiosity has been on the planet Mars for 878 sols (902 days). Since September 11, 2014, Curiosity has been exploring the slopes of Mount Sharp, where more information about the history of Mars is expected to be found. As of September 17, 2014, the rover has traveled an estimated linear distance of 7.1 km (4.4 mi) to the mountain base since leaving its "start" point in Yellowknife Bay on July 4, 2013.
Curiosity rover — self-portraits.
First-Year & First-Mile Traverse Map of the Curiosity rover on Mars (August 1, 2013; 3-D).
Curiosity rover - diagram noting "3-sigma safe-to-land ellipse".
Curiosity rover - image noting "3-sigma safe-to-land ellipse".
Curiosity viewed from space crosses edge of its "3-sigma safe-to-land ellipse" (June 27, 2014).
Layers at the base of Aeolis Mons - dark rock in inset is same size as the Curiosity rover.
Curiosity 's SW view near "Darwin Outcrop" (lower-center) (Waypoint 1; September 7, 2013).
Curiosity 's view of tracks while crossing the "Dingo Gap" sand dune (February 6, 2014; video-gif).
Curiosity 's view after crossing the "Dingo Gap" sand dune (February 9, 2014; raw color).
Curiosity 's view after crossing the "Dingo Gap" sand dune (February 10, 2014).
Curiosity 's view of sandstone at different levels of erosion (February 25, 2014; raw color).
Map of Curiosity 's drive to "The Kimberley" Waypoint (KMS-9; April 2, 2014).
Curiosity 's view of "The Kimberley" Waypoint (KMS-9; April 2, 2014; 3-D).
Curiosity 's view of a "bright spot" near "The Kimberley" (KMS-9; April 3, 2014).
Map of Curiosity 's drive to "Hidden Valley" (July 31, 2014).
- Aeolis quadrangle
- Composition of Mars
- ExoMars rover
- Exploration of Mars
- Geography of Mars
- Geology of Mars
- InSight lander
- List of missions to Mars
- List of rocks on Mars
- Mars Exploration Rover
- Mars Express
- Mars Odyssey Orbiter
- Mars Orbiter Mission
- Mars Pathfinder (Sojourner rover)
- Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
- Mars 2020 rover mission
- MAVEN orbiter
- Moons of Mars
- Phoenix lander
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- Webster, Christopher R.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Flesch, Gregory J.; Farley, Kenneth A.; Kemppinen, O.; Bridges, N.; Johnson, J. R.; Minitti, M.; Cremers, D.; Bell, J. F.; Edgar, L.; Farmer, J.; Godber, A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wellington, D.; McEwan, I.; Newman, C.; Richardson, M.; Charpentier, A.; Peret, L.; King, P.; Blank, J.; Weigle, G.; Schmidt, M.; Li, S.; Milliken, R.; Robertson, K.; Sun, V. et al. (September 19, 2013). "Low Upper Limit to Methane Abundance on Mars".
- Cho, Adrian (September 19, 2013). "Mars Rover Finds No Evidence of Burps and Farts".
- Chang, Kenneth (September 19, 2013). "Mars Rover Comes Up Empty in Search for Methane".
- Lieberman, Josh (September 26, 2013). "Mars Water Found: Curiosity Rover Uncovers 'Abundant, Easily Accessible' Water In Martian Soil". iSciencetimes. Retrieved September 26, 2013.
- Leshin, L. A. et al. (September 27, 2013). "Volatile, Isotope, and Organic Analysis of Martian Fines with the Mars Curiosity Rover".
- Grotzinger, John (September 26, 2013). "Introduction To Special Issue: Analysis of Surface Materials by the Curiosity Mars Rover".
- Neal-Jones, Nancy; Zubritsky, Elizabeth; Webster, Guy; Martialay, Mary (September 26, 2013). "Curiosity's SAM Instrument Finds Water and More in Surface Sample".
- Webster, Guy; Brown, Dwayne (September 26, 2013). "Science Gains From Diverse Landing Area of Curiosity".
- Chang, Kenneth (October 1, 2013). "Hitting Pay Dirt on Mars".
- Meslin, P.-Y. et al. (September 26, 2013). "Soil Diversity and Hydration as Observed by ChemCam at Gale Crater, Mars".
- Stolper, E.M.; Baker, M.B.; Newcombe, M.E.; Schmidt, M.E.; Treiman, A.H.; Cousin, A.; Dyar, M.D.; Fisk, M.R.; Gellert, R.; King, P.L.; Leshin, L.; Maurice, S.; McLennan, S.M.; Minitti, M.E.; Perrett, G.; Rowland, S.; Sautter, V.; Wiens, R.C.; MSL ScienceTeam, O.; Bridges, N.; Johnson, J. R.; Cremers, D.; Bell, J. F.; Edgar, L.; Farmer, J.; Godber, A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wellington, D.; McEwan, I. et al. (2013). "The Petrochemistry of Jake_M: A Martian Mugearite".
- Webster, Guy (October 17, 2013). "NASA Rover Confirms Mars Origin of Some Meteorites".
- Webster, Guy; Brown, Dwayne (November 13, 2013). "Mars Rover Teams Dub Sites In Memory of Bruce Murray".
- Webster, Guy (November 20, 2013). "Rover Team Working to Diagnose Electrical Issue".
- Staff (November 25, 2013). "Curiosity Resumes Science After Analysis of Voltage Issue".
- Chang, Kenneth (December 9, 2013). "On Mars, an Ancient Lake and Perhaps Life".
- Various (December 9, 2013). "Science - Special Collection - Curiosity Rover on Mars".
- Blake, D. et al. (2013). "Curiosity at Gale crater, Mars: characterization and analysis of the Rocknest sand shadow -Medline".
- Leshin, L. et al. (2013). "Volatile, isotope, and organic analysis of Martian fines with the Mars Curiosity rover - Medline".
- McLennan, M. et al. (2013). "Elemental geochemistry of sedimentary rocks at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars".
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- Kerr, R. (2013). "New Results Send Mars Rover on a Quest for Ancient Life".
- Ming, D. et al. (2013). "Volatile and Organic Compositions of Sedimentary Rocks in Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars".
- Farley, K. et al. (2013). "In Situ Radiometric and Exposure Age Dating of the Martian Surface".
- Staff (December 9, 2013). "Understanding Mars' Past and Current Environments".
- Hassler, D. et al. (2013). "Mars' Surface Radiation Environment Measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity Rover".
- Vaniman, D. et al. (2013). "Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale crater, Mars".
- Bibring, J. et al. (2006). "Global mineralogical and aqueous mars history derived from OMEGA/Mars Express data. Medline".
- Squyres, Steven W.; Knoll, Andrew H. (2005). "Sedimentary rocks and Meridiani Planum: Origin, diagenesis, and implications for life of Mars. Earth Planet". Sci. Lett. 240: 1–10.
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- Webster, Guy (December 20, 2013). "Curiosity Team Upgrades Software, Checks Wheel Wear - Mars Science Laboratory Mission Status Report".
- Grotzinger, John P. (January 24, 2014). "Introduction to Special Issue - Habitability, Taphonomy, and the Search for Organic Carbon on Mars".
- Various (January 24, 2014). "Special Issue - Table of Contents - Exploring Martian Habitability".
- Various (January 24, 2014). "Special Collection - Curiosity - Exploring Martian Habitability".
- Grotzinger, J.P. et al. (January 24, 2014). "A Habitable Fluvio-Lacustrine Environment at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars".
- Webster, Guy; Agle, DC; Brown, Dwayne (September 11, 2014). "NASA's Mars Curiosity Rover Arrives at Martian Mountain".
- Chang, Kenneth (September 11, 2014). "After a Two-Year Trek, NASA’s Mars Rover Reaches Its Mountain Lab".
- Staff (August 27, 2013). "PIA17355: Curiosity's Progress on Route from 'Glenelg' to Mount Sharp".
- Webster, Guy (January 29, 2014). "Mars Science Laboratory Mission Status Report".
- Webster, Guy (February 6, 2014). "Through the Gap: Curiosity Mars Rover Crosses Dune".
- Madhusoodanan, Jyoti (May 19, 2014). "Microbial stowaways to Mars identified".
- Webster, Guy (June 10, 2014). "Mercury Passes in Front of the Sun, as Seen From Mars".
- Webster, Guy; Brown, Dwayne (June 23, 2014). "NASA's Mars Curiosity Rover Marks First Martian Year".
- Staff (July 8, 2014). "Curiosity Mars Rover Reaching Edge of Its Landing Ellipse".
- Webster, Guy; Brown, Dwayne (August 5, 2014). "NASA Mars Curiosity Rover: Two Years and Counting on Red Planet".
- Brown, Dwayne; Webster, Guy (December 8, 2014). "Release 14-326 - NASA’s Curiosity Rover Finds Clues to How Water Helped Shape Martian Landscape".
- Kaufmann, Marc (December 8, 2014). "(Stronger) Signs of Life on Mars".
- NASA - The Promised Land
- Speigel, Lee (July 6, 2014). "Did Mars Curiosity Rover Snap Images Of A UFO?".
- Revkin, Andrew C. (February 6, 2014). "Martian View of Our Pale Dot".
- MSL/JPL Official Page.
- MSL/NASA Official Page.
- Rover Tracker (August 6, 2012 to August 5, 2013 and beyond).Curiosity
- Panoramic View of Gale Crater on Mars (4 billion pixels) (March 2013).
- Video (04:32) - "Evidence for 'Vigorously' Flowing Water on Ancient Mars" (September 2012).
- Video (60:00) - "Minerals and the Origins of Life" - (Robert Hazen; NASA; April 2014).
- Video (86:49) - "Search for Life in the Universe" - (NASA; July 2014).
- Timeline of Mars Science Laboratory
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