Thromboxane A2

Thromboxane A2

Thromboxane A2
Identifiers
CAS number 57576-52-0
PubChem 5280497
MeSH Thromboxane+A2
Properties
Molecular formula C20H32O5
Molar mass 352.465 g/mol
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Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) is a thromboxane. It is produced by activated platelets and has prothrombotic properties: it stimulates activation of new platelets as well as increases platelet aggregation. This is achieved by mediating expression of the glycoprotein complex GP IIb/IIIa in the cell membrane of platelets. Circulating fibrinogen binds these receptors on adjacent platelets, further strengthening the clot. Thromboxane A2 is also a known vasoconstrictor and is especially important during tissue injury and inflammation. It is also regarded responsible for Prinzmetal's angina.

Receptors that mediate TXA2 actions are thromboxane A2 receptors. The human TXA2 receptor (TP) is a typical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) with seven transmembrane segments. In humans, two TP receptor splice variants - TPα and TPβ - have so far been cloned.

Synthesis and breakdown

TXA2 is generated from prostaglandin H2 by thromboxane-A synthase. Aspirin irreversibly inhibits platelet cyclooxygenase 1 preventing the formation of prostaglandin H2, and therefore thromboxane A2.

TXA2 is very unstable in aqueous solution, since it is hydrolyzed within about 30 seconds to the biologically inactive thromboxane B2. Due to its very short half life, TXA2 primarily functions as an autocrine or paracrine mediator in the nearby tissues surrounding its site of production. Most work in the field of TXA2 is done instead with synthetic analogs such as U46619 and I-BOP.[1] In human studies, 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 levels are used to indirectly measure TXA2 production.[2][3]

References