Thailand

Thailand

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    Introduction :: THAILAND

    Panel - Expanded
  • Background:
    A unified Thai kingdom was established in the mid-14th century. Known as Siam until 1939, Thailand is the only Southeast Asian country never to have been colonized by a European power. A bloodless revolution in 1932 led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy. In alliance with Japan during World War II, Thailand became a US treaty ally in 1954 after sending troops to Korea and later fighting alongside the US in Vietnam. Thailand since 2005 has experienced several rounds of political turmoil including a military coup in 2006 that ousted then Prime Minister THAKSIN Chinnawat, followed by large-scale street protests by competing political factions in 2008, 2009, and 2010. THAKSIN's youngest sister, YINGLAK Chinnawat, in 2011 led the Puea Thai Party to an electoral win and assumed control of the government. A blanket amnesty bill for individuals involved in street protests, altered at the last minute to include all political crimes - including all convictions against THAKSIN - triggered months of large-scale anti-government protests in Bangkok beginning in November 2013. In early May 2014 YINGLAK was removed from office by the Constitutional Court and in late May 2014 the Royal Thai Army staged a coup against the caretaker government. The head of the Royal Thai Army, Gen. PRAYUT Chan-ocha, was appointed prime minister in August 2014. The interim military government created several interim institutions to promote reform and draft a new constitution. Elections are tentatively set for mid-2017. Thailand has also experienced violence associated with the ethno-nationalist insurgency in its southern Malay-Muslim majority provinces. Since January 2004, thousands have been killed and wounded in the insurgency.
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    Geography :: THAILAND

    Panel - Expanded
  • Location:
    Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand, southeast of Burma
    Geographic coordinates:
    15 00 N, 100 00 E
    Map references:
    Southeast Asia
    Area:
    total: 513,120 sq km
    land: 510,890 sq km
    water: 2,230 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Area - comparative:
    about three times the size of Florida; slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming
    Land boundaries:
    total: 5,673 km
    border countries (4): Burma 2,416 km, Cambodia 817 km, Laos 1,845 km, Malaysia 595 km
    Coastline:
    3,219 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    Climate:
    tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid
    Terrain:
    central plain; Khorat Plateau in the east; mountains elsewhere
    Elevation extremes:
    lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
    highest point: Doi Inthanon 2,576 m
    Natural resources:
    tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite, arable land
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 41.2%
    arable land 30.8%; permanent crops 8.8%; permanent pasture 1.6%
    forest: 37.2%
    other: 21.6% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    64,150 sq km (2007)
    Total renewable water resources:
    438.6 cu km (2011)
    Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
    total: 57.31 cu km/yr (5%/5%/90%)
    per capita: 845.3 cu m/yr (2007)
    Natural hazards:
    land subsidence in Bangkok area resulting from the depletion of the water table; droughts
    Environment - current issues:
    air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from organic and factory wastes; deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by illegal hunting
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
    Geography - note:
    controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore
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    People and Society :: THAILAND

    Panel - Expanded
  • Nationality:
    noun: Thai (singular and plural)
    adjective: Thai
    Ethnic groups:
    Thai 95.9%, Burmese 2%, other 1.3%, unspecified 0.9% (2010 est.)
    Languages:
    Thai (official) 90.7%, Burmese 1.3%, other 8%
    note: English is a secondary language of the elite (2010 est.)
    Religions:
    Buddhist (official) 93.6%, Muslim 4.9%, Christian 1.2%, other 0.2%, none 0.1% (2010 est.)
    Population:
    67,976,405
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 17.41% (male 6,062,868/female 5,774,631)
    15-24 years: 14.78% (male 5,119,387/female 4,927,250)
    25-54 years: 46.69% (male 15,675,425/female 16,061,864)
    55-64 years: 11.26% (male 3,600,695/female 4,053,977)
    65 years and over: 9.86% (male 2,935,703/female 3,764,605) (2015 est.)
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 39.2%
    youth dependency ratio: 24.7%
    elderly dependency ratio: 14.6%
    potential support ratio: 6.9% (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 36.7 years
    male: 35.7 years
    female: 37.7 years (2015 est.)
    Population growth rate:
    0.34% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    Birth rate:
    11.19 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    Death rate:
    7.8 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Net migration rate:
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 50.4% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 2.97% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    BANGKOK (capital) 9.27 million; Samut Prakan 1.814 million (2015)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    20 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 9.63 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 10.59 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 8.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 74.43 years
    male: 71.24 years
    female: 77.78 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Total fertility rate:
    1.51 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    79.3% (2012)
    Health expenditures:
    4.6% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Physicians density:
    0.39 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
    Hospital bed density:
    2.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    Drinking water source:
    improved:
    urban: 97.6% of population
    rural: 98% of population
    total: 97.8% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 2.4% of population
    rural: 2% of population
    total: 2.2% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved:
    urban: 89.9% of population
    rural: 96.1% of population
    total: 93% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 10.1% of population
    rural: 3.9% of population
    total: 7% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    1.13% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    445,600 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    19,400 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria
    note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    9.2% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    9.2% (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Education expenditures:
    7.6% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 96.7%
    male: 96.6%
    female: 96.7% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 13 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 14 years (2012)
    Child labor - children ages 5-14:
    total number: 818,399
    percentage: 8% (2006 est.)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 3.4%
    male: 2.8%
    female: 4.4% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
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    Government :: THAILAND

    Panel - Expanded
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Kingdom of Thailand
    conventional short form: Thailand
    local long form: Ratcha Anachak Thai
    local short form: Prathet Thai
    former: Siam
    Government type:
    constitutional monarchy
    Capital:
    name: Bangkok
    geographic coordinates: 13 45 N, 100 31 E
    time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:
    76 provinces (changwat, singular and plural) and 1 municipality* (maha nakhon); Amnat Charoen, Ang Thong, Bueng Kan, Buriram, Chachoengsao, Chai Nat, Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon, Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi, Khon Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep* (Bangkok), Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri, Mae Hong Son, Maha Sarakham, Mukdahan, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Phanom, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nan, Narathiwat, Nong Bua Lamphu, Nong Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani, Phangnga, Phatthalung, Phayao, Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Phrae, Phuket, Prachin Buri, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi, Rayong, Roi Et, Sa Kaeo, Sakon Nakhon, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Sara Buri, Satun, Sing Buri, Sisaket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri, Surat Thani, Surin, Tak, Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai Thani, Uttaradit, Yala, Yasothon
    Independence:
    1238 (traditional founding date; never colonized)
    National holiday:
    Birthday of King PHUMIPHON (BHUMIBOL), 5 December (1927)
    Constitution:
    many previous; latest enacted 22 May 2014, signed 22 July 2014 (interim); note - a draft constitution completed in April 2015 was rejected by the National Reform Council in September 2015 (2015)
    Legal system:
    civil law system with common law influences
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Thailand
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal and compulsory
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet, also spelled BHUMIBOL Adulyadej (since 9 June 1946)
    head of government: Interim Prime Minister Gen. PRAYUT Chan-ocha (since 25 August 2014) Deputy Prime Ministers PRAWIT Wongsuwan, Gen. (since 31 August 2014), THANASAK Patimaprakon, Gen. (since 31 August 2014), WISSANU Kruea-ngam (since 31 August 2014), SOMKHIT Chatusiphitak (since 20 August 2015), PRACHIN Chantong (since 20 August 2015), NARONG Phiphatthanasai (since 20 August 2015)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the king; a Privy Council advises the king
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch with a resolution of the National Legislative Assembly (as stated in the 2014 interim constitution)
    note: Prime Minister YINGLAK Chinnawat, also spelled YINGLUCK Shinawatra, was removed from office on 7 May 2014 after the Constitutional Court ruled she illegally transferred a government official; Thai army declared martial law on 20 May 2014 followed by a coup on 22 May 2014
    Legislative branch:
    description: in transition; following the May 2014 military coup, a National Legislative Assembly or Sapha Nitibanyat of no more than 220 members replaced the bicameral National Assembly; elections for a permanent legislative body are currently unscheduled and may not occur until mid-2017
    elections: Senate - last held on 30 March 2014; House of Representatives - last held on 2 February 2014, but later declared invalid by the Constitutional Court
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
    Judicial branch:
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of court president, 6 vice-presidents, and NA judges, and organized into civil and criminal divisions); Constitutional Court (consists of court president and 8 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (number of judges determined by Judicial Commission of the Administrative Courts)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges selected by the Judicial Commission of the Courts of Justice and approved by the monarch; judges' terms NA; Constitutional Court justices - 3 judges drawn from the Supreme Court, 2 judges drawn from the Administrative Court, and 4 judge candidates selected by the Selective Committee for Judges of the Constitutional Court and confirmed by the Senate; judges appointed by the monarch to serve single 9-year terms; Supreme Administrative Court judges selected by the Judicial Commission of the Administrative Courts and appointed by the monarch; judge tenure NA
    subordinate courts: courts of first instance and appeals courts within both the judicial and administrative systems; military courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    Chat Pattana Party or CPN (National Development Party) [WANNARAT Channukun]
    Chat Thai Phattana Party or CTP (Thai Nation Development Party) [THEERA Wongsamut]
    Mahachon Party or Mass Party [APHIRAT Sirinawin]
    Matubhum Party (Motherland Party) [Gen. SONTHI Bunyaratkalin]
    Phalang Chon Party (People Chonburi Power Party) [SONTHAYA Khunpluem]
    Phumjai (Bhumjai) Thai Party or PJT (Thai Pride) [ANUTHIN Chanvirakun]
    Prachathipat Party or DP (Democrat Party) [ABHISIT Wechachiwa, also spelled ABHISIT Vejjajiva]
    Prachathipathai Mai Party (New Democracy Party) [SURATIN Phichan]
    Puea Thai Party (For Thais Party) or PTP [acting leader VIROT Paoin]
    Rak Prathet Thai Party (Love Thailand Party) [CHUWIT Kamonwisit]
    Rak Santi Party (Peace Conservation Party) [Pol. Lt. Gen. THAWIN Surachetphong]
    Political pressure groups and leaders:
    Multicolor Group
    People's Alliance for Democracy or PAD
    People's Democratic Reform Committee or PDRC
    Student and People Network for Thailand's Reform or STR
    United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship or UDD
    International organization participation:
    ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIMSTEC, BIS, CD, CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador PHISAN Manawaphat (since 23 February 2015)
    chancery: 1024 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Suite 401, Washington, DC 20007
    telephone: [1] (202) 944-3600
    FAX: [1] (202) 944-3611
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Glyn T. DAVIES (since 27 November 2015)
    embassy: 120-122 Wireless Road, Bangkok 10330
    mailing address: APO AP 96546
    telephone: [66] (2) 205-4000
    FAX: [66] (2) 254-2990, 205-4131
    consulate(s) general: Chiang Mai
    Flag description:
    five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue (double width), white, and red; the red color symbolizes the nation and the blood of life; white represents religion and the purity of Buddhism; blue stands for the monarchy
    note: similar to the flag of Costa Rica but with the blue and red colors reversed
    National symbol(s):
    garuda (mythical half-man, half-bird figure), elephant; national colors: red, white, blue
    National anthem:
    name: "Phleng Chat Thai" (National Anthem of Thailand)
    lyrics/music: Luang SARANUPRAPAN/Phra JENDURIYANG
    note: music adopted 1932, lyrics adopted 1939; by law, people are required to stand for the national anthem at 0800 and 1800 every day; the anthem is played in schools, offices, theaters, and on television and radio during this time; "Phleng Sansasoen Phra Barami" (A Salute to the Monarch) serves as the royal anthem and is played in the presence of the royal family and during certain state ceremonies
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    Economy :: THAILAND

    Panel - Expanded
  • Economy - overview:
    With a well-developed infrastructure, a free-enterprise economy, and generally pro-investment policies Thailand has historically had a strong economy due in part to competitive industrial and agriculture exports - mostly electronics, agricultural commodities, automobiles and parts, and processed foods. The economy experienced slow growth and declining exports in 2014, in part due to domestic political turmoil and sluggish global demand. With full employment, Thailand attracts an estimated 2-4 million migrant workers from neighboring countries, and faces labor shortages. Following the May 2014 coup d'etat, tourism decreased 6-7% but is beginning to recover. The household debt to GDP ratio is over 80%. The Thai government in 2013 implemented a nation-wide 300 baht ($10) per day minimum wage policy and deployed new tax reforms designed to lower rates on middle-income earners. The Thai baht has remained stable.
    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $1.07 trillion (2014 est.)
    $1.06 trillion (2013 est.)
    $1.031 trillion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 22
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $404.8 billion (2014 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    0.9% (2014 est.)
    2.8% (2013 est.)
    7.3% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $15,600 (2014 est.)
    $15,400 (2013 est.)
    $15,000 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 102
    Gross national saving:
    27.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
    26.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
    27.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 52.3%
    government consumption: 17.1%
    investment in fixed capital: 24.6%
    investment in inventories: -0.7%
    exports of goods and services: 69.2%
    imports of goods and services: -62.6%
    (2014 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 10.5%
    industry: 36.8%
    services: 52.7% (2014 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    rice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), rubber, corn, sugarcane, coconuts, palm oil, pineapple, livestock, fish products
    Industries:
    tourism, textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, light manufacturing such as jewelry and electric appliances, computers and parts, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics, automobiles and automotive parts, agricultural machinery, air conditioning and refrigeration, ceramics, aluminum, chemical, environmental management, glass, granite and marble, leather, machinery and metal work, petrochemical, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, printing, pulp and paper, rubber, sugar, rice, fishing, casava, world's second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer
    Industrial production growth rate:
    -0.6% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    Labor force:
    38.96 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 32.2%
    industry: 16.7%
    services: 51.1% (2014 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    0.8% (2014 est.)
    0.7% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    Population below poverty line:
    12.6% (2012 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 2.8%
    highest 10%: 31.5% (2009 est.)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    48.4 (2011)
    49 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Budget:
    revenues: $71.31 billion
    expenditures: $79.6 billion (2014 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    17.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Public debt:
    46.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    42.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
    note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Fiscal year:
    1 October - 30 September
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    1.9% (2014 est.)
    2.2% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Central bank discount rate:
    2% (31 December 2014)
    2.25% (31 December 2013)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    6.77% (31 December 2014 est.)
    6.96% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    Stock of narrow money:
    $51.04 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $50.63 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Stock of broad money:
    $517.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $524.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $509 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $484.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $313.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $383.2 billion (31 December 2013)
    $245 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Current account balance:
    $13.41 billion (2014 est.)
    -$3.881 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Exports:
    $224.8 billion (2014 est.)
    $225.4 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Exports - commodities:
    automobiles and parts, computer and parts, jewelry and precious stones, polymers of ethylene in primary forms, refine fuels, electronic integrated circuits, chemical products, rice, fish products, rubber products, sugar, cassava, poultry, machinery and parts, iron and steel and their products
    Exports - partners:
    China 11%, US 10.5%, Japan 9.6%, Malaysia 5.6%, Hong Kong 5.5%, Singapore 4.6%, Indonesia 4.2%, Australia 4.1% (2014)
    Imports:
    $200.2 billion (2014 est.)
    $218.7 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Imports - commodities:
    machinery and parts, crude oil, electrical machinery and parts, chemicals, iron & steel and product, electronic integrated circuit, automobile’s parts, jewelry including silver bars and gold, computers and parts, electrical household appliances, soybean, soybean meal, wheat, cotton, dairy products
    Imports - partners:
    China 16.9%, Japan 15.6%, US 6.4%, Malaysia 5.6%, UAE 5.6% (2014)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $148.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $157.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Debt - external:
    $140.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $141.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $207.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $134.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
    $73.78 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $66.94 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    Exchange rates:
    baht per US dollar -
    32.48 (2014 est.)
    32.48 (2013 est.)
    31.08 (2012 est.)
    30.492 (2011 est.)
    31.686 (2010 est.)
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    Energy :: THAILAND

    Panel - Expanded
  • Electricity - production:
    156.4 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Electricity - consumption:
    155.9 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Electricity - exports:
    1.375 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Electricity - imports:
    12.57 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    53.85 million kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    90.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    6.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    3.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Crude oil - production:
    232,900 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    Crude oil - exports:
    43,140 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    Crude oil - imports:
    898,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    461 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    1.197 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    1.171 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    233,800 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    67,470 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Natural gas - production:
    41.8 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Natural gas - consumption:
    52.27 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    Natural gas - imports:
    10.47 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    255.9 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    290.7 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
  • Hide

    Communications :: THAILAND

    Panel - Expanded
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 5.69 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total: 97.1 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 143 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: high quality system, especially in urban areas like Bangkok
    domestic: fixed-line system provided by both a government-owned and commercial provider; wireless service expanding rapidly
    international: country code - 66; connected to major submarine cable systems providing links throughout Asia, Australia, Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Pacific Ocean) (2011)
    Broadcast media:
    6 terrestrial TV stations in Bangkok broadcast nationally via relay stations - 2 of the networks are owned by the military, the other 4 are government-owned or controlled, leased to private enterprise, and all are required to broadcast government-produced news programs twice a day; multi-channel satellite and cable TV subscription services are available; radio frequencies have been allotted for more than 500 government and commercial radio stations; many small community radio stations operate with low-power transmitters (2008)
    Radio broadcast stations:
    AM 238, FM 351, shortwave 6 (2007)
    Television broadcast stations:
    111 (2006)
    Internet country code:
    .th
    Internet users:
    total: 19.5 million
    percent of population: 28.8% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
  • Hide

    Transportation :: THAILAND

    Panel - Expanded
  • Airports:
    101 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 63
    over 3,047 m: 8
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 23
    914 to 1,523 m: 14
    under 914 m: 6 (2013)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 38
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 10
    under 914 m:
    26 (2013)
    Heliports:
    7 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    condensate 2 km; gas 5,900 km; liquid petroleum gas 85 km; oil 1 km; refined products 1,097 km (2013)
    Railways:
    total: 4,070.8 km
    standard gauge: 28.8 km 1.435-m gauge (28.8 km electrified)
    narrow gauge: 4,042 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Roadways:
    total: 180,053 km (includes 450 km of expressways) (2006)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Waterways:
    4,000 km (3,701 km navigable by boats with drafts up to 0.9 m) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Merchant marine:
    total: 363
    by type: bulk carrier 31, cargo 99, chemical tanker 28, container 18, liquefied gas 36, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 10, petroleum tanker 114, refrigerated cargo 24, roll on/roll off 1, vehicle carrier 1
    foreign-owned: 13 (China 1, Hong Kong 1, Malaysia 3, Singapore 1, Taiwan 1, UK 6)
    registered in other countries: 46 (Bahamas 4, Belize 1, Honduras 2, Panama 6, Singapore 33) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Bangkok, Laem Chabang, Map Ta Phut, Prachuap Port, Si Racha
    container port(s) TEUs): Bangkok (1,305,229), Laem Chabang (5,731,063)
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Map Ta Phut
  • Hide

    Military and Security :: THAILAND

    Panel - Expanded
  • Military branches:
    Royal Thai Army (Kongthap Bok Thai, RTA), Royal Thai Navy (Kongthap Ruea Thai, RTN, includes Royal Thai Marine Corps), Royal Thai Air Force (Kongthap Agard Thai, RTAF) (2013)
    Military service age and obligation:
    21 years of age for compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary military service; males register at 18 years of age; 2-year conscript service obligation (2012)
    Manpower available for military service:
    males age 16-49: 17,689,921
    females age 16-49: 17,754,795 (2010 est.)
    Manpower fit for military service:
    males age 16-49: 13,308,372
    females age 16-49: 14,182,567 (2010 est.)
    Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
    male: 533,424
    female: 509,780 (2010 est.)
    Military expenditures:
    1.5% of GDP (2013)
    1.47% of GDP (2012)
    1.6% of GDP (2011)
    1.47% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 63
  • Hide

    Transnational Issues :: THAILAND

    Panel - Expanded
  • Disputes - international:
    separatist violence in Thailand's predominantly Malay-Muslim southern provinces prompt border closures and controls with Malaysia to stem insurgent activities; Southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; talks continue on completion of demarcation with Laos but disputes remain over several islands in the Mekong River; despite continuing border committee talks, Thailand must deal with Karen and other ethnic rebels, refugees, and illegal cross-border activities; Cambodia and Thailand dispute sections of boundary; in 2011 Thailand and Cambodia resorted to arms in the dispute over the location of the boundary on the precipice surmounted by Preah Vihear temple ruins, awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962 and part of a planned UN World Heritage site; Thailand is studying the feasibility of jointly constructing the Hatgyi Dam on the Salween river near the border with Burma; in 2004, international environmentalist pressure prompted China to halt construction of 13 dams on the Salween River that flows through China, Burma, and Thailand; 140,000 mostly Karen refugees fleeing civil strife, political upheaval and economic stagnation in Burma live in remote camps in Thailand near the border
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    refugees (country of origin): 128,863 (Burma) (2014)
    IDPs: up to 35,000 (resurgence in ethno-nationalist violence in south of country since 2004) (2015)
    stateless persons: 506,197 (2014); note - about half of Thailand's northern hill tribe people do not have citizenship and make up the bulk of Thailand's stateless population; most lack documentation showing they or one of their parents were born in Thailand; children born to Burmese refugees are not eligible for Burmese or Thai citizenship and are stateless; most Chao Lay, maritime nomadic peoples, who travel from island to island in the Andaman Sea west of Thailand are also stateless; stateless Rohingya refugees from Burma are considered illegal migrants by Thai authorities and are detained in inhumane conditions or expelled; stateless persons are denied access to voting, property, education, employment, healthcare, and driving
    Trafficking in persons:
    current situation: Thailand is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; victims, who are most often from neighboring countries (especially Burma) but also China, Vietnam, Russia, Uzbekistan, India, and Fiji, migrate to Thailand in search of economic opportunities but are forced, coerced, or defrauded into labor in fishing, low-end garment production, factories, domestic work, street begging, or the sex trade; men from Burma, Cambodia, and Thailand forced to work on fishing boats reportedly have been kept at sea for years; migrants, members of ethnic minorities, and stateless persons are most vulnerable to forced labor and debt bondage; sex trafficking of Thai and migrant children and sex tourism remain significant problems; Thailand is a transit country for victims from North Korea, China, Vietnam, Pakistan, and Burma destined for exploitation in third countries, including Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Russia, South Korea, the US, and Western European countries
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Thailand does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; anti-trafficking efforts remain insufficient compared with the scale of Thailand’s human trafficking problem, which is compounded by widespread corruption among law enforcement personnel; few efforts were made in 2013 to address frequent reports of forced labor and debt bondage among migrants in Thailand’s fishing and other commercial sectors; authorities systematically failed to investigate, prosecute, and convict owners, captains, or complicit officials for involvement in forced labor; government labor inspections did not result in the identification of any suspected cases of labor trafficking (2014)
    Illicit drugs:
    a minor producer of opium, heroin, and marijuana; transit point for illicit heroin en route to the international drug market from Burma and Laos; eradication efforts have reduced the area of cannabis cultivation and shifted some production to neighboring countries; opium poppy cultivation has been reduced by eradication efforts; also a drug money-laundering center; minor role in methamphetamine production for regional consumption; major consumer of methamphetamine since the 1990s despite a series of government crackdowns
  • Thailand

    noframe
    Capital Bangkok
    Currency Thai baht (THB)
    Population 66,720,153 (2011 est.)
    Electricity 220V/50Hz (North American and/or European plug)
    Country code +66
    Time zone UTC +7
    Emergencies Dial 999
    (191 also works with mobiles)

    Thailand (ประเทศไทย), officially the Kingdom of Thailand (ราชอาณาจักรไทย) is a country in Southeast Asia with coasts on the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand. It borders Myanmar (Burma) to the northwest, Laos to the northeast, Cambodia to the southeast, and Malaysia to the south.

    With great food, a tropical climate, fascinating culture and superb beaches, Thailand is a magnet for travellers the world over.

    Contents

    • Regions 1
    • Cities 2
    • Other destinations 3
    • Understand 4
      • History 4.1
      • Politics 4.2
      • Climate 4.3
      • People 4.4
      • Culture 4.5
      • Calendar 4.6
      • Holidays 4.7
    • Get in 5
      • By plane 5.1
      • By road 5.2
      • By train 5.3
      • By ferry 5.4
    • Get around 6
      • By plane 6.1
        • Thai airlines 6.1.1
      • By train 6.2
      • By road 6.3
        • Rental cars 6.3.1
        • Bus 6.3.2
        • Minivan 6.3.3
        • Songthaew 6.3.4
        • Tuk-tuk 6.3.5
        • Taxi 6.3.6
        • Motorbike 6.3.7
        • Rental car 6.3.8
      • By boat 6.4
    • See 7
      • Historical and cultural attractions 7.1
      • Beaches and islands 7.2
      • Natural scenery 7.3
      • Itineraries 7.4
    • Do 8
      • Golf 8.1
      • Outdoors 8.2
      • Pampering 8.3
    • Talk 9
    • Buy 10
      • Currency 10.1
      • Banking 10.2
      • Tipping 10.3
      • Costs 10.4
      • Shopping 10.5
    • Learn 11
    • Work 12
    • Eat 13
      • Etiquette 13.1
      • Thai cuisine 13.2
      • Vegetarian food 13.3
      • Restaurant chains 13.4
    • Drink 14
      • Iced drinks 14.1
      • Tea and coffee 14.2
      • Energy drinks 14.3
      • Alcohol 14.4
        • Beer 14.4.1
        • Imported drinks 14.4.2
        • Rice wine 14.4.3
        • Whisky 14.4.4
    • Sleep 15
    • Stay safe 16
      • Political unrest 16.1
      • Corruption 16.2
      • Scams 16.3
      • Fake monks 16.4
      • Robbery on overnight buses 16.5
      • Prostitution 16.6
      • Drugs 16.7
      • Civil conflict 16.8
      • Passport 16.9
      • Security 16.10
      • Wildlife 16.11
      • Racial issues 16.12
      • Fights 16.13
    • Stay healthy 17
      • Healthcare 17.1
    • Respect 18
      • The wai 18.1
      • Dress 18.2
      • Religion 18.3
      • The Royal Family 18.4
      • Animal Abuse 18.5
      • Other 18.6
    • Cope 19
    • Connect 20
      • Electricity 20.1
      • Internet 20.2
      • Telephone 20.3
        • Smart Phones / tablets / aircards 20.3.1
    • Go next 21

    Regions

    Thailand can be conveniently divided into five geographic and cultural regions:

    Regions of Thailand
    Northern Thailand
    Chiang Mai, hill tribes, and the Golden Triangle.
    Isaan
    The great northeast region. Get off the beaten track and discover backcountry Thailand, mouthwatering food, and some magnificent Khmer ruins.
    Central Thailand
    Bangkok, lowlands and historic Thailand.
    Eastern Thailand
    Beaches and islands within easy reach of Bangkok, like Pattaya, Ko Samet and Ko Chang.
    Southern Thailand
    Lush rainforest and hundreds of kilometres of coastline and beguiling islands in both the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand, plus Phuket, Krabi, Ko Samui, Ko Tao and many more of Thailand's famous beach spots.

    Cities

    • Ayutthaya — a historical city, UNESCO World Heritage Site and old capital of Siam
    • Bangkok — Thailand's bustling, frenetic capital, known among the Thai as Krung Thep
    • Chiang Mai — de facto capital of Northern Thailand and the heart of Lanna culture
    • Chiang Rai — gateway to the Golden Triangle, ethnic minorities and mountain treks
    • Kanchanaburi — home of the Bridge over the River Kwai and numerous World War II museums
    • Nakhon Ratchasima — largest city of the Isaan region
    • Pattaya — one of the main tourist destinations, known for its wild nightlife
    • Sukhothai — Thailand's first capital, still with amazing ruins
    • Surat Thani — home of the Srivijaya Empire, gateway to the Samui archipelago

    Other destinations

    • Khao Sok National Park — one of the most beautiful wildlife reserves in Thailand
    • Khao Yai National Park — take a night time Jeep safari spotting deer or visit the spectacular waterfalls
    • Ko Chang — once a quiet island, now undergoing major tourism development
    • Ko Lipe — small island in the middle of Tarutao National Park, amazingly unspoilt with great reefs and beaches
    • Ko Pha Ngan — site of the famous Full Moon Party with miles of quiet coastline
    • Ko Samet — the nearest island beach escape from Bangkok
    • Ko Samui — comfortable, nature, and entertainment hippie mecca gone upmarket
    • Krabi Province — beach and water sports mecca in the south, includes Ao Nang, Rai Leh, Ko Phi Phi, and Ko Lanta
    • Phuket — the original Thai paradise island, now very developed but with some still beautiful beaches

    Understand

    Garlanded statue, Wat Rajanadda, Bangkok

    Thailand is the country in Southeast Asia most visited by tourists, and for good reason. You can find almost anything here: thick jungle as green as can be, crystal blue waters that feel more like a warm bath than a swim in the ocean, and food that can curl your nose hairs while tap dancing across your taste buds. Exotic, yet safe; cheap, yet equipped with every modern amenity you need, there is something for every interest and every price bracket, from beach front backpacker bungalows to some of the best luxury hotels in the world. And despite the heavy flow of tourism, Thailand retains its quintessential identity, with a culture and history all its own and a carefree people famed for their smiles and their fun-seeking sanuk lifestyle. Many travellers come to Thailand and extend their stay well beyond their original plans and others never find a reason to leave. Whatever your cup of tea is, they know how to make it in Thailand.

    This is not to say that Thailand doesn't have its downsides, including the considerable growing pains of an economy where an agricultural labourer is lucky to earn 100 baht per day while the nouveaux riches cruise past in their BMWs, Bangkok, the capital, is notorious for its traffic jams and rampant development has wrecked much of once-beautiful Pattaya and Phuket. In heavily touristed areas, some lowlifes, both Thai and farang, have made scamming tourists into an art form.

    History

    The earliest identifiable Thai kingdom was founded in Sukhothai in 1238, reaching its zenith under King Ramkhamhaeng in the 14th century before falling under the control of the kingdom of Ayutthaya, which ruled most of present-day Thailand and much of today's Laos and Cambodia as well, eventually also absorbing the northern kingdom of Lanna. Ayutthaya was sacked in 1767 by the Burmese, but King Taksin regrouped and founded a new capital at Thonburi. His successor, General Chakri, moved across the river to Bangkok and became King Rama I, the founding father of the Chakri dynasty that rules (constitutionally) to this day.

    Known as Siam until 1939, Thailand is the only Southeast Asian country never to have been colonised by a foreign power, and the country's inhabitants are fiercely proud of that fact. A bloodless revolution in 1932 led to a constitutional monarchy. During World War II, while Japan conquered the rest of Southeast Asia, only Thailand was not conquered by the Japanese due to smart political moves. Allied with Japan during World War II, Thailand became a US ally following the conflict. Thailand was a base of US air operations during the Vietnam War. There was a communist insurgency, with little success, that only ended in 1983. After a string of military dictatorships and quickly toppled civilian prime ministers, Thailand finally stabilized into a fair approximation of a democracy and the economy boomed through tourism and industry. Above it all presided King Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX), the world's longest-reigning monarch and a deeply loved and respected figure of near-mythic proportions.

    In September 2006, a swift and bloodless military coup overthrew populist tycoon Thaksin Shinawatra's democratically-elected but widely criticized government, exposing a fault line between the urban elite that has ruled Thailand traditionally and the rural masses that supported Thaksin. Thaksin went into exile and a series of unstable governments followed, with the successors of Thaksin's Thai Rak Thai party and the royalist-conservative People's Alliance for Democracy duking it out both behind the scenes and, occasionally, out in the streets, culminating in Bangkok's airports being seized and shut down for a week in Nov 2008.

    A new party led by Thaksin's sister, Yingluck Shinawatra, won the 2011 elections, but while like Thaksin, she maintained popularity in the countryside, the South, the North, and Isaan, powerful people in the Thai military and the Bangkok establishment never accepted the legitimacy of her government, and on May 7, 2014, Thailand's Constitutional Court ordered her and her cabinet to step down. On May 22, 2014, the Thai army staged a bloodless coup, declared a nationwide curfew, and went about arresting members of Yingluck's Pheu Thai Party. The curfew was lifted on June 13, 2014, but the basic elements that have led to the conflict are still unresolved.

    Politics

    Thailand is a constitutional monarchy, with the king as head of state. The Thai parliament is bicameral, consisting of a senate, of which about half are directly elected with each province electing one member, and the other half being appointed by a committee, as well as a lower house which is directly elected by the people. The prime minister is the head of government, and is usually the leader of the party with the most seats in the lower house.

    In practice, the king's role is largely ceremonial, with the prime minister holding the most authority in government. However, the king and the royal family are still protected by strict lèse majesté laws, which stipulates long jail terms for anybody convicted of insulting the king or any other members of the royal family.

    Climate

    Beach on Ko Tao

    Thailand is largely tropical. It's hot and humid all year around with temperatures in the 28-35°C range (82-95°F), a degree of relief provided only in the mountains in the far north of Thailand. The careful observer will, however, note three seasons:

    • Cool: From Nov to the end of Feb, it doesn't rain much and temperatures are at their lowest, although you will barely notice the difference in the south and will only need to pack a sweater if hiking in the northern mountains, where temperatures can fall as low as 5°C. This is the most popular time to visit and, especially around Christmas and New Year's or at Chinese New Year a few weeks later, finding flights and accommodation can be expensive and difficult.
    • Hot: From Mar-Jun, Thailand swelters in temperatures as high as 40°C (104°F) and heat indices in the 50-60°C range (122-140°F). Pleasant enough when sitting on the beach with a drink in hand, but not the best time of year to go temple-tramping in Bangkok.
    • Rainy: From Jul-Oct, although it only really gets underway in Sep, tropical monsoons hit most of the country. This doesn't mean it rains non-stop, but when it does it pours and flooding is not uncommon.

    There are local variations to these general patterns. In particular, the southeast coast of Thailand (including Ko Samui) has the rains reversed, with the peak season being May-Oct and the rainy off-season in Nov-Feb.

    People

    Thailand's people are largely ethnically Thai, although there are significant minorities of Chinese and assimilated Thai-Chinese throughout the country, Malays in the south near the Malaysian border and hill tribes such as the Karen and the Hmong in the north of the country. The overwhelmingly dominant religion (95%) is Theravada Buddhism, although Confucianism, Islam, Christianity and animist faiths also jostle for position.

    Culture

    Wat Doi Suthep, Chiang Mai

    Mainland Thai culture is heavily influenced by Buddhism. However, unlike the Buddhist countries of East Asia, Thailand's Buddhists follow the Therevada school, which is arguably closer to its Indian roots and places a heavier emphasis on monasticism. Thai temples known as wats, resplendent with gold and easily identifiable with their ornate, multicolored, pointy roofs are ubiquitous. Becoming an orange-robed monk for a short period, typically the three-month rainy season, is a common rite of passage for young Thai boys and men.

    One pre-Buddhist tradition that still survives is the spirit house (ศาลพระภูมิ saan phraphuum), usually found at the corner of any house or business, which houses spirits so they don't enter the house and cause trouble. The grander the building, the larger the spirit house, and buildings placed in particularly unlucky spots may have very large ones. Perhaps the most famous spirit house in Thailand is the Erawan Shrine in Bangkok, which protects the Erawan Hotel (now the Grand Hyatt Erawan), built in 1956 on a former execution ground, and is now one of the busiest and most popular shrines in the city.

    Some traditional arts popular in Thailand include traditional Thai dancing and music, based on religious rituals and court entertainment. Famously brutal Thai boxing (muay Thai), derived from the military training of Thai warriors, is undoubtedly the country's best known indigenous sport.

    In addition to the mainland Thai culture, there are many other cultures in Thailand including those of the "hill tribes" in the northern mountainous regions of Thailand (e.g., Hmong, Karen, Lisu, Lahu, Akha), the southern Muslims, and indigenous island peoples of the Andaman Sea.

    Calendar

    In addition to the Gregorian calendar, Thailand also uses the Thai solar calendar, the Thai version of the Buddhist calendar, which is 543 years ahead of the common era calendar. Thus, Thai year 2556 corresponds to the Western year 2013. Thai dates in English are often written as B.E., short for "Buddhist Era".

    Some Thai holidays are based on the Thai lunar calendar, so their dates change every year.

    Holidays

    Wat Phra Si Sanphet, Ayutthaya

    Thailand has many holidays, mostly related to Buddhism and the monarchy. Nobody celebrates all of them, except for banks, which seem to be closed a lot.

    • Chinese New Year (ตรุษจีน). The Chinese New Year for 2014 is on 31 January and marks the start of the Year of the Horse. It is also known as the Spring Festival or the Lunar New Year and celebrations can last for about 15 days. Chinese Thais, who are numerous in Bangkok, celebrate by cleaning their houses and offering food to their ancestors. This is mainly a time of abundant feasting. Visit Bangkok's Chinatown or Yaowarat to fully embrace the festivity.
    • Makha Bucha (มาฆบูชา). Falls on the full moon of the third lunar month, which usually falls in February or March, and commemorates the spontaneous gathering of 1,250 people before the Buddha, which led to their ordination and subsequent enlightenment. At temples in Bangkok and throughout Thailand, Buddhists carry candles and walk around the main shrine three times in a clockwise direction.
    • Songkran (สงกรานต์). Undoubtedly the most fun holiday, is the celebration of the Thai New Year, sometime in April (officially 13-15 Apr, but the date varies in some locations). What started off as polite ritual to wash away the sins of the prior year has evolved into the world's largest water fight, which lasts for three full days. Water pistols and Super Soakers are advised and are on sale everywhere. The best places to participate are Chiang Mai, the Khao San Road area in Bangkok, and holiday resorts like Pattaya, Ko Samui and Phuket. Be advised that you will get very wet, this is not a spectator sport. In recent years, the water-throwing has been getting more and more unpleasant as people have started splashing iced water onto each other. It is advisable to wear dark clothing, as light colours may become transparent when wet.
    • Coronation Day. 5 May, commemorates the crowning of the current king in 1950 (although his reign actually began on 9 Jun 1946 - making him not only the longest-serving monarch in Thai history, but also the world's longest-serving current head of state).
    • Loy Krathong (ลอยกระทง). Falls on the first full moon day in the twelfth month of the lunar calendar, usually in November, when people head to rivers, lakes and even hotel swimming pools to float flower and candle-laden banana leaves (or, these days, Styrofoam) floats called krathong (กระทง). The krathong is meant as an offering to thank the river goddess who gives life to the people. Thais also believe that this is a good time to float away your bad luck and many will place a few strands of hair or finger nail clippings in the krathong. According to tradition, if you make a wish when you set down your krathong and it floats out of sight before the candle burns out, your wish will come true. Some provinces have their own version of Loy Krathong, such as Sukhothai where a spectacular show takes place. To the north, Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai have their own unique tradition of launching kom or hot-air lanterns. This sight can be breath-taking as the sky is suddenly filled with lights, rivalling the full moon.
    • King's Birthday (Father's Day). 5 Dec, the King's birthday is the country's National Day and also celebrated as Father's Day, when Thais pay respect to and show their love for his majesty the king. Buildings and homes are decorated with the King's flag (yellow with his insignia in the middle) and his portrait. Government buildings, as well as commercial buildings, are decorated with lights. In Old Bangkok (Rattanakosin) in particular, around the royal palace, you will see lavish light displays on trees, buildings, and the roads. The Queen's Birthday (12 Aug) is Mother's Day, and is celebrated similarly if with a little less pomp.

    Get in

    Ordinary passport holders of many Western and Asian countries, including most ASEAN countries, Australia, Canada, most European Union countries, Hong Kong, Japan and the United States do not need a visa if their purpose of visit is tourism. Visitors arriving by air receive 30-day permits (except for citizens of Korea, Brazil, Chile and Peru who get 90 days), but effective 15 Dec 2008, those arriving by land are only allowed 15 days (visitors from several countries, mostly nearby ones, but notably including Russians, still get 30 days on the land border due to bilateral visa exemption). Thai immigration requires visitors' passports to have a minimum of 6 months validity and at least one completely blank visa page remaining. Visa-on-arrival is available at certain entry points for passport holders of 28 other nations (Bhutan, China, Cyprus, Czech, Estonia, Hungary, India, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Maldives, Mauritius, Oman, Poland, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Uzbekistan, Ukraine, Ethiopia, Taiwan, Bulgaria, Andorra, Malta, Romania, San Marino). Check the latest information from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. By law, you must carry your passport with you at all times.

    Those with passports from countries not widely known, including European city-states, or that have problems with document forgery, should obtain a visa in advance from the nearest Thai embassy. This is true even if visa on arrival is technically permitted. There are reports of tourists being detained using valid passports not commonly presented in Thailand. In addition, ask for a business card from the person or embassy which granted the visa, so they may be contacted on arrival, if necessary. Anyone whose nationality does not have its own embassy in Bangkok, should find out which third country represents your interests there, along with local contact information.

    Proof of onward transit, long happily ignored by Thai immigration, has been known to be strictly applied in some instances. (Airlines, who have to pay for your return flight if immigration doesn't let you in, also check this.) A print-out of an e-ticket on a budget airline is sufficient to convince the enforcers, but those planning on continuing by land may have to get a little creative. Buying a fully refundable ticket and getting it refunded once in Thailand is also an option. Land crossings, on the other hand, are a very straightforward process and no proof of onward journey required (unless the border officials decide otherwise).

    Overstaying in Thailand is dodgy. If you make it to Immigration and are fewer than 10 days over, you'll probably be allowed out with a fine of 500 baht per day. However, if for any reason you're caught overstaying by the police you'll be carted off to the notoriously unpleasant illegal immigrant holding pens and may be blacklisted from Thailand entirely. For most people it's not worth the risk: get a legal extension or do a visa run to the nearest border instead.

    Thai immigration officers at land border crossings are known to ask foreigners for bribes of about 20 baht per person before they stamp your passport. Immigration officers at airports generally do not ask for bribes.

    By plane

    The main international airports in Thailand are at Bangkok and Phuket, and both are well-served by intercontinental flights. Practically every airline that flies to Asia also flies into Bangkok, this means there are plenty of services and the competition on the routes helps to keep the ticket prices down. Be aware, Bangkok as two major airports: Suvarnabhumi Airport (BKK) which serves most larger carriers and is the main airport and the smaller Don Mueang International Airport (DMK) which serves primarily smaller carriers both internationally and domestically.

    International airports are also located at Hat Yai, Krabi, Ko Samui and Chiang Mai, though these largely restricted to flights from other Southeast Asian countries. Kuala Lumpur and Singapore make excellent places to catch flights into these smaller Thai cities, meaning you can skip the ever-present touts and queues at Bangkok.

    The national carrier is the well-regarded Thai Airways, with Bangkok Airways filling in some gaps in the region. Bangkok Airways offers free Internet access while you wait for boarding to start at your gate. Thai Airways subsidiary Thai Smile (low cost carrier) has also started international operations from India. In addition, Malaysian discount carrier AirAsia has also set up a subsidiary in Thailand, and is often the cheapest option for flights into Thailand.

    Chartered flights from and to Thailand from international destinations are operated by Hi Flying group. They fly to Bangkok, Phuket, Ko Samui and Udon Thani.

    Many low-cost carriers serve Thailand - see Discount airlines in Asia for an up-to-date list.

    For a full at-a-glance list of all Thai-based carriers, see the Thai airlines section (below).

    By road

    Cambodia - six international border crossings. The highway from Siem Reap and the temples of Angkor via Poipet to Aranyaprathet, once the stuff of nightmares, is now merely bad and can usually be covered in less than 3 hours.

    Laos - the busiest border crossing is at the Friendship Bridge across the Mekong between Nong Khai and the Lao capital Vientiane. It's also possible to cross the Mekong at Chiang Khong / Huay Xai, Nakhon Phanom / Tha Khaek, Mukdahan / Savannakhet, and elsewhere.

    • Vientiane / Udon Thani - A bus service runs from the Morning Market bus station in Vientiane to the bus station in Udon Thani. The cost is 80 baht or 22,000 kip and the journey takes two hours. The Udon Thani airport is 30 minutes by tuk-tuk from the bus station and is served by Thai Airways, Nok Air, and Air Asia.

    Malaysia and Singapore - driving up is entirely possible, although not with a rented vehicle. Main crossings (with the name of the town on Malaysian side in brackets) between Thailand and Malaysia are Padang Besar (Padang Besar) and Sadao (Bukit Kayu Hitam) in Songkhla Province, Betong (Pengkalan Hulu) in Yala Province, and Sungai Kolok (Rantau Panjang) in Narathiwat Province. There are regular buses from Singapore to the southern hub of Hat Yai.

    Myanmar - The border crossings with Myanmar are located at Mae Sai/Tachileik, Mae Sot/Myawaddy, the Three Pagodas Pass (Sangkhlaburi/Payathonzu) and Ranong/Kawthoung. As of 2013, the Burmese government has lifted all restrictions on foreigners entering and leaving Myanmar via the Thai border, so it is now possible to travel between Yangon and Bangkok overland. Just make sure that both your Thai (if required) and Burmese visas are in order, as no visa-on-arrival is available at the border.

    As traffic moves on the left in Thailand, but moves on the right in all the neighbouring countries except Malaysia, you will generally need to change sides of the road when crossing an international border into Thailand.

    By train

    Thailand's sole international train service links to Butterworth (near Penang) and Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia, continuing all the way to Singapore. Tickets are cheap even in first class sleepers, but it can be a slow ride. What is a 2-hour flight to Singapore will take you close to 48 hours by rail, as you have to change trains twice. The luxury option is to take the Eastern & Oriental Express, a refurbished super-luxury train that runs from Singapore to Bangkok once per week, with gourmet dining, personal butler service, and every other colonial perk you can think of. However, at around USD1,000 one-way just from Bangkok to Butterworth, it is approximately 30 times more expensive than an ordinary first-class sleeper!

    While you can't get to Laos or Cambodia by train, you can get very close, with rail terminals just across the border at Nong Khai (across the river from Vientiane) and Aranyaprathet (for Poipet, on the road to Siem Reap). A link across the Mekong to Laos opened in March 2009, but service to Cambodia remains on the drawing board.

    There are no rail services to Myanmar, but the Thai part of the infamous Burma Death Railway is still operating near Kanchanaburi.

    By ferry

    It is possible now to travel by ferries in high season (Nov-May) from Phuket and island hop your way down the coast all the way to Indonesia.

    This can now be done without ever touching the mainland,

    Phuket (Thailand) to Padang (Indonesia), islands en route:

    • Ko Phi Phi
    • Ko Lanta
    • Ko Ngai
    • Ko Mook
    • Ko Bulon
    • Ko Lipe— Ko Lipe being the hub on the border between Thailand and Malaysia having a Thai immigration office.
    • Langkawi- Malaysian immigration here.
    • Penang

    The Thai portion can be done in a day.

    Ferries cross from Satun in southern Thailand to the Malaysian island of Langkawi, while over in Narathiwat Province, a vehicular ferry shuttles between Tak Bai and Pengkalan Kubur, near Kota Bharu in Malaysia's Kelantan state.

    There are also occasional cruises from Malaysia and Singapore to Phuket and Bangkok, the main operator being Star Cruises, but no scheduled services.

    Get around

    By plane

    Thailand is a large country, and if sitting in a bus for 11 hours is not your idea of a fun time, you may well want to consider domestic flights. Never terribly expensive to begin with (at least by Western standards), the deregulation of the industry has brought in a crop of new operators: with a little research, it's possible to fly pretty much anywhere in the country for less than 2,000 baht. Note that various taxes and (often hefty) surcharges are invariably added to advertised prices.

    Thai airlines

    Pan-ASEAN low-cost carrier AirAsia has great coverage of international and domestic routes in Thailand and offers steeply discounted tickets if booked well in advance; however, prices rise steadily as planes fill up. It's often the cheapest option, sometimes even cheaper than bus or train, if booked at least a week or two in advance. They fly their A320s from Bangkok to a number of places domestically, as well as to Cambodia, China, Macau, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Vietnam and Indonesia. Recently, they started to display "all-inclusive" prices during booking (which, however, still do not include optional surcharges such as baggage fees). On-line booking is straightforward and can be done even using the mobile phone, but must be done at least twenty-four hours in advance; ticket sales at the check-in desk close one hour before the departure time.

    Bangkok Airways promotes itself as "Asia's Boutique Airline", and has a monopoly on flights to its own airports at Ko Samui (now shared with Thai Airways), Sukhothai, and Trat. Quite an expensive and "posh" option; however, their Discovery Airpass with fixed per segment rates can be good value, especially if used to fly to Siem Reap, (Cambodia) or Luang Prabang, (Laos). The Discovery Airpass can only be purchased abroad.

    Nok Air took to the skies in 2004 sporting lurid paint schemes with a bird's beak painted on the nose. Owned mostly by Thai Airways, they compete with Air Asia on price and, with a fairly comprehensive domestic network, are a pretty good choice overall. They've run into some serious turbulence in 2008, cutting their flights by two-thirds, but now seem to have recovered.

    Nok Mini flies mostly in northern Thailand and is the only carrier offering flights between Chiang Mai-Pai, Mae Hong Son, Nan and Chiang Rai. Formerly SGA Airlines.

    Orient Thai, until recently One-Two-Go, is easily the dodgiest of Thailand's main carriers, flying a ragtag bunch of ancient planes with a poor safety record, including a crash in Phuket in 2007 that killed 90 people. The fleet has been grounded on and off, but as of late-2010 they're flying again. Unlike most LCCs, their ticket prices don't change much, meaning they're often the cheapest option for last-minute flights. If you're taller than about 1.80m, get an exit row seat unless you want to ride the whole flight with your knees resting against the seat in front.

    Thai Airways International is the most reliable, frequent, and comfortable Thai airline, but usually more expensive than the alternatives (look for their promotions). Travel agents often sell only Thai Airways (and Bangkok Airways) tickets; you can also book on-line. Thai Airways is a member of Star Alliance; all domestic flights, except some promotional fares, give at least 500 Star Alliance miles, which may (partially) compensate the price difference.

    By train

    SRT railway network

    State Railway of Thailand (SRT) has a 4,000km network covering most of the country, from Chiang Mai in the north all the way to (and beyond) the Malaysian border in the south. Compared to buses, most trains are relatively slow and prone to delays, but safer. You can pick up fruits, snacks and cooked food from vendors at most stations.

    Point-to-point fares depend on the type (speed) of the train and the class of the carriage. There are three main classes:

    • First class (chan neung) 2-berth sleeping compartments with individually regulated air conditioning are available on some trains, but prices are sometimes matched by budget airfares.
    • Second class (chan song) is a good compromise, costing about the same as 1st class buses and with a comparable level of comfort. Some 2nd class trains are air-con, others aren't; air-con costs a little more. Second class sleeper berths are comfortable and good value, with the narrower upper bunks costing a little less than the wider lower bunks. Food and WCs are basic. 2nd class Express Railcar trains have reclining seats and refreshments are included in the fare; unlike all other Thai passenger trains, they can match buses for speed, but cannot carry bicycles.
    • Third class (chan saam) is the cheapest way to travel in Thailand, with virtually nominal fares, and can be great fun. Sometimes packed with tuk-tuk drivers heading home with a sack of rice and a bottle of cheap whisky for company, as a farang (foreigner) you're guaranteed to be the centre of attention - quite enjoyable in small doses, but 10 hours of this might be a bit much. Some 3rd class trains have wooden seats, others are upholstered; some services can be pre-booked, others cannot; refreshments are available from hawkers who roam the aisles.

    Pre-booking is recommended, especially for sleeper berths. Tickets on all main lines can be purchased through travel agencies for a service fee (50-200 baht/ticket), or you can reserve with SRT directly by e-mail at passenger-ser@railway.co.th for a 200 baht/booking surcharge.

    Important: SRT has discontinued e-Ticketing via their website as of 14 Jan 2013. There is no mention if this is temporary or permanent.

    Full information regarding routes, timetables and up-to-date ticket costs along with interesting videos can be found at seat61.com.

    By road

    Thailand's roads are head and shoulders above its neighbors Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia, but driving habits are still quite dangerous. Drunk driving, speeding and reckless passing are depressingly common, and bus and taxi drivers (especially for private companies) work inhuman shifts and often take drugs to keep themselves awake, with predictable and tragic results. It's common for motorbikes — even police! — to drive close to the curb on the wrong side of the road. Death tolls sky-rocket around major holidays, especially Songkhran, when bystanders often throw water on passing cars and bikes. Many drivers don't use headlights at night, multiplying risks, and it is wise to avoid or minimize overnight travel by road.

    Note that unlike in its neighbours (except Malaysia), traffic moves on the left side of the road in Thailand and Thai cars are generally right-hand drive. All official road directional signs are written in both Thai and English.

    Renting a car to explore on your own is a cost-effective way of getting off the beaten track, and avoids the constant hassle of haggling with local taxi/tuk-tuk drivers. Most major roads are marked in both Thai and English, and traffic culture is not as bad as some might lead you to believe. Keep a sharp lookout in both mirrors from passing traffic including 18-wheelers and scooters.

    Traffic on major highways moves at 100-120 km/h, while smaller highways are generally 80 km/h. Gas stations are common and most Thai are more than willing to give directions in spite of any language barriers.

    Drive very defensively at first and watch what the locals do. Of course, it helps if you are accustomed to driving on the left side of the road, which in itself could be enough to distract some Western drivers.

    Driving under the influence of alcohol is both illegal and dangerous, and driving at night also increased the risk of accidents — even if you're sober, many others aren't.

    Rental cars

    Renting a car usually costs between 1,200-1,500 baht if you want to go for an economical one like a Toyota Vios. Most international companies can be found in Thailand. Also check guides to particular cities for reputable local car rental companies, which are often a little cheaper. You can choose among international companies such as Budget, Avis or you can choose to book with local company like www.thailandcarsrentals.com. Check the documentation and make sure that everything is done according to rules. Perform required checks and notify the car company about any damage before using the vehicle.

    Bus

    VIP? Very Inferior Product

    Travel agencies, particularly those on Bangkok's Khao San Road, are keen to sell you VIP bus tickets. Some routes may have VIP buses (reclining seats, freezing AC and TV) while others may change for minivans or other forms of transportation. Some routes (such as Khao San to Siem Reap) are notorious for multiple scam attempts throughout the route but take it easy and you'll be fine. Most important is to keep your valuables with you, and if a suitcase or big backpack goes to storage under the bus, make sure it's locked and doesn't contain anything worth some good money. Mind that all agents likely sell the exact same deal so while some may offer you a better bus for a higher price, you're likely to get the exact same deal for more. The big agents will likely tell you the truth about the buses and travel times but you can shop at the cheapest possible place and get the same deal. Be aware that many routes include an interchange at various locations, but you will arrive at your destination. Example: Khao San to Ko Lanta included VIP bus to Suratani, then a short ride on a jeep to a public bus (soft seat but not VIP) heading to Krabi. In Krabi, a minivan would then take you to Ko Lanta, boarding two different ferries. The Khao San bus services are limited to foreigners and Thais never use them, opting for public BKS buses instead.

    Buses travel throughout the country and the government's bus company BKS (บขส Baw Kaw Saw), known in English simply as the Transport Company, has a terminal in every province of any size.

    Generally speaking, BKS buses are a good option for both price and comfort. There are also private buses sanctioned by BKS, which operate on the same routes from the same terminals with the same fares, and these are also fine. The ones to watch out for are the illegal bus companies, which operate from tourist areas (especially Khao San Road) and subsidize slightly cheaper tickets with worse amenities, schedules and safety. In particular, beware of non-government "VIP" buses, which often turn out to be cramped minivans - and you'll only find this out after paying in advance.

    The basic BKS bus types are:

    Local bus, Chiang Saen
    The same bus on the inside
    • Local - relatively slow, can be cramped when full (nevertheless there's always room for one more), and stop at every village and cowshed along the way. Many are of larger songthaew flavour. Not suitable for long-distance travel, but may be the only cheap way to get around locally.
    • Express (rot duan) - skip some stops, but no other frills. Identifiable by their orange colour. Size varies, with the largest having around 65 seats (five seats per row) as well as an open space across the width of the bus by the back door for you to sling your backpack, bicycle, sack of rice, live chickens, etc.
    • Second class (chan song) - skip more stops, but often take a less direct route than 1st class / VIP / S-VIP. Blue and white with an orange stripe, usually 45-48 seats per bus, air conditioned (some provide blankets, some do not). Most have no on-board toilet, although the frequent stops mean this isn't a problem.
    • First class (chan neung) - generally take the most direct routes and make very few stops. Blue and white in colour, air conditioned, blanket usually provided, fewer (larger, longer pitch) seats (typically 40, but some double-decker types seat 60+), snack and drinking water included. Toilet on board for all but the shortest services.
    • "VIP" - as per 1st class, but with only 32-34 seats, which have more leg room and recline further. Basic meal included and freshly laundered shrink-wrapped blanket provided. Also blue and white (or sometimes blue and silver) but usually signed "VIP".
    • "S-VIP" - Super-VIP is very similar to VIP, except there are only 24 seats, which are wider - the aisle is offset, each row having a pair of seats on the right and only a single seat on the left. Primarily used on overnight services.

    Some buses may have TVs and sound systems blaring, so earplugs are well worth having, just in case. On long-haul buses, if your ticket allocates you a front seat, you may have to switch seats if a monk boards.

    If you are travelling a long distance on a daytime bus, take a minute to figure out the sunny side and the shady side of the bus. E.g., going from Chiang Mai to Bangkok on a 09:00 bus (south), seats on the right side will be bathed in sunlight all day (curtains are provided), so the left side is preferred by most.

    Like travelling by train, pre-booking and e-ticketing is also available in some bus lines routing from Bangkok to reachable provinces and vice-versa. e-Tickets can be booked and purchased through travel agencies, bus-line websites and online ticketing systems such as, 12go.asia.

    Other tour bus companies:

    • Sombat Tour Co., Ltd.
    • Green Bus Corporation (Chiang Mai-based).

    Minivan

    Minivan services are ubiquitous, although under the radar as minivans typically are anonymous grey Toyota vans with no company markings. They serve shorter routes, such as Krabi to Phuket, about 180 km or Victory Monument in Bangkok to Hua Hin, about 200 km. The purported advantage of taking a minibus is speed, as they move quickly once they get going. Disadvantages are that they are expensive compared with standard bus travel, they can be uncomfortable as they are usually crammed full, and they offer little room for luggage. Take minivans from bus stations. Do not take minivans that offer to pick you up at your hotel. They will pick you up, but then you will spend the next hour driving to other hotels to pick up more passengers. You will then be driven to an aggregator where all the collected passengers will disembark to wait for the minivan to their respective destinations. Then you will likely be driven to a bus station to change to a third and final minivan. Better just to sleep in, then go to bus station to book your (cheaper) minivan ticket, thus saving 2 hours of pointless discomfort.

    Songthaew

    A typical rural songthaew, Mae Salong

    A songthaew (สองแถว) is a truck-based vehicle with a pair of bench seats in the back, one on either side — hence the name, which means "two rows" in Thai. In English tourist literature, they're occasionally called "minibuses". By far the most common type is based on a pick-up truck and has a roof and open sides. Larger types start life as small lorries, and may have windows, and an additional central bench; smaller types are converted micro-vans, with a front bench facing backwards and a rear bench facing forwards.

    Songthaews are operated extensively as local buses (generally the most economical way to travel shorter distances) and also as taxis; sometimes the same vehicle will be used for both. Be careful if asking a songthaew to take you to someplace if there is nobody in the back, the driver might charge you the taxi price. In this case, check the price of the ride before embarking.

    Tuk-tuk

    Tuk-tuks on the prowl, Bangkok

    The name tuk-tuk is used to describe a wide variety of small/lightweight vehicles. The vast majority have three wheels; some are entirely purpose-built (e.g., the ubiquitous Bangkok tuk-tuk), others are partially based on motorcycle components (primarily engines, steering, front suspension, fuel tank, drivers seat). A relatively recent development is the four wheeled tuk-tuk (basically a microvan-songthaew) as found in Phuket.

    Tuk-tuks are small, noisy, and perhaps dangerous; but possibly the worst thing about them is that, as a passenger, you cannot see a damned thing due to the low roof line. To catch even a glimpse of the passing scene you will find yourself practically supine.

    You will often find yourself at the mercy of the tuk-tuk driver when it comes to pricing as you will likely have no clue as to the acceptable raa kaa Thai ("Thai price") and will probably have to cough up a raa kaa farang ("farang price"). Even if you do know the Thai price, the driver may just not bother to accept it on principle. If you pay with a larger denomination bill, it is also probable that the driver will whine that he has no change. If this happens, try to break the note in a nearby shop.

    Taxi

    Metered taxis are ubiquitous in Bangkok and starting to become more popular in Chiang Mai, but rare elsewhere in the country. When available, they are an excellent means of transport - insist on the meter. Beware of taxis which idle around touristy areas and wait for people. They are looking for a tourist who will take their taxi without using a meter. Always use the meter! Most drivers do not speak English, so be sure to have your hotel staff write the names of your destinations in Thai to show the driver.

    Motorbike

    As is the case throughout virtually all of Southeast Asia, motorcycles (motosai) are the most common form of transport overall; the most popular type are the 100 cc-125 cc step-through models. These are very widely used as taxis, with fares starting from as low as 10 baht. Negotiate the fare with the driver before using his service otherwise you may be charged more than you expect.

    Motorcycles can be rented without difficulty in many locations. Rates start at around 125 baht/day for recent 100-125 cc semi-automatic (foot-operated gear change, automatic clutch) step-through models, 150 baht/day for fully automatic scooters; larger capacity models can also easily be found, although the rates reflect the risks: up to around 2,500 baht/day for the very latest model high capacity sport bikes, such as the Honda CBR1000RR. In all cases, lower prices will apply if paying upfront for more than a week or so; in some cases, long-distance travel may be prohibited. Motorcycle rentals do not include insurance, and both motorcycling accidents and motorbike thefts are common.

    Many places will rent to you without requiring a license, but legally speaking you must have a valid Thai license or International Driver's Permit. Often a deposit will be required; sometimes a passport photocopy, or even the passport itself will be requested (Don't do this. Bargain to leave some baht instead). Helmets are normally included, but are usually ultra-basic models with very flimsy chin-strap fasteners. If you're intending to travel by motorcycle and have a good quality helmet at home, then bring it with you. If supplied a helmet with a chin-cup (many cheap rental helmets are), slide the cup up the strap out of the way and securely fasten the bare strap directly under the jaw, as this is much safer.

    Insurance is usually not included (or even available), so try to ensure in advance that the insurance you leave home with is going to cover you; alternatively, arrange cover with an insurance broker locally in Thailand. If you rent a vehicle without insurance and it's damaged or stolen (take photos of the bike at the time of rental!), the bottom line is that you will be required to pay in full the cost of repairing or replacing it. Furthermore, some travel insurance policies will only provide medical cover in the event of an accident if you hold a motorcycle license in your home country.

    According to the WHO Global Status Report on Road Safety 2013, Thailand in 2010 had 38.1 road fatalities per 100,000 inhabitants. This is the second highest in the world. 74% of those fatalities involved "motorized two or three wheelers". Motorcyclists (including passengers) are required to wear crash helmets and to keep their headlights switched on at all times. Enforcement varies widely, but in tourist areas spot checks for helmets and/or licenses are commonplace. While the fines are light (typically 400 baht) the inconvenience can be considerable as offender's vehicle and/or driver's license is impounded until the fine is paid, and the queue at the police station can be lengthy.

    Some (but not all) border crossings allow motorcycles through. At those which do, documentation including proof of ownership must be produced (with the possible exception of day visits to Payathonzu, Myanmar via Three Pagodas Pass).

    Rental car

    Driving your own car in Thailand is not for the faint-hearted, and many rental companies can supply drivers at a very reasonable price. Prices without insurance for a self-driven car start from around 800 baht/day for small cars, and from as little as 600 baht/day for open-topped Jeeps. Cars with insurance start at just under 1,000 baht/day, and come down to around 5,600 baht/week or 18,000 baht/month.

    Driving is (usually, but not always!) on the left hand side of the road. Fuel at large petrol stations is 37-45 baht/litre. Small kerbside vendors who pump by hand from drums and/or pour from bottles charge a few baht more.

    Cars can be rented without difficulty in many locations. It's worth paying a little more than the absolute minimum to use one of the international franchises (e.g. Avis, Budget, and Hertz) to minimize the risk of hassles, and to ensure that any included insurance is actually worth something.

    More reputable agencies require that valid licences be produced. Foreigners who do not have a Thai driving licence must carry a valid International Driving Permit. Even if you manage to rent a car without an IDP, not having one will invalidate the insurance and count against you in the event of an accident.

    A common rental scam involves the owner taking a deposit, and then later refusing to refund it in full on the basis that the customer is responsible for previous damage; the Tourist Police (dial 1155) may be able to help. Another common scam involves the owner having someone follow the rented vehicle and later "steal" it, using a set of spare keys. Always report thefts: a "stolen" vehicle may mysteriously turn up as soon as the police become involved.

    By boat

    Long-tail boats, Ao Nang, Krabi

    One of the Thais' many names for themselves is jao naam, the Water Lords, and from the river expresses of Bangkok to the fishing trawlers of Phuket, boats remain an indispensable way of getting around many parts of the country.

    Perhaps the most identifiably Thai boat is the longtail boat (reua hang yao), a long, thin wooden boat with the propeller at the end of a long "tail" stretching from the boat. This makes them supremely manoeuvrable even in shallow waters, but they're a little underpowered for longer trips and you'll get wet if it's even a little choppy. Longtails usually act as taxis that can be chartered, although prices vary widely. Figure on 300-400 baht for a few hours' rental, or up to 1,500 baht for a full day. In some locations like Krabi, longtails run along set routes and charge fixed prices per passenger.

    Modern, air-conditioned speedboat services, sometimes ferries (departure every 30 min) also run from the Surat Thani to popular islands like Ko Samui and Ko Pha Ngan. Truly long-distance services (e.g., Bangkok to any other major city) have, however, effectively ceased to exist as buses, planes, and even trains are faster. Safety measures are rudimentary and ferries and speedboats do sink occasionally, so avoid overloaded ships in poor weather, and scope out the nearest life jackets when on board.

    See

    Wats for dummies

    A Thai temple is known as a "wat". Usually a temple does not consist of one building, but is a collection of buildings, shrines and monuments enclosed by a wall. There are thousands of temples in Thailand, and nearly every town or village has at least one. The word "wat" (วัด) literally means school, and the temple has been the only place where formal education took place for centuries. A typical Buddhist wat consists of the following structures:

    • Bot — The holiest prayer room, usually only open to the monks. It is architecturally similar to the viharn, but is usually more heavily decorated and it has eight cornerstones to ward off evil. It is also known as the "ordination hall" as it is where the monks take their vows.
    • Viharn — Usually the busiest room in a wat, it is where the temple's main Buddha image is and where people come to make offerings. It is open for everyone.
    • Chedi or stupa — A tall bell-shaped structure that generally houses relics of the Buddha.
    • Prang — A finger-like spire of Khmer and Ayutthayan origin that serves the same religious purpose as a chedi.
    • Mondop — An open, square building with four arches and a pyramidal roof. It is often used to worship religious texts or objects.
    • Sala — An open-sided pavilion that is used for relaxation and as a meeting place (and often used as a shelter for rain).
    • Chofah — Bird-like decorations on the end of temple roofs. They are meant to represent the Garuda, a mythical creature that is half bird and half man.

    Historical and cultural attractions

    Bangkok is at the start of many visitors' itineraries, and while a modern city, it has a rich cultural heritage. Most visitors at least take in the Grand Palace, a collection of highly decorated buildings and monuments. It is home to Wat Phra Kaew, the most sacred Buddhist temple in Thailand that houses the Emerald Buddha. Other cultural attractions include Wat Pho, Wat Arun and Jim Thompson's House, but these are just a fraction of possible sights you could visit.

    The former capitals of Siam, Ayutthaya and Sukhothai, make excellent stops for those interested in Thai history. The latter could be combined with a visit to Si Satchanalai and Kamphaeng Phet, all of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Khmer architecture is mostly found in Isaan, with the historical remains of Phimai and Phanom Rung being the most significant.

    In the northern provinces live unique hill-tribe peoples, often visited as part of a trekking. The six major hill tribes in Thailand are the Akha, Lahu, Karen, Hmong, Mien and Lisu, each with a distinct language and culture. Chiang Mai makes a good base for arranging these treks, and has some cultural sights of its own, such as Wat Doi Suthep.

    For those interested in recent history, Kanchanaburi has a lot of sights related to WWII. The Bridge over the River Kwai, popularised by the film of the same name, is the most famous one, but the museums in its vicinity are a lot more moving. The "The Dead Railway"(tang rod fai sai morana) is the railway constructed by captive allied soldiers during WWII. This railway has a nice view all along its route.

    Beaches and islands

    Chaweng beach, Ko Samui

    Thailand's beaches and islands attract millions of visitors each year from all over the globe. Hua Hin is Thailand's oldest beach resort, made famous by King Rama VII in the 1920s as an ideal getaway from Bangkok. Things have considerably changed since then. Pattaya, Phuket, and Ko Samui only came to prominence in the 1970s, and these are now by far the most developed beach resorts.

    Krabi Province has some beautiful spots, including Ao Nang, Rai Leh and the long golden beaches of Ko Lanta. Ko Phi Phi, renowned as a true island paradise, has been undergoing massive development since the release of the film The Beach in 2000. Ko Pha Ngan offers the best of both worlds, with both well-developed beaches and empty ones a short ride away. It is also where the infamous "Full Moon Party" takes place.

    Ko Chang is a bit like Ko Samui used to be. It has a backpacker vibe, but is fairly laid-back and there is accommodation in all price ranges. If you're looking for unspoiled beaches, Ko Kut is very thinly populated, but also difficult to explore. Ko Samet is the closest island beach to Bangkok, but its northern beaches are quite developed and hotels are pretty much sold out on weekends and public holidays.

    Natural scenery

    While not as beautiful as Malaysia or Indonesia, Thailand does have its fair share of tropical forest. Khao Yai National Park, the first national park of Thailand, is the closest to Bangkok. Wild tigers and elephants are increasingly rare, but you can't miss the macaques, gibbons, deer, and species of birds. The stretch of jungle at Khao Sok National Park is probably even more impressive, and you can spend the night in the middle of the jungle.

    Waterfalls can be found all over Thailand. The Heo Suwat Waterfall in Khao Yai National Park and the 7-tiered Erawan Falls in Kanchanaburi are among the most visited, but the Thee Lor Sue Waterfall in Umphang and the 11-tiered Pa La-u Falls in Kaeng Krachan National Park are equally exciting. Finally, the gravity-defying limestone formations of the Phang Nga Bay shouldn't be missed by anyone who stays in the region.

    Itineraries

    Do

    Golf

    Golf arrived in Thailand during the reign of King Rama V one hundred years ago. It was first played by nobles and other high society elites, but since then, things have certainly changed. Over the past decade or so, the popularity of golf in Thailand has escalated; it is now popular with Thais and visiting tourists and expatriates.

    Catering to the needs of an average of 400,000 foreign golfers coming to Thailand annually, golf in Thailand has turned into a huge local industry with new courses constantly being churned out. Golf alone annually brings 8 billion baht into the local economy. Thailand offers over two hundred courses with high standards. Internationally renowned courses can be found in tourist-spots like Bangkok, Pattaya, and Phuket.

    There is an abundance of reasons why golf in Thailand has become so popular. First, if you compare the cost to most golfing countries in the world, membership and course fees are exceptionally low. The general low cost of travel in Thailand itself makes the country ideal for cost-efficiency minded tourists. Also, many of the golf courses in Thailand have been designed by top names in the game such as Jack Nicklaus, Nick Faldo and Greg Norman.

    • Thailand Golf Courses Association96 Moo 3, Viphavadi-Rangsit Rd, Bangkok .

    Outdoors

    Thailand's a big enough country, the size of Spain, that you can find a place to practice almost any outdoor sport. Ko Tao is becoming one of Asia's great scuba diving centres, with Ang Thong National Marine Park near Ko Samui and the Similan Islands off Khao Lak also drawing crowds. One of the newest hot spots for diving is Ko Lipe, a small island that is relatively unspoiled with great reefs and stunning beaches. Snorkelling can be done at pretty much every beach, but the coral reefs of the Similan Islands stand out as particularly worthwhile.

    While Thailand does not match surf paradises like Bali, surfing does have its place. The waves are generally small, good for longboarding and those wanting to learn to surf. Khao Lak and Phuket's west coast beaches are among the better ones, but the best waves are to be found at the relatively unknown Ko Kradan on the west coast of Trang Province. Other surf-spots include Rayong and Ko Samui, but the waves of the Gulf Coast are less reliable.

    Phang Nga Bay's gravity-defying limestone formations are usually seen with boat tours, but if you go sea-canoeing, you can get into areas unexplored by the tourist masses. The limestone cliffs of Rai Leh are among the best in the world for rock-climbing.

    Pampering

    Traditional Thai massage has a history of more than 2,500 years. Practitioners of Thai massage operate on the belief that many invisible lines of energy run through the body. The masseur uses his or her hands, elbows, feet, heels and knees to exert pressure on these lines, releasing blockages that may exist, allowing a free flow of energy through the body. Many Thais believe that these massages are beneficial both for treating diseases and aiding general well-being. You're supposed to feel both relaxed and energised after a session.

    Although spas weren't introduced here until the early 1990s, Thailand has quickly become one of the highest ranking spa destinations in the world. Besides traditional Thai massage, there is a phenomenal variety of international treatments, including aromatherapy, Swedish massage and many others. There is usually an option for every budget, varying from extravagant wellness centres in luxury hotels to the ubiquitous little massage shops found on many street corners.

    Talk

    See also: Thai phrasebook

    The official language of Thailand is Thai. Like Mandarin and Vietnamese, Thai is a tonal language (think about the difference in your voice when saying "yes" versus "yes?". That's tonal.) which can make it tricky for speakers of non-tonal languages to learn quickly, but despite this, everyone will appreciate any attempt you do make so pick up a phrasebook and give it a go. Thai is a language with many dialects, though the Bangkok dialect, also known as Central Thai, is used as the standard and is taught in all schools. Language schools can be found in all larger Thai cities, including Bangkok and Phuket.

    In the Muslim-dominated south, dialects of Malay that are largely incomprehensible to speakers of standard Malay/Indonesian are spoken. Various dialects of Chinese are spoken by the ethnic Chinese community, with Teochew being the dominant dialect in Bangkok's Chinatown, and Cantonese speakers also forming a sizable minority among the Chinese community. Down south in Hat Yai, Hokkien is also widely understood due to the large number of tourists from Penang. The eastern Isaan dialects are closely related to Lao and there are dozens of small language groups in the tribal areas of the north, some so remote that Thai speakers are few and far between.

    Public signage is generally bilingual, written in both Thai and English. There is also some prevalence of Japanese and Chinese signs. Where there is English, it will usually be fairly phonetic - for example "Sawatdee" (meaning hello) is pronounced just as it reads: sa-wat-dee. There is no universal agreement on how to transcribe Thai letters that don't have an English equivalent, so Khao San Road for example is also commonly spelled Kao Sarn, Kao Sahn, Khao San, Koh Saan, Khaosan, and many other variations. Maps with names in both Thai and English make it easier for locals to try and help you.

    Most Thai youths learn English in school, so many young people have a basic grasp of English, though few are fluent. Most "front desk" people in the travel industry speak at least enough English to communicate, and many are relatively fluent; some also speak one or more other languages popular with their clientèle, such as Chinese, Japanese, German, etc.

    Many Thais have trouble pronouncing the consonant clusters of the English language. Common confusion comes from the fact that Thais often pronounce "twenty" as "TEH-wen-ty", making it sound like they're saying "seventy". Therefore it is a good idea to make use of the calculators that street vendors may offer you to avoid confusion about prices offered when buying goods.

    Buy

    Currency

    Weighty bahts

    Is your new girlfriend asking for a one-baht gold ring? Watch out, as this isn't the cheap trinket it sounds like: for jewellers and goldsmiths, the baht is also a measure of weight, or 15.244 grams (around 0.5 oz) to be exact. At 2013 gold prices, one baht of gold would thus cost you well north of 20,000 baht in cash!

    The currency of Thailand is the baht (THB, ฿), written in Thai as บาท or บ, which is divided into 100 satang (สตางค์). There are six coins and six notes:

    • 25 and 50 satang (cent, copper colour) coins - nearly worthless and only readily accepted (and handed out) by buses, supermarkets and 7-Elevens
    • 1, 2 (in 2 versions: silver and gold), 5 (silver colour) and 10 baht (silver/gold) coins
    • 20 (green), 50 (blue), 100 (red), 500 (purple) and 1000 (grey-brown) baht notes

    The most useful bills tend to be 20s and 100s, as many small shops and stalls don't carry much change. Taxi drivers also like to pull the "no change" trick; if caught, hop into the nearest convenience store and make a small purchase. Beware of 1,000 baht notes, as counterfeits are not uncommon: feel the embossing, look for the watermark and tilt to see colour-changing ink to make sure the note is real.

    Banking

    ATMs are everywhere, and international withdrawals are not a problem. When using a debit card, an ATM will typically provide a much better exchange rate than a money exchange counter, and this is especially the case if you have a card that does not charge a transaction fee for overseas withdrawals (becoming common in countries such as Australia). ATMs are available at Bangkok's Suvarnabhumi airport (BKK) after collecting your bag and clearing customs, and while it is advisable to arrive with a small amount of baht if possible, you may obtain cash from an ATM after landing as well. There's a 150-180 baht surcharge for using foreign cards at all ATMs, you'll be notified about this fee in any ATM which charges it, so you always have an option to cancel.Citibank do not charge foreign cards but they are only located in Bangkok. AEON ATM which used to apply no fee now charge 150 baht. Yellow Ayudhya (Krungsri) ATM's should be avoided; not only do they charge 150 baht surcharge, but the exchange rate is horrible.

    One notable money exchanger is SuperRich, with branches in Bangkok at Silom, Ratchadamri, Khao San Road, and Chatuchak. No fees are charged and the exchange rate is typically better than at ATMs (even before you consider ATM and your local bank fees), with a very small buy/sell spread. For a comparison of all the bank's exchange rate (updated every 10 min)check out DaytoDayData.

    More remote areas (including smaller islands) don't have banks or ATMs, so cash or traveller's cheques are essential. Many hotels and guesthouses will change money for guests, but hefty commissions and poor rates may apply. US dollars in small bills (USD1, 5, and 20) are invaluable for onward travel to neighbouring countries other than Malaysia, but are only useful in Thailand for exceptional purchases (e.g., paying visa fees for Cambodia).

    Credit cards are widely accepted in the tourist industry such as in restaurants, shopping malls and shops catering to tourists. Fraud is regrettably common though, so use them sparingly and tell your bank in advance, so your card doesn't get locked down because you are using it. Some businesses add a surcharge (usually 2-3%) if you're paying by credit card; in this case, it can turn out cheaper to pay them in cash.

    Tipping

    Tipping is not common in Thailand and the Thais themselves don't do it. Thais do round up (or down) the taxi fare to get it to an amount that is easier to pay for (such as from 59 or 61 to 60 baht). Sometimes they also leave the change in restaurants, but even this is a rare occurrence.

    You don't have to feel odd if you don't tip at all, as that's what the locals do. But the many foreign visitors attending Thailand have changed some practices. Tipping is starting to become more common in high-end hotels and restaurants, and even lower-end restaurants frequently attended by foreigners. Don't go overboard when tipping — never give more than 50 baht. In some tourist places, especially along Khao San Road, there are even restaurants hinting for a tip. This is not common (and even rude) in Thai culture, so you can easily ignore it.

    Do not tip when a customer service charge is applied, as this is supposed to be the tip, applied only in luxury restaurants and hotels.

    Costs

    Thailand is not as cheap as it used to be, with Bangkok recently being named the second most expensive city in SE Asia behind Singapore. However, budget travellers who are careful with what they spend will still find that 1,000 baht will get a backpacker a dorm bed or cheap room, three square meals a day and leave enough for transport, sightseeing, and even partying. Doubling that budget will let you stay in decent hotels, and if you're willing to fork out 5,000 baht per day or more you can live like a king. Bangkok requires a more generous budget than upcountry destinations, but also offers by far the most competitive prices for shoppers who shop around. The most popular tourism islands such as Phuket and Ko Samui tend to have higher prices in general. It is common for tourists to be charged several times the actual price in tourist areas of other places as well. If you want to have an idea what the real Thai prices are, consider visiting malls like Big C, Tesco, or Carrefour where locals and expats routinely shop. Those are available in major cities (in Bangkok, there are dozens of them) and on larger islands such as Phuket or Ko Samui.

    Shopping

    Racks of clothing at Siam Square, Bangkok

    Thailand is a shopper's paradise and many visitors to Bangkok in particular end up spending much of their time in the countless markets and malls. Particularly good buys are clothing, both cheap locally produced street wear and fancy Thai silk, and all sorts of handicrafts. Electronics and computer gear are also widely available, but prices are slightly higher than in Singapore, Hong Kong, Philippines, and Kuala Lumpur.

    A Thai speciality is the night markets found in almost every town, the largest and best-known of which are in Bangkok and the Night Bazaar in Chiang Mai. Here a variety of vendors from designers to handicraft sellers have stalls selling goods which cannot normally be found in malls and day markets. Most night markets also have large open air food courts attached.

    You can also find marvellously tacky modern clothing accessories. Witness pink sandals with clear plastic platform heels filled with fake flowers. Night markets along the main roads and Bangkok's Mahboonkrong (MBK) Mall, near the Siam Skytrain stop, are particularly good sources. Not to be left out is what is often touted as the world's biggest weekend bazaar - The Chatuchak Weekend Market or known to locals simply as "JJ" Market. Chatuchak sells a myriad of products ranging from clothes to antiques, covers over 35 acres (1.1km²) and is growing by the day!

    Haggling is the norm and often market and road-side vendors will try to charge you as much as they think you can afford to pay. It's not uncommon to buy something, walk outside, and find somebody who bought the same item for half or one third what you paid (or even less). Try to figure out the item's rough value first. Adjacent stalls, government-run fixed price shops and even hotel gift shops are a good starting point. You'll find that prices drop drastically when the seller realizes you have some idea of what it costs.

    Learn

    Meditating Thai Buddhas

    Long term visa

    It is known that many Western foreigners who wish to stay in Thailand for a long time enrol in Thai language schools in order to get a student visa and then don't bother turning up. As long as fees are paid some institutions are fine with this arrangement.

    Bangkok has many language schools for studying Thai:

    • AUA (American University Alumni) Language Center Bangkok AUA uses a non-traditional method where all teaching is done in Thai without books or any use of English. Students learn by looking and listening and eventually after a certain number of hours are expected to begin to speak Thai "naturally".
    • Duke Language School Bangkok Duke Language School is conveniently located near BTS Nana station and has a very high success rate.
    • Chulalongkorn University Intensive Thai classes Intensive Thai courses with an emphasis on learning to read and write academic Thai at a university level.
    • Jentana & Associates Thai Language School
    • Piammitr (Plenty of Friends) Language School Near BTS Asok [1] Courses are 60-hours of class time and last one month.
    • Thai Language Achievement School in Silom
    • Unity Thai Language School
    • My Thai Language School On Ratchada Rd, you can apply for a student ed Visa
    • Walen School

    An on-line site for studying Thai:

    • Thai Language Reference documents, interactive lessons, dictionary, and forums for learning Thai

    Work

    The two main opportunities for work for foreigners are teaching English and dive instructor, but both are very competitive and dive masters in particular are paid a pittance.

    To become a dive instructor, the most popular destination is Ko Tao (Turtle Island) a few hours off the coast of Chumphon in the Gulf of Thailand. There are dozens of dive shops that provide training and internships.

    Anyone with a four-year degree can gain employment as an English teacher in Thailand, and even those without a degree can usually find work under the table. Normal starting salary is approximately 30,000 baht per month and this goes up and down slightly depending upon location (higher in Bangkok, lower in some up-country towns).

    One way to start working as a teacher is to gain a TESOL/TEFL Certificate. One of the largest TESOL schools in the world is head quartered in the small village of Ban Phe, Rayong. Other provinces in Thailand offer TEFL/TESOL Certification Courses. In Northern Thailand, Chiang Mai University [2] has a comprehensive teacher training program located on its main campus.

    Finding any other kind of work in Thailand can be difficult, as wages are poor and a large number of occupations are legally off limits to non-Thais. Thai law requires that a foreigner earn quite a high wage to be eligible for a work permit. Companies and schools may assist employees to obtain visas and work permits, but some schools avoid the extra work involved.

    Volunteering is a great way to meet locals and experience the culture and traditions of Thailand. There are many worldwide organizations that offer volunteer work on such projects as community development, conservation, wildlife sanctuary maintenance & development, scientific research, & education programs. And they won't ask you for money! Here are three of them:

    • Child's Dream Foundation238/3 Wualai Rd, Haiya, Muang, Chiang Mai 50100 , e-mail: . Founded by two Swiss financiers with good hearts, Child's Dream places volunteers in schools in Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia in addition to other good works. They are highly regarded for their ethics and efficiency. Does not charge volunteers.
    • Foundation for Education and Development (formerly known as Grassroots Human Rights and Development), Moo 4 Khuk Khak, Takua Pa, Phang Nga 82120 (at km790 on Hwy 4 in Khuk Khak (Khao Lak)),  . A joint Burmese-Thai NGO committed to assisting Burmese migrant workers in Phang Nga Province, just north of Ko Phuket in the region better known as Khao Lak. FED runs schools, health clinics, women's empowerment programs, and provides legal assistance to political and economic refugees. The organisation runs on a shoe-string and depends on the commitment of paid staff and volunteers. Does not charge volunteers.
    • Isara Foundation897/1 Mee Chai Rd, Amphur Muang, Nong Khai 43000 . Provides help directly to those who are in need. Isara projects focus on the improvement of education (free Learning Centre, government school volunteer teachers, and scholarships), health and safety (helmet campaign), and the environment (Recycling Centre and trash clean-up campaigns). Do not charge you for volunteering.

    IMPORTANT: Volunteering is defined as a form of employment by the Thai authorities. Foreigners must obtain a work permit even to volunteer for small projects. This is easier to obtain than a normal work permit, and can be issued even for one or two days. Tourists are advised to take these rules seriously. Thai jails are not comfortable; if you are arrested on a Friday you may not be able to contact anyone before Monday.

    Eat

    Thai-style seafood curry

    The food alone is really reason enough for a trip to Thailand. Curries, fruit shakes, stir fries, fresh fish made a zillion ways - and that's just the beginning. Food in Thailand can be as cheap and easy as 25 baht pad Thai (ผัดไทย, Thai fried noodles) cooked at a street stall or as expensive and complicated as a USD100 ten-course meal by a royal chef served in one of Bangkok's luxury hotels.

    Since most backpackers will be sticking closer to the first than the second, one of the great things about Thailand is that food from stalls and tiny sidewalk restaurants is usually quite safe. Unlike some Asian countries, travellers should worry more about overeating or too much curry spice than about unclean kitchens and bad food. In fact, street restaurants, where you can see what you'll get and everything is cooked on the spot can be a safe option.

    Etiquette

    Thai food is most commonly eaten with fork and spoon. Hold the spoon in your right hand and use it to eat, and reserve the fork for piling food onto your spoon. Chopsticks are only employed for noodle soups and East Asian-style dishes. Eat sticky rice with your right hand.

    Thai food is meant for sharing. Everybody gets their own plate of rice and tiny soup bowl, but all the other dishes are laid out in the centre of the table and you're free to eat what you wish. Though some people believe that taking the last piece from a shared plate is considered slightly unlucky, and you may hear people make wishes for others to compensate for their own misfortune. A popular wish is that "may my girlfriend/boyfriend be good-looking!"

    Food is also generally brought out a dish at a time as it is prepared. It is not expected of diners to wait until all meals are brought out before they start eating as is polite in Western culture. Instead they should tuck into the nearest dish as it arrives.

    Thai cuisine

    Thai cuisine is characterized by balance and strong flavours, especially lime juice, lemon grass and fresh coriander, the combination of which gives Thai food its distinctive taste. In addition, Thai food has a deserved reputation for being spicy, with hot little torpedo-shaped chillies called phrik khii nuu (พริกขี้หนู, lit. "mouse shit chillies") making their way into many a dish. Thais are well aware that these can be more than Westerners can handle and will often ask if you like it hot (เผ็ด phet). Answer "yes" at your own risk!

    Thai dishes can be roughly categorized into central Thai food (around Bangkok), northern Thai food (from the northern region around Chiang Mai, with Burmese and Chinese influence), northeastern Thai food (from the Isaan region bordering with Laos) and southern Thai food (with heavy influences from Malaysia). The following list covers some better-known dishes. See Isaan for Isaan food, which is widely available throughout the country.

    Rice

    The Thai staple food is rice (ข้าว khao), so much so that in Thai eating a meal, gin khao, literally means "eat rice".

    • Khao suai (ข้าวสวย) or "beautiful rice" is the plain white steamed rice that serves as the base of almost every meal.
    • Khao pat (ข้าวผัด) is simple fried rice, usually with some crab (pu), pork (muu) or chicken (kai) mixed in, and flavoured with fish sauce.
    • Khao tom (ข้าวต้ม) is a salty and watery rice porridge served with condiments, quite popular at breakfast.
    • Khao niao (ข้าวเหนียว) or "sticky rice" is glutinous rice - usually eaten dry, traditionally by hand, with grilled/fried pork or chicken or beef. It is especially popular (more than plain rice) in northeastern (Isaan) and northern provinces, but is widely available throughout the country, especially in places specializing on Isaan or Lao cuisine.

    Noodles

    Kuay tiao phat sii-u kai, or fried giant rice noodles with soy sauce and chicken

    Thais are great noodle eaters. The most common kind is rice noodles, served angel-hair (เส้นหมี่ sen mii), small (เส้นเล็ก sen lek), large (เส้นใหญ่ sen yai) and giant (ก๋วยเตี๋ยว kuay tiao), but egg noodles (บะหมี่ ba mii), Chinese-style stuffed wonton ravioli (เกี๊ยว kio) and glass noodles made from mung beans (วุ้นเส้น wun sen) are also popular.

    Unlike other Thai foods, noodles are usually eaten with chopsticks. They are also usually served with a rack of four condiments, namely dried red chillies, fish sauce, vinegar, and sugar which diners can add to their own taste.

    • Pad Thai (ผัดไทย), literally "fried Thai", means thin rice noodles fried in a tamarind-based sauce. Ubiquitous, cheap and often excellent. As an added bonus, it's usually chili-free (you can add yourself, however, or ask to do so if buying of the street, but be warned, it is often really hot).
    • Ba mii muu daeng (บะหมี่หมูเเดง) is egg noodles with slices of Chinese-style barbecued pork.
    • Kuai tiao ruea (ก๋วยเตี๋ยวเรือ) is a rice noodle soup with a fiery pork blood stock and an assortment of offal. An acquired taste, but an addictive one.

    Soups and curries

    The line between soups (ต้ม tom, literally just "boiled") and curries (แกง kaeng) is a little fuzzy, and many dishes the Thais call curries would be soups to an Indian. A plate of rice with a ladle-full of a curry or two on top, known as khao kaeng (ข้าวแกง), is a very popular quick meal if eating alone.

    • Tom yam kung (ต้มยำกุ้ง) is the quintessential Thai dish, a sour soup with prawns, lemon grass and galangal. The real thing is quite spicy, but toned-down versions are often available on request.
    • Tom kha kai (ต้มข่าไก่) is the Thai version of chicken soup in a rich galangal-flavored coconut stock, with mushrooms and not a few chillies.
    • Kaeng daeng (แกงเเดง, "red curry") and kaeng phet (แกงเผ็ด, "hot curry") are the same dish and, as you might guess, this coconut-based dish can be spicy. Red curry with roast duck (kaeng phet pet yaang แกงเผ็ดเป็ดย่าง) is particularly popular.
    • Kaeng khio-waan (แกงเขียวหวาน), sweet green curry, is a coconut-based curry with strong accents of lemongrass and kaffir lime. Usually milder than the red variety.
    • Kaeng som (แกงส้ม), orange curry, is more like tamarind soup than curry, usually served with pieces of herb omelette in the soup.

    Mains

    Thais like their mains fried (ทอด thot or ผัด phat) or grilled (yaang ย่าง). Fish, in particular, is often deep-fried until the meat turns brown and crispy.

    • Ka-phrao kai (กะเพราไก่), literally "basil chicken" is a simple but intensely fragrant stir-fry made from peppery holy basil leaves, chillies and chicken.

    Salads

    A classic Isaan meal: som tam papaya salad, larb meat salad and sticky rice

    About the only thing Thai salads (ยำ yam) have in common with the Western variety is that they are both based on raw vegetables. A uniquely Thai flavour is achieved by drowning the ingredients in fish sauce, lime juice and chillies. The end result can be very spicy indeed!

    • Som tam (ส้มตำ), a salad made from shredded and pounded raw papaya is often considered a classic Thai dish, but it actually originates from neighboring Laos. However, the Thai version is less sour and more sweet than the original, with peanuts and dried shrimp mixed in.
    • Yam pon la mai (ยำผลไม้) is Thai-style fruit salad, meaning that instead of canned maraschino cherries it has fresh fruit topped with oodles of fish sauce and chillies.
    • Yam som-o (ยำส้มโอ) is an unusual salad made from pomelo (a mutant version of grapefruit) and anything else on hand, often including chicken or dried shrimp.
    • Yam wunsen (ยำวุ้นเส้น) is perhaps the most common yam, with glass noodles and shrimp.

    Dessert

    Thais don't usually eat "dessert" in the Western after-meal sense, although you may get a few slices of fresh fruit (ผลไม้ pon la mai) for free at fancier places, but they certainly have a finely honed sweet tooth.

    • Khanom (ขนม) covers a vast range of cookies, biscuits, chips and anything else snackable, and piles of the stuff can be found in any Thai office after lunch. One common variety called khanom khrok (ขนมครก) is worth a special mention: these are little lens-shaped pancakes of rice and coconut, freshly cooked and served by street vendors everywhere.
    • Khao niao ma-muang (ข้าวเหนียวมะม่วง) means "sticky rice with mango", and that's what you get, with some coconut milk drizzled on top. Filling and delicious and an excellent way to cool the palate after a spicey Thai dish! Alternatively, for the more adventurous type, an equally popular dish is Khao nio tu-rean in which you get durian instead of mango with your sticky rice.
    • Waan yen (หวานเย็น), literally "sweet cold", consists of a pile of ingredients of your choice (including things like sweet corn and kidney beans) topped with syrup, coconut cream and a pile of ice, and is great for cooling down on a hot day or after a searing curry.

    Vegetarian food

    Vegetarians won't have too many problems surviving in Thailand, with one significant exception: fish sauce (น้ำปลา naam plaa) is to Thai cuisine what soy sauce is to Chinese food, and keeping it out of soups, curries and stir-fries will be a challenge.

    That said, Thailand is a Buddhist country and vegetarianism is a fairly well-understood concept, especially among Chinese Thais (many of whom eat only vegetarian food during several festivals). Tofu is a traditional Thai ingredient and they aren't afraid to mix it up in some non-traditional dishes such as omelettes (with or without eggs), submarine sandwiches, and burritos. Since Thai dishes are usually made to order, it's easy to ask for anything on the menu to be made without meat or fish. Bangkok features several fantastic veggie and vegan restaurants, but outside of big cities make sure to check that your idea of "veggie" matches the chef's.

    Some key phrases for vegetarians:

    • phom kin je (m) / di-chan kin je (f) ผม(ดิฉัน)กินเจ "I eat only vegetarian food"
    • karunaa mai sai naam plaa กรุณาไม่ใส่น้ำปลา "Please don't use fish sauce"

    Restaurant chains

    Thailand has a large number of indigenous restaurant chains offering much the same fare as your average street stall, but with the added advantages of air conditioning, printed menus (often in English), clean storefront. All the chains are heavily concentrated in Bangkok, but larger cities and popular tourist spots may have an outlet or two.

    • Coca and MK. Near-ubiquitous chains specializing in what the Thais call suki, perhaps better known as "hotpot" or "steamboat". A cauldron boils in the middle of your table, you buy ingredients (10-30 baht a pop) and brew your own soup. The longer you spend, the better it tastes, and the bigger the group you're with, the more fun this is!
    • Fuji. And Zen specialize in surprisingly passable Japanese food at very cheap prices (at least compared to Japanese restaurants almost anywhere else). Rice/noodle mains are less than 100 baht, and you can stuff yourself full of sushi for less than 500 baht.
    • Kuaytiew Ruea Siam (Signs in Thai; look for the boat-shaped decor and hungry red pig logo). Dirt-cheap noodles with prices starting at 25 baht. Portions aren't too generous, but at that price you can get two! No concessions to English speakers in menu or taste, so point and choose from the pictures and watch out for the spicier soups.
    • S&P. Outlets are a bakery, a café and a restaurant all rolled into one, but their menu's a lot larger than you'd expect: it has all the Thai mainstays you can think of and then some, and most all of it is good. Portions are generally rather small, with prices mostly in the 50-100 baht range.
    • Yum Saap (Signs in Thai; look for the big yellow smiley logo). Known for their Thai-style salads (yam), but they offer all the usual as well. Quite cheap with mains around 50 baht.

    And yes, you can find the usual McDonalds, KFC, Pizza Hut, Komalas etc. if you insist. If you do end up at McDs, at least try the un-Maclike fried chicken with McSomTam (green papaya salad). For those craving American-style pizza, try the ubiquitous The Pizza Company, which is a less expensive and (arguably) tastier local chain.

    Drink

    Tap water is usually not drinkable in Thailand outside of Bangkok. In many places in Bangkok however, particularly in new buildings, drinking tap water is perfectly safe. However, if you don't want to chance it, buying a bottle of water is the obvious solution. Bottled water (น้ำเปล่า naam plao) is cheap and ubiquitous at 5-20 baht a bottle depending on its size and brand, and drinking water served in restaurants is always at least boiled (น้ำต้ม naam tom). Ice (น้ำแข็ง naam khaeng) in Thailand usually comes packaged straight from the factory and is safe; there is only reason to worry if you are served hand-cut ice. You can buy a large package of ice in most 7-Elevens for 7 baht, too.

    Mainly in residential areas, machines selling water into your own bottle (1 baht/L, or 50 satang (0.5 baht/L) if paid more than 5 baht) are often available, located in some (Thai mostly) hotels, local shops, or just on the street near one. This is a clean (the water is cleaned and UV-treated on the spot) and extremely cheap option, also, this way you'll avoid making unnecessary plastic waste from empty bottles.

    Iced drinks

    Coconut water (น้ำมะพร้าว naam ma-phrao), iced and drunk directly from a fresh coconut is a cheap and healthy way to cool the body. Available at restaurants and also from fruit juice vendors.

    Fruit juices, freezes and milkshakes of all kinds are very popular with Thais and visitors alike. Most cafés and restaurants charge 20-40 baht, but a bottle of freshly squeezed Thai sweet orange juice (น้ำส้ม naam som) - which really is orange in colour! - can be sold on the street for 15-30 baht. Thais often add salt to their fruit juices-- an acquired taste that you might just learn to like. Thais also like to have basil seeds in their iced fruit juice sold on the road. They look like small jelly balls down in the bottle.

    Tea and coffee

    Thai iced tea

    One of Thailand's most characteristic drinks is Thai iced tea (ชาเย็น chaa yen, lit. "cold tea"). Instantly identifiable thanks to its lurid orange colour, this is the side effect of adding ground tamarind seed (or, these days, artificial colour) during the curing process. The iced tea is always very strong and very sweet, and usually served with a dash of condensed milk; ask for chaa dam yen to skip the milk.

    Naam chaa and chaa jiin are weak and full-strength Chinese tea, often served in restaurants for free. Western-style black tea is chaa ron (ชาร้อน). Coffee (กาแฟ kaafae) is also widely available, and is usually served with condensed milk and lots of sugar. Ask for kaafae thung to get traditional filtered "bag" coffee instead of instant.

    Starbucks is present in Thailand, but for the moment local competitors Black Canyon Coffee and S&P still have the edge in market share. These are the places to look for if you want that triple-mocha latte with hazelnut swirl and are willing to pay 75 baht for the privilege.

    • Black Canyon Coffee. Is Thailand's home-brewed Starbucks, but while coffee is their mainstay they also offer a limited meal menu. Try the chaa yen (lurid orange Thai iced tea with milk).

    Energy drinks

    Thailand is the original home of the Red Bull brand energy drink - a licensed and re-branded version of Thailand's original Krathing Daeng (กระทิงแดง, "Red Bull"), complete with the familiar logo of two bulls charging at each other.

    The Thai version, however, is syrupy sweet, uncarbonated and comes packaged in medicinal-looking brown glass bottles, as the target customers are not trendy clubbers, but Thailand's working class of construction workers and bus drivers in need of a pick-me-up. And a pick-me-up it most certainly is; the caffeine content is higher even than Western-style Red Bull, and packs a punch equivalent to two or three shots of espresso coffee. Krathing Daeng and its many competitors (including M150, Shark, .357 and the inevitable Karabao Daeng, "Red Buffalo") are available in any convenience store for 10 baht a pop, although in some places you can now buy imported Red Bull for five times the price.

    Alcohol

    Mae Khong Thai whisky

    Drinking alcohol in Thailand, especially if you like Western tipples, is actually comparatively expensive, but still very affordable by Western standards.

    Retail sales of alcohol in supermarkets and multi-national convenience stores, are limited to between 11:00-14:00 and 17:00-24:00. Restaurants and bars are not affected, and smaller, non-chain stores rarely observe this rule. 7-Eleven is a stickler for following this rule. However, in certain circumstances these rules are relaxed for alcohol purchases above a particular quantity. For example, if you try to purchase 5 litres of wine during the restricted period, it will not be allowed. However, if you were to purchase, say 10 litres of wine, in the same period then this might be permitted. Convenience stores at gas stations are not permitted to sell alcohol at any time.

    There are also occasional days throughout the year when alcohol can't be sold anywhere, even the small mom & pop shops normally adhere to the rules on these days, and most bars and pubs do too (although you can probably find a beer somewhere if you're desperate enough). Upmarket hotel bars and restaurants are probably the only places that are realistically likely to be exempt. Religious holidays and elections are normally the reason for these restrictions.

    Beer

    Western-style beer (เบียร์ bia) is a bit of an upmarket drink in Thailand, with the price of a small bottle hovering between 40 and 100 baht in most pubs, bars and restaurants. Thais like their lagers with relatively high alcohol content (around 6%), as it is designed to be drunk with ice, so the beer in Thailand may pack more of a punch than you are used to. However, if you are an experienced drinker from Western Europe, namely Belgium or Germany, you will find it familiar.

    • Local brews: For many years the only locally brewed beer was Singha (pronounced just Sing) but it has lost market to cheaper and stronger Chang. Both are pretty strong (Chang especially, being 6%, and Singha 5%), but for those who prefer something a bit lighter, both local brands have introduced low-alcohol versions of their beers. Singha Light comes in at 3.5%, Chang Draught is 5% and Chang Light is 4.2%. Both are strong in alcohol percentage, gives a little spicy taste (for Europeans, you can compare them to Leffe or Duvel) rather than blended smoothness of German beers (Erdinger or Paulaner). There are also some cheaper local beers - Leo (very popular among locals and expats, with price 10-20% cheaper than Singha) and Archa (cheapest, but the taste is not as nice, it's not sold in the bars often, but is available in almost any 7-Eleven) being among the most popular.
    • Premium brands: The two most popular premium brands are Heineken and Tiger, but San Miguel, Federbrau and other Asian beers such as the Japanese Asahi are also fairly commonplace. The premium beers tend to be a bit weaker than the full-strength local beers, and are about 10-20% more expensive.
    • Imported beers: Most upmarket pubs in touristy areas will have at least a couple of imported beers available along with the usual local brands, either on draught, in bottles or both. Belgian and German beers can often be found, as well as Irish stouts and ales such as Guinness, British bitters such as John Smiths and the light Mexican beer Corona is gaining in popularity. Regional favourite Beerlao has also started to make an appearance in bars and pubs around the country. All imported beers (with the exception of Beerlao) are very expensive though, being about twice the price of locally sourced beers.
    • Other non-beers: The usual range of "alcopops" is available in Thailand, with Bacardi Breezer enjoying the lion's share of the market. Spy wine cooler (of about 10 varieties) is also popular. Cider is harder to find, although some pubs have started to stock Magners and Bulmers.

    Imported drinks

    Imported liquors, wines and beers are widely available but prohibitively priced for the average Thai. A shot of any brand-name liquor is at least 100 baht, a pint of Guinness will set you back at least 200 baht and, thanks to an inexplicable 340% tax, even the cheapest bottle of wine will set you back over 500 baht. Note that, in cheaper bars (especially the go-go kind), the content of that familiar bottle of Jack Daniels may be something entirely different.

    Rice wine

    Thai rice wine (สาโท sato) is actually a beer brewed from glutinous rice, and thus a spiritual cousin of Japanese sake. While traditionally associated with Isaan, it's now sold nationwide under the brand Siam Sato, available in any 7-Eleven at 25 baht for a 0.65L bottle. At 8% alcohol, it's cheap and potent, but you may regret it the next morning! The original style of brewing and serving sato is in earthenware jars called hai, hence the drink's other name lao hai (เหล้าไห). These are served by breaking the seal on the jar, adding water, and drinking immediately with either glasses or, traditionally, with a straw directly from the pot.

    Whisky

    The misnamed Thai whisky (lao) refers to a number of liquors. The best known are the infamous Mae Khong (แม่โขง "Mekong") brand and its competitor, the sweeter Saeng Som ("Sangsom"), which are both brewed primarily from sugarcane and thus technically rum. Indeed, the only resemblances to whisky are the brown color and high alcohol content, and indeed many people liken the smell to nail polish remover, but the taste is not quite as bad, especially when diluted with cola or tonic water. This is also by far the cheapest way to get blotto, as a pocket flask of the stuff (available in any convenience store or supermarket) costs only around 50 baht.

    The "real" Thai whisky is lao khao (เหล้าขาว "white liquor"), which is distilled from rice. While commercial versions are available, it's mostly distilled at home as moonshine, in which case it also goes by the name lao theuan ("jungle liquor"). White liquor with herbs added for flavor and medical effect is called ya dong (ยาดอง). Strictly speaking, both are is illegal, but nobody seems to mind very much, especially when hill tribe trekking in the North you're likely to be invited to sample some, and it's polite to at least take a sip.

    Sleep

    Caution NOTE: In 2012 two Quebec sisters died mysteriously while staying at a lodging on Phi Phi Island. In 2009, a Norwegian woman and a US woman in adjacent rooms at a Phi Phi guesthouse died. Four others died about the same time while staying at a Chiang Mai lodging. Why? Suspicions now are that all may have been poisoned by outgassing from aluminum phosphide (AlP) pellets used to kill bedbugs. The use of aluminum phosphide is illegal in Thailand, but is available on the market. About all you can do to protect yourself is to quiz hotel management about their pesticide use policy. Check the room before committing to a stay. If you see (AlP is a grey-green-yellow powder) or smell anything that hints at the use of pesticides, stay elsewhere.

    Thailand has accommodation in every price bracket. Always take a look at the room (or better still several rooms, sometimes owners offer not the best/cheaper rooms first) before agreeing a price. In smaller establishments also do ask for the agreed price in writing to avoid problems during check out.

    The best prices (30-50% off rack rates) for accommodation can be found during Thailand's low season, which is during May-Aug, which not surprisingly also coincides with the region's monsoon season. The peak season is during Dec-Feb.

    The prices listed are average for the country, and vary depending on the region and season. Smaller provincial towns will not have fancy hotels or resorts, while on popular island beaches it may be hard to find something cheaper than 300-400 baht even during the low season.

    Homestays are common in rural areas. Typically, what this means is that you will be staying at your host's home, or on the host's property in something less than a commercial lodging. Usually, meals are included.

    Guesthouses are usually the cheapest option, basic ones cost 100-200 baht per room per night (100 or less for a dorm bed). This gets you a room with a fan, a squat toilet (often shared), shower (shared or private), and not much else. Better guesthouses, especially in towns with significant amount of foreign guests, have more amenities (European-style toilet, 24 hour hot shower, bigger room or even a balcony, free Wi-Fi, sometimes TV, everyday room service, fridge), with prices, subsequently, in the range of 200-500 baht. This makes them close to Thai hotels. The difference is they're more oriented to a Western clientèle, and as such, often offer various tours (sometimes overpriced), computers, and/or in-room Internet access, or even have a ground floor restaurant.

    If you're satisfied with the guesthouse of your choice and plan to stay there for more than several days (especially during the low season or in the places with abundant accommodation options such as Chiang Mai), ask for a discount; this may not be offered everywhere, but if it is, the weekly rate may be 25% less or so, and for monthly rates it's not uncommon to be half as much. Normally, you'll have to pay for the entire period asked, but note that if something changes and you have to check out early refunds are not customary in Thailand. As such, if an early departure is possible (but unlikely enough to pay a week/month in advance), you should discuss this option with the owner/manager beforehand.

    Hostels are not typical in Thailand. The reason is obvious: given the abundance of budget accommodation and that hostels are unfamiliar to Thais and, as such, purely Westerner-oriented, the price for a private room in a guesthouse will be almost the same, or even cheaper, than for a dorm bed in a hostel. You may get a bit more Westernised and hotel-like interiors, but at the cost of privacy. If you do insist on staying in a hostel, you can find some in the big cities by checking the web. Don't expect to find them just by walking by the streets, though.

    Thai hotels start around 200 baht and go up to around 800 baht. The upper-end of this range will be air-conditioned, the lower end will not. The primary difference is that with a hotel room, your bathroom should be private, bed linen, and towels will be provided, and there may be a hot shower. The guests are mostly Thais. TVs are available except at the lower end; Internet access, though, is less likely to be present than in guesthouses; and is even less likely to be free or in-room.

    Tourist hotels are generally around 1,000 baht and offer the basics for a beach vacation: swimming pool, room service, and colour TV.

    Boutique hotels, 2,000 baht and up, have mushroomed during the past few years, they provide a limited number of rooms (10 or fewer) and more personalized service. While these can be excellent, quality varies widely, so research is essential.

    Business and luxury hotels, 4,000 baht and up, offer every modern amenity you can think of and are largely indistinguishable from hotels anywhere else in the world. Some, notably Bangkok's The Oriental, The Sukhothai and The Peninsula are among the world's best hotels. The most luxurious resorts also fall in this price category, with some of the very best and most private adding a few zeros to the price.

    The Iron Rules of Thai Innkeeping

    Sometimes seems as if Thai hoteliers at budget and mid-range establishments are required to follow specific rules for their guest rooms. Some of the more rigidly observed are: 1. Bathroom towel racks/hooks. If they are offered at all, you can be sure that you will invariably have one fewer than the number of towels you are issued. 2. Lighting. Innkeepers must pledge to never provide lighting at the bathroom mirror to help shavers or those applying make-up. This extends to bedside lighting as well. 3. Electrical outlets. These, if present, must be placed in the most illogical locations. Extra credit is earned by the establishment if the outlets lack a grounded, 3-prong socket.

    Stay safe

    The number one cause of death for visitors to Thailand is motorbike accidents, especially on the often narrow, mountainous and twisty roads of Phuket and Samui. Drive defensively, wear a helmet, don't drink and avoid travel at night.

    Political unrest

    Long-simmering tension between pro- and anti-government groups came to head in 2008, with the anti-government People's Alliance for Democracy (PAD) first blockading several airports in the South for a few days in summer and in November taking over both of Bangkok's airports for a week, causing immense disruption to tourism and the Thai economy. However, while several protesters were killed or injured in scuffles, by and large the protests were peaceful and no tourists were harmed.

    Following the resignation of the prime minister in December 2008, things have gone back to normal for the time being, but the situation remains unstable. Keep an eye on the news and try to keep your plans flexible. Avoid demonstrations and other political gatherings.

    Do not under any circumstances say anything negative about the Thai royal family. This will usually land you in prison and your embassy/consulate will have little consular assistance (power) in getting you out.

    Bad news again in May 2010 when Red Shirt demonstrators occupied a large area of Bangkok, which was not dispersed for 2 months. This resulted in much violence, arson, etc., and some deaths. This problem is still simmering and although it poses no real threat to tourists it should always be borne in mind that things could easily flare up again.

    Thailand's military seized control of government in May 2014, making it the country's 12th successful coup since 1932. Despite sensationalist headlines warning of the dangers of Thailand, travellers using common sense and avoiding potentially risky areas or situations should enjoy a trouble-free holiday.

    Corruption

    While not as bad as in neighbouring Myanmar, Laos or Cambodia, corruption is unfortunately still fairly common in Thailand relative to Western countries or Malaysia. Traffic police in Thailand often request bribes on the order of 200 baht or so from tourists who are stopped for seemingly minor traffic infringements. Immigration officers at land border crossings often ask for a bribe of about 20 baht per person before they stamp your passport, though those at airports generally do not ask for bribes.

    Scams

    Thailand has more than its fair share of scams, but most are easily avoided with some common sense.

    More a nuisance than a danger, a common scam by touts, taxi drivers and tuk-tuk drivers in Thailand is to wait by important monuments and temples and waylay Western travellers, telling them that the site is closed for a "Buddhist holiday", "repairs" or a similar reason. The "helpful" driver will then offer to take the traveller to another site, such as a market or store. Travellers who accept these offers will often end up at out-of-the-way markets with outrageous prices - and no way to get back to the centre of town where they came from. Always check at the front gate of the site you're visiting to make sure it's really closed.

    Some tuk-tuk drivers might demand much higher price than agreed, or they might take you to a sex show, pretending they didn't understand the address (they get commissions from sex shows). For the same reason, avoid drivers who propose their services without being asked, especially near major tourist attractions.

    Don't buy any sightseeing tours at the airport. If you do, they will phone several times to your hotel to remind you about the tour. During the tour, you will be shortly taken to a small temple, without a guide, and then one shop after another (they get commissions). They might refuse to take you back home until you see all the shops. On your way back, they pressure you to buy more tours.

    Easily identified with practice, it is not uncommon in tourist areas to be approached by a clean cut, well dressed man who will often be toting a cellphone. These scammers will start up polite conversation, showing interest in the unsuspecting tourist's background, family, or itinerary. Inevitably, the conversation will drift to the meat of the scam. This may be something as innocuous as over-priced tickets to a kantoke meal and show, or as serious as a gambling scam or (particularly in Bangkok) the infamous gem scam. Once identified, the wary traveller should have no trouble picking out these scammers from a crowd. The tell-tale well-pressed slacks and button-down shirt, freshly cut hair in a conservative style, and late-model cellphone comprise their uniform. Milling around tourist areas without any clear purpose for doing so, the careful traveller should have no difficulty detecting and avoiding these scammers.

    Many visitors will encounter young Thai ladies armed with a clipboard and a smile enquiring as to their nationality, often with an aside along the lines of "please help me to earn 30 baht". The suggestion is that the visitor completes a tourism questionnaire (which includes supplying their hotel name and room number) with the incentive that they just might win a prize - the reality is that everyone gets a call to say that they are a "winner"; however, the prize can only be collected by attending an arduous time-share presentation. Note that the lady with the clipboard doesn't get her 30 baht if you don't attend the presentation; also that only English-speaking nationalities are targeted.

    A more recent serious scam involves being accused of shoplifting in the duty free shops in the Bangkok airport. This may involve accidentally straying across ill defined boundaries between shops with merchandise in hand, or being given a "free gift". Always get a receipt. Those accused are threatened with long prison sentences, then given the opportunity to pay USD10,000 or more as "bail" to make the problem disappear and to be allowed to leave Thailand. If you end up in this pickle, contact your embassy and use their lawyer or translator, not the "helpful" guy hanging around.

    Fake monks

    Theravada Buddhism is an integral part of Thai culture, and it is customary for Buddhist monks to roam the streets collecting alms in the morning. Unfortunately, the presence of foreign tourists unaware of local Buddhist customs has led to some imposters preying on unsuspecting visitors. Note that genuine monks only go on alms rounds in the morning, as they are not allowed to eat after noon, and are also not allowed to accept or touch money. Alms bowls are solely for the purpose of collecting food. If you see a "monk" soliciting monetary donations, or with money in his alms bowl, he is fake.

    Robbery on overnight buses

    Thailand is quite safe for tourists. However, there have been some reports about people getting drugged and robbed while traveling on overnight buses. To avoid this, steer away from cheapish and non-government buses, make sure you have all your money stored safely in a money belt or another hard-to-reach place and always check your money balance before getting off. Warning your travel companions about this danger is also advised. In case this happens, firmly refuse to get off the bus, tell the rest of the people about the situation and immediately call the police. It may not be possible to stay on the bus, as your refusal may prompt the staff to unload your hold luggage onto the street and then continue to drive the bus without your luggage, forcing you to disembark or lose it.

    Prostitution

    Thailand's age of consent is 15 but a higher minimum age of 18 applies in the case of prostitutes. Thai penalties for sex with minors are harsh, and even if your partner is over the age of consent in Thailand, tourists who have sex with minors may be prosecuted by their home country. As far as ascertaining the age of your partner goes, all adult Thais must carry an identity card, which will state that they were born in 2538 or earlier if they were over the age of 18 on 1 Jan 2013 (in the Thai calendar, 2013 is the year 2556).

    Some prostitutes are "freelancers", but most are employed by bars or similar businesses and if hiring a prostitute from a bar or similar business, you will have to pay a fee for the establishment called a "bar fine", usually 300-500 baht. This entitles you to take them out of their place of employment. It does not pay for additional services. That is contracted separately.

    Bar girls, go-go girls and freelancers are all professionals, who are far more likely to be interested in money you can give them than in any continuing relationship for its own sake. Cases of visitors falling desperately in love and then being milked out of all they are worth abound. Thailand has a high rate of STD infection, including HIV/AIDS, both among the general population and among prostitutes. Condoms can be bought easily in Thailand in all convenience shops and pharmacies but may not be as safe as Western ones.

    Technically, some aspects of prostitution in Thailand are illegal (e.g., soliciting, pimping), but enforcement is liberal and brothels are commonplace. It's not illegal to pay for sex due to the "Special Services" exemption in Thai law or to pay a "bar fine".

    Drugs

    Thailand has extremely strict drug laws and your foreign passport is not enough to get you out of legal hot water. Possession and trafficking offenses that would merit traffic-ticket misdemeanors in other countries can result in life imprisonment or even death in Thailand. Police frequently raid nightclubs, particularly in Bangkok, with urine tests and full body searches on all patrons. Ko Pha Ngan's notoriously drug-fueled Full Moon Parties also often draw police attention.

    Possession of cannabis (กัญชา ganchaa), while illegal, is treated less harshly and, if busted, you may be able to pay an "on the spot fine" to get out, although even this can set you back tens of thousands of baht. It's highly unwise to rely on this. While some police will accept payments on the spot for violating drug laws, others will strictly follow the harsh drug laws to the letter.

    Penalties for drug possession in Thailand vary in harshness depending on the following: category of drug, amount of drug, and intent of the possessor. If you do take the risk and get arrested on drug-related charges, you would do well to immediately contact your embassy as a first step. The embassy usually cannot get you out of jail but can alert your home country of your arrest and can often put you in contact with a lawyer in Thailand. The availability of drugs in Thailand can mislead tourists into making light of the penalties for possessing or selling drugs, but that is unwise.

    Civil conflict

    In 2004, long-simmering resentment in the southern-most Muslim-majority provinces burst into violence in Narathiwat, Pattani and Yala provinces. All are off the beaten tourist trail, although the eastern rail line from Hat Yai to Sungai Kolok (gateway to Malaysia's east coast) passes through the area and has been disrupted several times by attacks.

    Hat Yai (Thailand's largest city after Bangkok and its Nonthaburi suburbs) in Songkhla has also been hit by a series of related bombings; however, the main cross-border rail line connecting Hat Yai and Butterworth (on the west coast) has not been affected, and none of the islands or the west coast beaches have been targeted.

    In September 2006, three foreigners were killed in bombings in Hat Yai. Some rebel groups have threatened foreigners, but while targets have included hotels, karaoke lounges and shopping malls, Westerners have not been singled out for attacks. There are Islamist and jihadist groups in south Thailand, such as Jemaah Islamiyah.

    Passport

    Make a photocopy of your passport and the page with your visa stamp. Always keep your passport or the photocopy with you (the law requires that you carry your actual passport at all times, but in practice a photocopy will usually suffice). Many night clubs insist on a passport (and ONLY a passport) as proof of age. It is not required that you leave your passport with a hotel when you check in.

    Security

    Carrying your own padlock is a good idea, as budget rooms sometimes use them instead of (or as well as) normal door locks; carry a spare key someplace safe, like your money belt, otherwise considerable expense as well as inconvenience may result should you lose the original. Also consider some type of cable to lock your bag to something too big to fit through the door or window.

    Wildlife

    Thailand has a few dangerous animals. The most common menace is stray dogs which frequent even the streets of Bangkok. The vast majority of which are passive and harmless, but a few of which may carry rabies, so steer clear of them and do not, by any means, feed or pet them. If they try to attack you, don't run as this will encourage them to chase you as if you were prey. Instead, try to walk away slowly.

    Monkeys may be cute and friendly, but in any area where unaware tourists have corrupted them, they expect to get food from humans. They can be very sneaky thieves, and they can bite. As with dogs, you won't want to get bitten, whether or not they have rabies. Most urban areas do not have "stray" monkeys, but Lopburi is famous for them.

    Poisonous cobras can be found throughout Thailand, hiding in tall brush or along streams. You're unlikely to ever see one, as they shy away from humans, but they may bite if surprised or provoked. The Siamese crocodile, on the other hand, is nearly extinct and found only in a few remote national parks. Monitor lizards are common in jungles, but despite their scary reptilian appearance they're harmless.

    Racial issues

    Thais are normally very tolerant of people and tourists, regardless of skin colour, are very unlikely to encounter aggressive racial abuse. However some visitors may notice their ethnicity attracting some innocent attention. Usually these situations are limited to stares or unwanted attention in shops. Most Thais are often curious to find out the nationality of the black travellers they meet. Apart from this curiosity displayed by Thais, most travellers from more diverse backgrounds will enjoy their time in the country and will find it easy to strike up a rapport with Thais, who are often a bit weary of the younger Caucasian backpackers who treat the country as nothing but a big drinking holiday.

    Fights

    Do not get into fights with Thais. Foreigners will eventually be outnumbered 15 to 1 (even against Thai people not initially involved) and weapons (metals, sharp objects, beer bottles, martial arts) are usually involved. Trying to break up someone else's fight is a bad idea, and your intention to help may get you hurt.

    Stay healthy

    Being a tropical country, Thailand has its fair share of exotic tropical diseases. Malaria is generally not a problem in any of the major tourist destinations, but is endemic in rural areas along the borders with Cambodia (including Ko Chang in Trat Province), Laos, and Myanmar. As is the case throughout Southeast Asia, dengue fever can be encountered just about anywhere, including the most modern cities. The only prevention is avoiding mosquito bites. Wear long pants and long sleeves at dusk in mosquito areas and use repellent (available at any corner shop or pharmacy).

    Food hygiene levels in Thailand are reasonably high, and it's generally safe to eat at street markets and to drink any water offered to you in restaurants. Using common sense — e.g., avoiding the vendor who leaves raw meat sitting in the sun with flies buzzing around — and following the precautions listed in our article on travellers' diarrhea is still advisable.

    HIV/AIDS (Estimated adult (15-49) HIV prevalence is 1.3% in 2007) and other sexually transmitted diseases are common, especially among sex workers. Condoms are sold in all convenience stores, supermarkets, pharmacies, etc. Avoid injection drug use.

    There's a pharmacy on every block in Thailand and most are happy to sell you anything you want without a prescription. Technically, however, this is illegal, and police have been known to bust tourists occasionally for possessing medicines without a prescription, even innocuous stuff like asthma medication.

    Healthcare

    Thailand is a popular destination for medical tourism. Healthcare standards and medical facilities in Bangkok are on par with the West, with much lower treatment costs. However, the quality of healthcare can fall sharply once you leave Bangkok and head into the smaller cities and rural areas.

    Respect

    Naming conventions

    Thais generally follow Western naming conventions of a given name followed by a family name. However, unlike in most Western countries, Thais almost never address each other using their last names, and first names are generally used even in the most formal situations. As such, the current prime minister of Thailand, Yingluck Shinawatra would be addressed as Ms Yingluck, and not Ms Shinawatra as Westerners would expect.

    Thais are a polite people and, while remarkably tolerant of foreigners gallivanting on their beaches and with their women, you'll find that you will get more respect if you in turn treat them and their customs with respect.

    The wai

    Ronald McDonald showing how a wai is done

    The traditional greeting known as the wai, where you press your hands together as is in prayer and bow slightly, is derived from the Hindu cultural influence from India, and still widely practised. Among Thais, there are strict rules of hierarchy that dictate how and when the wai should be given. In brief, inferiors salute superiors first. You should not wai service people or street vendors. The higher your hands go, the more respectful you are. You will also often see Thais doing a wai as they walk past temples and spirit houses. As a foreign visitor, you are not expected to know how to wai, nor to reciprocate when wai'd to; while you're unlikely to cause offense if you do, you may well look slightly strange. If somebody makes a wai to you, a slight bow alone is more than sufficient for ordinary occasions, and for business, most Thais will shake hands with foreigners instead of waiing anyway.

    Dress

    Dress code for Wat Phra Kaew

    Personal appearance is very important in Thailand as a measure of respect to other people, you will find that dressing appropriately means that you are shown more respect in return. This translates in many ways, even sometimes lowering initial offering prices at markets. While some allowance is made for the differing customs of foreigners, Thais respond more positively to well-dressed Westerners.

    While Bangkok, Pattaya and Phuket are exceptions, traditionally, Thais are modest and conservative dressers. At a minimum your clothes should be neat, clean, and free from holes or tears. Except at the beach or at sacred sites normal western dress is acceptable for both men and women, except that you should avoid clothing showing a lot of skin. Pants are preferable to shorts, blouses should have capped sleeves, and if tank tops are worn, the straps should be thick (i.e., not spaghetti straps). Thai men generally wear pants, and most Thais view an adult man wearing shorts as fairly ridiculous; shorts are primarily worn by laborers and schoolchildren. Men's shorts should be knee length or more, if worn at all.

    Taking off one's shoes at temples and private homes is mandatory etiquette, and this may even be requested at some shops. Wear shoes that slip on and off easily. Flip-flops, hiking sandals, and clog-type shoes are usually a good pragmatic choice for traveling in Thailand; only in the most top-end establishments are shoes required.

    It is best to play it safe with wats and other sacred sites in Thailand; your dress should be unambiguously modest and cover your entire torso and most of your limbs. For men, ankle-length pants are mandatory; on top, t-shirts are acceptable, though a button-front or polo shirt would be best. Many recommend that women wear only full length dresses and skirts; you should make sure that your clothing covers at least your shoulders and your knees and some places may require that you wear ankle-length pants or skirts and long sleeved tops. Shorts and sleeveless shirts are highly inappropriate, as are short skirts. The rules are even more strict for foreign visitors, so even if you see a local in shorts it's not OK for everyone.

    Topless sunbathing is common by Western women at many tourist beaches. At beaches which are primarily Thai visitors however, this is not advised.

    Religion

    Buddhist prayer flags, Wat Arun, Bangkok

    Monks are an integral part of Buddhism in Thailand, and Thai men are generally expected to spend a certain amount of time living as a monk at least once in their lifetime.

    Buddhist monks are meant to avoid sexual temptations, and in particular they do not touch women or take things from women's hands. Women should make every effort to make way for monks on the street and give them room so they do not have to make contact with you. Women should avoid offering anything to a monk with their hands. Objects or donations should be placed in front of a monk so he can pick it up, or place it on a special cloth he carries with him. Monks will sometimes be aided by a layman who will accept things from women merit-makers on their behalf.

    Theravada Buddhist monks are also supposed to avoid material temptations and as such, are not allowed to touch money, so offering money to a monk is considered to be a sign of disrespect in most Theravada Buddhist cultures. Therefore, should you wish to donate to a monk, you should only offer food, and put your monetary donation in the appropriate donation box at the temple. Those monks that accept money are almost always fakes.

    As in neighbouring countries, the swastika is widely used in Thailand as a Buddhist religious symbol. It pre-dates Nazism by 2,500 years and has no anti-Semitic connotations.

    When entering temples, always take off your shoes before you do so, as entering a temple with footwear is considered to be a major faux pas. When sitting on the floor in a temple, make sure you cross your legs under you "mermaid-style" so your feet do not point at any person or statue. Do not pose alongside a Buddha statue for a photo and certainly don't clamber on them. It's OK to take photos of a statue, but everyone should be facing it. Also, as doorway thresholds are considered a sanctuary for spirits, it's important not to step on a raised threshold, but rather to step over it.

    The Royal Family

    It's illegal to show disrespect to royalty (lèse-majesté), a crime which carries up to 15 to 20 years imprisonment. Do not make any negative remarks, or any remarks which might be perceived as disrespectful about the King or any members of the Royal Family. Since the King is on the country's currency, don't burn, tear, or mutilate it - especially in the presence of other Thais. If you drop a coin or bill, do not step on it to stop it - this is very rude, since you are stomping on the picture of the King's head that is printed on the coin. Also, anything related to the stories and movies The King and I and Anna and the King is illegal to possess in Thailand. Almost all Thais, even those in other countries, feel very strongly when it comes to any version of this story. They feel that it makes a mockery of their age-old monarchy and is entirely inaccurate. In 2007, a Swiss man (Oliver Juffer) was sentenced to 10 years imprisonment for spraying graffiti on the King's portrait, although he later expressed remorse and was pardoned by His Majesty personally (quote: "It troubles me when such harsh sentences are passed.") and deported to Switzerland.

    Animal Abuse

    Elephants are a large part of Thailand's tourist business, and the smuggling and mistreatment of elephants for tourist attractions is a widespread practice. Be aware that elephants are often separated from their mothers at a young age to be cruelly trained under captivity for the rest of their lives. If you intend to go on an elephant ride, purchase an elephant painting or "use" elephants for other activities please take their mistreatment into account. There are a few ethical animal tourism operators in Thailand such as Elephant Nature Park and Maetang Elephant Park in Chiang Mai.

    A depressingly common sight on the congested streets of Bangkok and other tourist centers is elephant begging. During night hours, mahouts (trainers) with lumbering elephants approach tourists to feed the creatures bananas or take a photo with them for a fee. The elephants are brought to the city to beg in this way because they are out of work and are mistreated and visibly distressed under the conditions of the city. Please avoid supporting this cruelty by rejecting the mahouts as they offer you bananas to feed the elephants.

    Drugged animals such as lizards and birds are sometimes used by touts as photo subjects. These touts are often seen plying the main tourist beaches of Thailand. The tout will take a photo with you and the doped up animal and then demand payment.

    Rare and endangered species are often sold at markets for pets, and many other animal products are sold as luxury items. Avoid buying rare pets, leather, ivory, talons, dried sea creatures (such as starfish), fur, feathers, teeth, wool, and other products since they are most likely the result of illegal poaching, and buying them contributes greatly to animal endangerment and abuse.

    Other

    • The head is considered the most exalted part of the body, feet the lowliest. Never touch or pat a Thai on the head, including children. If you accidentally touch or bump someone's head, apologize immediately or you'll be perceived as very rude. Similarly, do not touch people with your feet, or even point with them. If someone is sitting with outstretched feet, avoid stepping over them, as this is very rude and could even spark a confrontation. Squeeze around them or ask them to move. Even if the person is sleeping, it is best to go around, as others are likely to notice.
    • Thais are conservative compared to Westerners. Public displays of affection are rarely seen, even handholding by married couples, and is generally considered to be distasteful, though due to the dependence of the Thai economy on tourism, Thais grudgingly tolerate such displays by foreigners. Don't make out in public. You'll embarrass yourself and inflame Thai sensibilities.
    • It is considered impolite and disrespectful to visibly sniff food before eating it, particularly when eating in someone's home (this is true even if the sniffing is done in appreciation).
    • Do not audibly blow your nose in public, especially not at the dinner table, but it is perfectly acceptable to pick your nose at any time or place.
    • In Thailand, expression of negative emotion such as anger or sadness is almost never overt, and it is possible to enjoy a vacation in Thailand without ever seeming to see an argument or an unhappy person. Thai people smile constantly, and to outsiders this is seen as happiness or friendliness. In reality, smiling is a very subtle way to communicate, and to those who live in Thailand, a smile can indicate any emotion — from fear, to anger, to sadness, to joy, etc. "Saving face" is a very important aspect of Thai culture and they will try to avoid embarrassment and confrontation.
    • In public places (such as large markets) the national anthem is played over loudspeakers at 08:00 and 18:00. When this is played, many will stop what they are doing and stand still for the duration. You should do the same. The royal anthem (not national anthem) is played in cinemas before the film, and everyone must stand. It lasts about a minute, then everyone will continue where they left off. In MRT and SkyTrain stations in Bangkok, the escalators will also lurch to a halt to prevent a large human pile-up.

    Cope

    Bring an open mind and a sense of humour. Don't come with too many preconceived ideas about what Thailand is like, as media and friends’ experiences have a habit of distorting reality.

    If you're sticking to major cities and tourist areas, don't worry too much about under-packing; you can get hold of any essentials you've forgotten. Essentials are a swimming costume, a day pack, an umbrella in rainy season and some warm clothes if travelling in Oct-Dec, as some areas get cool. Some sources say there is no point in bringing a raincoat during the warm rainy season because it is so hot and sticky your raincoat will be uncomfortable.

    You will only need a couple of changes of clothes as you can get washing done anywhere cheaply. Sandals for when your hiking shoes are too hot can be bought cheaply in Thailand, although large sizes for women are harder to come by. If female and anything above a size 2 (US), size 6 (UK & IRL), size 36 (rest of EU), busty, or tall, it is often difficult to find clothes that will fit you in any of the Thai shops. If you are male and have a waist more than 38" you will have trouble finding pants. You will largely be limited to backpacker gear (the omnipresent fisherman pants and "Same Same" t-shirts) or Western imports in Bangkok malls, for the same prices as back home or more. While laundry is cheap, it is useful to bring a few changes of clothes, as you may sweat your way through several outfits a day in the Thai weather.

    Take enough padlocks for every double zipper to stop wandering hands and lock up your belongings, even in your hotel room. Lock zippers through the lower holes, not the upper ones on the pull tabs — although even this precaution won't help much if you encounter a razor-blade artist.

    Take snorkeling gear or buy it on arrival if you plan to spend a lot of your time in the water. Alternatively put up a notice looking for gear from someone who is leaving. A tent for camping if you are a national park buff is a good idea, as is a compass. You might like to bring compact binoculars too if wildlife is your thing. A good map of Thailand is also handy.

    Take earplugs for when you're stuck in a noisy room or want to sleep on the bus. Take a mirror for shaving, as often budget places won’t have any. String is very handy for hanging up washing. Cigarette papers can be difficult to find, except in tourist centres. Climbing shoes for rock climbing are useful as Thailand has some of the best cliffs in Southeast Asia.

    If you have prescription glasses, it is a good idea to bring a spare pair of glasses or contact lenses plus a copy of your prescription. Bring a book you're prepared to swap. A personal music player is great as a huge range of cheap music is available everywhere.

    Into the toiletries bag throw sun screen and insect repellent. Mosquito coils are also a good idea. A small pocket size torch / flashlight will come in handy when the electricity goes out or for investigating caves. Passport photos come in handy for visas.

    If you plan to travel long distances by motorbike, purchase a good quality helmet, which you can do in Thailand. Last but not least, pack your stuff in plastic bags to stop them from getting wet, especially when travelling in the rainy season or on boats.

    Aside from the above, the following are recommended:

    • Prescriptions for any prescription medications being brought through customs
    • Travel insurance
    • Blood donor/type card
    • Details of your next of kin
    • A second photo ID other than your passport
    • Credit card plus a backup card for a separate account

    Connect

    Electricity

    Electrical power in Thailand is 220V, 50Hz. There is a mix of plug types in use. Most typical is the standard ungrounded North American two-bladed plug. Most outlets are ungrounded. Connecting your laptop to mains power will in many cases require that you use an adapter for a two-bladed outlet. They are widely available, even in shops like 7-Eleven.

    Internet

    The Thai government actively censors Internet access. 2010 estimates place the number of blocked websites at 110,000 and growing. Roughly 77% are blocked for reasons of lèse majesté, content (content that defames, insults, threatens, or is unflattering to the king, including national security and some political issues), 22% for pornography, which is illegal in Thailand. Some web pages from BBC One, BBC Two, CNN, Yahoo! News, the Post-Intelligencer newspaper (Seattle, USA), and The Age newspaper (Melbourne, Australia) dealing with Thai political content are blocked. Wikileaks is blocked.

    Internet cafés are widespread and most are inexpensive. Prices as low as 15 baht/hour are commonplace, and speed of connection is generally reasonable, but many cafes close at midnight. Higher prices prevail in major package-tourist destinations (60 baht/hour is typical, 120 baht/hour is not unusual). Islands with multiple Internet cafés include Ko Phi Phi (Don), Ko Lanta (Yai), Ko Samui, Ko Pha Ngan, Ko Tao, Ko Chang (Trat), Ko Samet (Rayong), Ko Si Chang (Chonburi), and of course Phuket.

    Outside the most competitive tourist areas, free Wi-Fi is not as common as in neighbouring countries in many budget hotels and guesthouses ("mansions") and they may charge small fee for Internet by LAN or Wi-Fi even if you bring your own laptop. Wi-Fi is commonly available in cafes and restaurants serving Westerners. It's sometimes provided by telecoms who charge fees using them, and it usually requires a telecom account to finish the registration process.

    Keyloggers are all too often installed on the computers in cheap cafes, so be on your guard if using online banking, stock broking or even PayPal. Using cut and paste to enter part of your password may defeat some of them. Or typing part of the user name and password inside the text input field (for password or username) then clicking outside of it someplace in the browser window and typing some characters and then clicking back into the text input field and continuing to type the other part and doing this several times. Otherwise take your own laptop to the Internet cafe.

    If you suddenly and unexpectedly find yourself typing in Thai (or any other script) you've probably accidentally hit whatever key-combination the computer you're using has been configured to use for switching between languages (often Ctrl+spacebar). To change back, use the "Text Services and Input Languages" option (a quick-access menu is usually available via a "TH" icon visible on the task bar. Simply switch it to "EN").

    Telephone

    Mobile phones in Thailand have 10 digits, including the leading zero. Land-line telephones have 9 digits, including the leading zero.

    To place an international call, you can buy a prepaid card (available for 300 baht at many convenience stores and guesthouses) to use with one of the bright yellow Lenso payphones. You should rarely have trouble finding either of these unless you're way out in the countryside. The international access code is 001.

    For mobile phone users, Thailand has three GSM mobile service providers: AIS, DTAC and TrueMove), which may be useful if you have a mobile phone that will work on either one or both of the GSM 900 or 1800 frequency bands (consult your phone's technical specifications). If you have one, you can buy a prepaid SIM card for any of the Thai carriers in any convenience store for as little as 50-200 baht and charge it up as you go. The Bangkok airport is a good place to buy a SIM card, since the people working at the counters there speak relatively good English.

    Most phones sold by major carriers are "locked" to the carrier. That means that the phone won't work with a SIM card on another network, unless you get it unlocked. Unlocking a phone involves entering a special code into the phone. The procedure for entering this code depends on the specific phone. Most carriers will give you the unlock code, and instructions on how to unlock it, if you have been a subscriber in good standing (bills paid) for a certain period (about 3 months, but depends on the carrier). Contact your carrier's customer service department, and tell them you plan to use your phone overseas. They will usually give you the unlock code. Once unlocked, you can use any SIM card in the phone. Alternatively, the wizards at Bangkok's MBK shopping mall can unlock most phones for less than 500 baht. If you need to buy a mobile phone, you can pick those up at MBK as well, as a huge selection of cheap second-hand mobiles can be found on the 4th floor.

    International rates from Thai carriers are surprisingly good. DTAC, for example, charges 10 baht/minute to call the USA. Moreover, you can reduce rates even further, from 1.5x and up to 5-6x for some countries like Russia, by pre-dialing 009 or 008 instead of + before the international country code. For instance, 009 1(xxx)xxx-xxxx for the USA will give you a 5 baht/minute rate, at the expense of slight voice quality decrease, which is often unnoticeable.

    TrueMove offers very good international call rates from 1 baht per minute to destinations including the USA, Canada, Australia, UK, France, and Germany with its Inter-SIM promotion. You may find the SIM cards handed out for free at some airports, branded as an AOT SIM and including 5 minutes of free calls back home. Note that you should also use prefixes (006 for better quality, 00600 for a cheaper rate. However, for some countries, the rate is same for both promotions. How to get cheaper rates, as well as rates for selected countries, is clearly listed on SIM card packages.

    Coverage is very good throughout the country, all cities and tourist destinations (including resort islands) are well covered, and even in the countryside it's more likely you'll get a network signal than not, especially with an AIS or DTAC SIM. However, if you plan extended stays in remote non-tourist areas, AIS (their prepaid service name is "1-2-Call") is a better choice, at the expense of more pricey local calls than DTAC. But the difference, once very significant, is becoming less and less over time, both in call rates and coverage. TrueMove coverage is considered the worst, with phones occasionally losing signal even in towns. Nevertheless, if you plan to stay only in major cities/islands, and/or don't need your phone available all the time when outside of them, True SIM is OK too. As a benefit, now they have 3G (850 MHz only). Not all handsets, especially older ones, support this band. Coverage in Bangkok (centre, airport and some other areas), Chiang Mai (entire city), Phuket, and Pattaya.

    If you plan to visit Thailand at least once a year for short visits, consider buying the SIM with minimal validity restrictions (usually one year from the last top up, even if it was 10 baht). By doing this, you can re-use this SIM on the next trip, thus avoiding hassle of buying a new one every time, keeping your Thai number the same, as well as saving a bit. For example, DTAC offers the Simple SIM plan for that, and before 7-Elevens sold this one by default, but now they seem to offer cheaper (but with limited validity) Happy SIMs instead. Just ask for the former one. Local calls will be a bit more pricey (international are not affected), but usually this is not of much concern for the short-time visitor. AIS (1-2-Call) has similar (but more expensive) offerings too, as well as True. If you already have a Thai SIM and want to switch plans, that is possible for free or with at a small charge. Consult your operator's website for details.

    For short-term visitors, international roaming onto Thailand's GSM networks is possible, subject to agreements between operators. There is also some CDMA service in Bangkok and some other cities which allows expensive roaming for customers of some North American CDMA networks.

    • CAT Telecom 009 IP Telephony service rates - see how much you'll save on international calls if using 009 instead of +.
    • GSM World - Thailand - list of networks, coverage maps, and frequency bands
    • Thai Prepaid Card - On-line top up credit for Thai pre-paid SIM cards.
    • Thailand SIM cards - Pre-paid Thailand nationwide SIM cards for use with your mobile phone.
    • Thai SIM Top Up - Top up all Thai SIM networks on-line.

    Smart Phones / tablets / aircards

    A smart phone is an incredibly useful thing to have while travelling. All three GSM operators offer nationwide GPRS/EDGE and limited 3G service. Usually this service is already pre-activated on the prepaid SIM. Internet usage is billed by the minute. Any minute within which your phone accesses the Internet is billed to you. The price of this pay-as-you-use access is not cheap, around 0.5 to 1 baht/minute. That is comparable to Internet cafes. However, Internet packages can be purchased, which can save you quite a lot, especially if you use this service often. These come in three types: time-based (good for laptop users who are on-line just a couple of hours a day), volume-based (appropriate for smartphones or chatting) and unlimited. See this useful guide to 3G data plans in Thailand.

    • DTAC Happy Internet packages. 3G service (850 MHz band), as of May 2012, is offered in Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Phuket, Ko Samui, and Krabi. Outside them, EDGE is widely available even in rural areas, and speeds (20-25 kBytes/sec) allow acceptable browsing, using Skype or other VoIP services (with a time lag but reasonable voice quality), or even listening to lower-bit rate Internet radio stations on the move. DTAC Happy Tourist pre-paid SIM with 35 days unlimited Internet is available at Bangkok Airport for about 1,000 baht. Refills are available in 7-Eleven stores.
    • TrueMove's packages are different in that they offer combined GPRS/EDGE/3G/Wi-Fi service. 3G service (850 MHz) is offered in various places throughout the country, including Bangkok (mostly the city centre and airport), Chiang Mai, Pai, Phuket, Hua Hin, and (reportedly) Ko Samui. Note that 3G and EDGE/GPRS usage are billed separately in some packages. In particular, beware that if you exceed your EDGE/GPRS quota, you will be billed per minute/per megabyte when using GPRS/EDGE even if you have some 3G quota remaining (3G network will disallow any data connections once 3G quota is finished, but this may change in the future). 3G service is pretty fast, but EDGE coverage/speeds are often (but not universally) inferior to those of DTAC and AIS . To use True Wi-Fi, look for "@truewifi" network, enter your phone '08xxxxxxxx@truemove' as a login and receive your password via SMS. 3G coverage is expanding rapidly and many places (e.g., most of Chiang Mai beyond the airport until recently, or Pai) do not yet appear on the official coverage maps.

    True's new prepaid package Unlimited x3 [3] offers Unlimited use of their Wi-Fi network (daily/weekly/monthly = 49/99/299 baht) up to 500MB of 3G Internet (overuse throttled to 128Kbps), and free calls and SMS to True numbers. If you happen to travel outside a big city (e.g., from Hat Yai to Nakhon St Thammarat) and find you can't access the Internet, you will have to go to your carrier settings and change your carrier network to Manual and select True-H.

    Note that to use 850 MHz 3G (DTAC and TrueMove) you'll need a phone or USB dongle capable of 3G WCDMA at 850MHz (not the most popular 2100 MHz) band - while many phones (including all 3G-capable iPhones) do, others, especially older/cheaper ones, may not. Check your phone's manual for supported 3G bands, not to be confused with supported GSM/EDGE bands. AIS uses even more exotic (for 3G service) 900 MHz band, which is normally used for GSM, so the chances that your 3G device will work with their 3G are even less.

    Besides these, there are a couple of lesser-known options:

    • TOT 3G and several resellers offer 3G at 2100 MHz (compatible with most 3G phones and USB dongles) throughout greater Bangkok. Unlike packages from other providers, data usage is charged by the megabyte, but allowances are typically generous. For example, i-mobile 3GX will give you 2 GB of downloads with a 500 baht recharge (for data only).
    • CAT Telecom offers CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev. A service in 800 MHz band (supported in most, but not all, CDMA devices). They offer unlimited packages, wider 3G coverage, and (theoretically) unlimited quota, but you will have either to buy or to bring your own (unlocked) CDMA2000 EV-DO capable modem or phone.
    • Tune Talk [4] offers 500MB/1.5GB/2.5GB for 100/300/500 baht as well as 0.99baht/min calls and 2baht/SMS. Its 3G services operate under the 2100MHz frequency. Getting hold of a SIM card outside Bangkok is a challenge though. The website is well designed in English and you can manage/top up your account online.

    Many smartphones will access the Internet in the background, even when you're not actually using the phone or the Internet. This can eat up your minutes quickly, and then will start to consume your remaining baht much faster,if you have a time-based package. It's best to use either volume-based or unlimited package in this case. Alternatively, make sure your phone has a reliable way of turning off the Internet usage. For Android phones, try APNDroid, available in the Android Market. For iPhones, you may need to jailbreak your phone and install SBSettings.

    Some smart phones may require you to manually enter the APN (Access Point Name) for the Internet to work. APNs have many configurable parameters, but typically only a few pieces of data are necessary. Check your phone's settings; the procedure for editing APNs varies for different phones.

    • DTAC - APN Name: www.dtac.co.th, Username: guest, Password: guest
    • AIS - APN Name: internet, Username: ais (may not be necessary), Password: ais (may not be necessary)
    • TrueMove - APN Name: internet, Username: internet, Password: internet

    Topping up an Internet package isn't as straightforward as topping up voice minutes, but not impossible even if you can't speak Thai. While you can easily top up voice minutes at any convenience store, you will likely get a blank stare if you ask for Internet packages. Internet packages can be topped up at cell phone stores, which are easy enough to find in populated areas - however, it is not likely that they'll be aware of all current promotions and options. More services, obviously, will be available at numerous operator's offices (DTAC shop, TrueMove shop, etc.) generally available at the big malls/trade centres (Big C, Tesco, etc.) as well as other public places - refer to your operator's website for details. Alternatively, you can just call the customer support (1678 for DTAC, 1331 for True, 1175 for AIS) - they can both consult you about the nearest office location, if you still need it, or turn off/on any Internet (or SMS or MMS) package you request. However, calls to these service numbers often aren't free for prepaid SIM users, with calling rate up to (DTAC) 3 baht/minute. If you do not want to spend that every time you need to switch - there are numbers where you can do-it-yourself using a voice menu (free of charge): *1004 for DTAC Happy (Thai language only), *9000 for True (in English, at least for the Inter-SIM handed out in the airports).

    Go next

    Thailand borders on Malaysia, Burma, Cambodia, and Laos. Vietnam is beyond Cambodia and Laos, and southern China, Singapore and Indonesia are also in the overall region.




    Thailand

    Kingdom of Thailand
    ราชอาณาจักรไทย
    Ratcha-anachak Thai
    Flag Emblem
    Motto: 
    ชาติ ศาสนา พระมหากษัตริย์ (Thai)
    Chat, Satsana, Phra Maha Kasat
    "Nation, Religions, King"
    Anthem: Phleng Chat Thai
    (English: "Thai National Anthem")

    Royal anthemSansoen Phra Barami
    (English: "Thai Royal Anthem")
    Location of  Thailand  (green)

    in ASEAN  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]

    Capital
    and largest city
    Bangkok
    Official languages Thai[1]
    Ethnic groups (2009[2])
    Religion Buddhism
    Demonym Thai
    Siamese (archaic)
    Government Constitutional monarchy under military junta
     -  Monarch Bhumibol Adulyadej
     -  Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha
    Legislature National Assembly (currently dissolved)
    Formation
     -  Sukhothai Kingdom 1238–1448 
     -  Ayutthaya Kingdom 1351–1767 
     -  Thonburi Kingdom 1768–1782 
     -  Rattanakosin Kingdom 6 April 1782 
     -  Constitutional monarchy 24 June 1932 
     -  Current constitution 22 July 2014[6] 
    Area
     -  Total 513,120 km2 (51st)
    198,115 sq mi
     -  Water (%) 0.4 (2,230 km2)
    Population
     -  2014[7] estimate 67,091,120[7] (20th[7])
     -  2010 census 64,785,909[8]
     -  Density 132.1/km2 (88th)
    342/sq mi
    GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
     -  Total US$1.107 trillion[9] (22nd)
     -  Per capita US$16,081[9]
    GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
     -  Total US$373.536 billion[9]
     -  Per capita US$5,426[9]
    Gini (2010) 39.4[10]
    medium
    HDI (2013) Steady 0.722[11]
    high · 89th
    Currency Baht (฿) (THB)
    Time zone ICT (UTC+7)
    Drives on the Right- and left-hand traffic
    Calling code +66
    ISO 3166 code TH
    Internet TLD

    Thailand ( or ;[12] Thai: ประเทศไทย, rtgsPrathet Thai), officially the Kingdom of Thailand (Thai: ราชอาณาจักรไทย, rtgsRatcha-anachak Thai; IPA: ), formerly known as Siam (Thai: สยาม; rtgsSayam), is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Mainland Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar. Its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, and Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest.

    Thailand is governed by a military junta that took power in the May 2014 coup d'état.[13] Its monarchy is headed by King Bhumibol Adulyadej, who is called Rama IX as he is the ninth monarch of the Chakri Dynasty, and has reigned since 1946 as the world's longest-serving head of state and the country's longest-reigning monarch[14] (he has reigned for 69 years, 224 days)

    With a total area of approximately 513,000 km2 (198,000 sq mi), Thailand is the world's 51st-largest country. It is the 20th-most-populous country in the world, with around 66 million people. The capital and largest city is Bangkok, which is Thailand's political, commercial, industrial, and cultural hub. About 75–95% of the population is ethnically Tai, which includes four major regional groups: central Thai, northeastern Thai (Khon [Lao] Isan),[3] northern Thai (Khon Mueang); and southern Thai. Thai Chinese, those of significant Chinese heritage, are 14% of the population,[2] while Thais with partial Chinese ancestry comprise up to 40% of the population.[15] Thai Malays represent 3% of the population, with the remainder consisting of Mons, Khmers and various "hill tribes". The country's official language is Thai and the primary religion is Theravada Buddhism, which is practised by around 95% of the population.

    Thailand experienced rapid economic growth between 1985 and 1996, becoming a newly industrialised country and a major exporter. Manufacturing, agriculture, and tourism are leading sectors of the economy.[16][17] Among the ten ASEAN countries, Thailand ranks third in quality of life.[11] and the country's HDI is rated as "high". Its large population and growing economic influence have made it a middle power in the region and around the world.[18]

    Contents

    • Etymology 1
      • Etymology of "Siam" 1.1
      • Etymology of "Thailand" 1.2
    • History 2
      • 20th century 2.1
      • World War II 2.2
    • Politics and government 3
      • Constitutional history 3.1
      • 28 June 1932 3.2
      • 1932 to 1972 3.3
      • 1973 to 1997 3.4
      • 1997 to 2001 3.5
      • 2001 to 2008 3.6
        • 2006 coup d'état 3.6.1
      • 2008–2010 political crisis 3.7
      • 2013–2014 political crisis 3.8
      • 2014 coup d'état 3.9
    • Administrative divisions 4
      • Southern region 4.1
    • Foreign relations 5
    • Armed forces 6
    • Geography 7
      • Climate 7.1
      • Wildlife 7.2
    • Education 8
    • Science and technology 9
      • Internet 9.1
    • Economy 10
      • Recent economic history 10.1
      • Exports and manufacturing 10.2
      • Tourism 10.3
      • Agriculture 10.4
      • Energy 10.5
    • Demographics 11
      • Ethnic groups 11.1
      • Population centres 11.2
      • Language 11.3
      • Religion 11.4
    • Culture 12
      • Cuisine 12.1
      • Media 12.2
      • Units of measurement 12.3
      • Sports 12.4
        • Sporting venues 12.4.1
    • International rankings 13
    • See also 14
    • References 15
      • Bibliography 15.1
    • External links 16

    Etymology

    Etymology of "Siam"

    The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens. By others, it is known by the exonym Siam (Thai: สยาม rtgsSayam, pronounced , also spelled Siem, Syâm, or Syâma). The word Siam has been identified with the Sanskrit Śyāma (श्याम, meaning "dark" or "brown"). The names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word. The word Śyâma is possibly not its origin, but a learned and artificial distortion.[19]

    SPPM Mongkut Rex Siamensium, King Mongkut's signature

    The signature of King Mongkut (r. 1851 – 1868) reads SPPM (Somdet Phra Poramenthra Maha) Mongkut King of Siam, giving it official status until 23 June 1939 when it was changed to Thailand.[20] Thailand was renamed Siam from 1945 to 11 May 1949, after which it again reverted to Thailand.

    Etymology of "Thailand"

    According to ไทย) means "free man" in the Thai language, "differentiating the Thai from the natives encompassed in Thai society as serfs."[21] A famous Thai scholar argued that Thai (ไท) simply means "people" or "human being", since his investigation shows that in some rural areas the word "Thai" was used instead of the usual Thai word "khon" (คน) for people.[22]

    While Thai people will often refer to their country using the polite form prathet Thai (Thai: ประเทศไทย), they most commonly use the more colloquial term mueang Thai (Thai: เมืองไทย) or simply Thai, the word mueang, archaically a city-state, commonly used to refer to a city or town as the centre of a region. Ratcha Anachak Thai (Thai: ราชอาณาจักรไทย) means "kingdom of Thailand" or "kingdom of Thai". Etymologically, its components are: ratcha (Sanskrit raja "king, royal, realm") ; -ana- (Pali āṇā "authority, command, power", itself from an Old Indo-Aryan form ājñā of the same meaning) -chak (from Sanskrit चक्र cakra- "wheel", a symbol of power and rule). The Thai National Anthem (Thai: เพลงชาติ), written by Luang Saranupraphan during the extremely patriotic 1930s, refers to the Thai nation as: prathet Thai (Thai: ประเทศไทย). The first line of the national anthem is: prathet thai ruam lueat nuea chat chuea thai (Thai: ประเทศไทยรวมเลือดเนื้อชาติเชื้อไทย), "Thailand is the unity of Thai flesh and blood."

    History

    There is evidence of human habitation in Thailand that has been dated at 40,000 years before the present, with stone artefacts dated to this period at Tham Lod Rockshelter in Mae Hong Son. Similar to other regions in Southeast Asia, Thailand was heavily influenced by the culture and religions of India, starting with the Kingdom of Funan around the 1st century CE to the Khmer Empire.[23]

    The ruins of Wat Chaiwatthanaram at Ayutthaya.

    Indian influence on Thai culture was partly the result of direct contact with Indian settlers, but mainly it was brought about indirectly via the Indianized kingdoms of Dvaravati, Srivijaya, and Cambodia.[24] E:A Voretzsch believes that Buddhism must have been flowing into Siam from India in the time of the Indian Emperor Ashoka of the Maurya Empire and far on into the first millennium after Christ.[24] Later Thailand was influenced by the south Indian Pallava dynasty and north Indian Gupta Empire.[24]

    According to George Cœdès, "The Thai first enter history of Farther India in the eleventh century with the mention of Syam slaves or prisoners of war in" Champa epigraphy, and "in the twelfth century, the bas-reliefs of Angkor Wat" where "a group of warriors" are described as Syam. Additionally, "the Mongols, after the seizure of Ta-li on January 7, 1253 and the pacification of Yunnan in 1257, did not look with disfavor on the creation of a series of Thai principalities at the expense of the old Indianized kingdoms." The Menam Basin was originally populated by the Mons, and the location of Dvaravati in the 7th century, followed by the Khmer Empire in the 11th. The History of the Yuan mentions an embassy from the kingdom of Sukhothai in 1282. In 1287, three Thai chiefs, Mangrai, Ngam Muang, and Ram Khamhaeng formed a "strong pact of friendship".[25]

    After the fall of the Khmer Empire in the 13th century, various states thrived there, established by the various Tai peoples, Mons, Khmers, Chams and Ethnic Malays, as seen through the numerous archaeological sites and artefacts that are scattered throughout the Siamese landscape. Prior to the 12th century however, the first Thai or Siamese state is traditionally considered to be the Buddhist Sukhothai Kingdom, which was founded in 1238.

    Following the decline and fall of the Khmer empire in the 13th–15th century, the Buddhist Tai kingdoms of Sukhothai, Lanna, and Lan Xang (now Laos) were on the rise. However, a century later, the power of Sukhothai was overshadowed by the new Kingdom of Ayutthaya, established in the mid-14th century in the lower Chao Phraya River or Menam area.

    Ayutthaya's expansion centred along the Menam while in the northern valleys the Lanna Kingdom and other small Tai city-states ruled the area. In 1431, the Khmer abandoned Angkor after Ayutthaya forces invaded the city.[26] Thailand retained a tradition of trade with its neighbouring states, from China to India, Persia, and Arab lands. Ayutthaya became one of the most vibrant trading centres in Asia. European traders arrived in the 16th century, beginning with the Portuguese, followed by the French, Dutch, and English. The Burmese–Siamese War (1765–1767) left Ayutthaya burned and sacked by King Hsinbyushin.

    After the fall of Ayutthaya in 1767 to the Burmese, Taksin moved the capital to Thonburi for approximately 15 years. The current Rattanakosin era of Thai history began in 1782 following the establishment of Bangkok as capital of the Chakri Dynasty under King Rama I the Great. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, "A quarter to a third of the population of some areas of Thailand and Burma were slaves in the 17th through the 19th centuries."[27][28]

    Despite European pressure, Thailand is the only Southeast Asian nation to never have been colonised.[29] This has been ascribed to the long succession of able rulers in the past four centuries who exploited the rivalry and tension between French Indochina and the British Empire. As a result, the country remained a buffer state between parts of Southeast Asia that were colonised by the two colonial powers, Great Britain and France. Western influence nevertheless led to many reforms in the 19th century and major concessions, most notably the loss of a large territory on the east side of the Mekong to the French and the step-by-step absorption by Britain of the Shan and Karen people areas and Malay Peninsula.

    20th century

    The losses initially included Penang and eventually culminated in the loss of four predominantly ethnic-Malay southern provinces, which later became Malaysia's four northern states, under the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909.

    In 1932, a bloodless revolution carried out by the Khana Ratsadon group of military and civilian officials resulted in a transition of power, when King Prajadhipok was forced to grant the people of Siam their first constitution, thereby ending centuries of absolute monarchy.

    In 1939, the name of the kingdom, "Siam", was changed to "Thailand".

    World War II

    During World War II, the Empire of Japan demanded the right to move troops across Thailand to the Malayan frontier. The Japanese invasion of Thailand on 8 December 1941 occurred in co-ordination with attacks throughout Asia and engaged the Royal Thai Army for six to eight hours before Plaek Phibunsongkhram ordered an armistice. Shortly thereafter, Japan was granted free passage, and on 21 December 1941, Thailand and Japan signed a military alliance with a secret protocol, wherein Tokyo agreed to help Thailand regain territories lost to the British and French.[30]

    Subsequently, Thailand declared war on the United States and the United Kingdom on 25 January 1942, and undertook to "assist" Japan in its war against the Allies, while at the same time maintaining an active anti-Japanese Free Thai Movement. Approximately 200,000 Asian labourers (mainly romusha) and 60,000 Allied prisoners of war (POWs) worked on the Burma Railway, which is commonly known as the "Death Railway".[30]

    After the war, Thailand emerged as an ally of the United States. As with many of the developing nations during the Cold War, Thailand then went through decades of political instability characterised by a number of coups d'état, as one military regime replaced another, but eventually progressed towards a stable, prosperous democracy in the 1980s.

    Politics and government

    The politics of Thailand is currently conducted within the framework of a constitutional monarchy, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government and a hereditary monarch is head of state. The judiciary is supposed to be independent of the executive and the legislative branches, although judicial rulings are suspected of being based on political considerations rather than on existing law.[31]

    Constitutional history

    Bangkok's Democracy Monument: a representation of the 1932 Constitution sits on top of two golden offering bowls above a turret.

    Since the political reform of the absolute monarchy in 1932, Thailand has had 19 constitutions and charters.[32][33] Throughout this time, the form of government has ranged from military dictatorship to electoral democracy, but all governments have acknowledged a hereditary monarch as the head of state.[34][35]

    28 June 1932

    Prior to 1932, the Kingdom of Siam did not possess a legislature, as all legislative powers were vested in the person of the monarch. This had been the case since the foundation of the Sukhothai Kingdom in the 12th century as the king was seen as a "Dharmaraja" or "king who rules in accordance with Dharma", (the Buddhist law of righteousness). However, on 24 June 1932 a group of civilians and military officers, calling themselves the Khana Ratsadon (or People's Party) carried out a bloodless revolution in which the 150 years of absolute rule of the Chakri Dynasty ended. In its stead the group advocated a constitutional form of monarchy with an elected legislature.

    The "Draft Constitution" of 1932 signed by King Prajadhipok created Thailand's first legislature, a People's Assembly with 70 appointed members. The assembly met for the first time on 28 June 1932, in the Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall. The Khana Ratsadon decided that the people were not yet ready for an elected assembly. They later changed their minds. By the time the "permanent" constitution came into force in December of that year, elections were scheduled for 15 November 1933. The new constitution changed the composition of the assembly to 78 directly elected and 78 appointed (by the Khana Ratsadon), together totalling 156 members.

    1932 to 1972

    The history of Thailand from 1932 to 1973 was dominated by military dictatorships which were in power for much of the period. The main personalities of the period were the dictator Luang Phibunsongkhram (better known as Phibun), who allied the country with Japan during the Second World War, and the civilian politician Pridi Phanomyong, who founded Thammasat University and was briefly the prime minister after the war. The Japanese invasion of Thailand occurred on 8 December 1941.

    A succession of military dictators followed Pridi's ousting — Phibun again, Sarit Dhanarajata and Thanom Kittikachorn — under whom traditional, authoritarian rule was combined with increasing modernisation and westernisation under the influence of the US. The end of the period was marked by Thanom's resignation, following a massacre of pro-democracy protesters led by Thammasat students. Thanom misread the situation as a coup d'état, and fled, leaving the country leaderless. HM appointed Thammasat University chancellor Sanya Dharmasakti PM by royal command. For events subsequent to the abdication of the king, including the name change of 1939, up to the coup d'état of 1957, see Plaek Pibulsonggram.

    Thailand helped the USA and South Vietnam in the Vietnam War between 1965–1971. The USAF based F-4 Phantom fighters at Udon and Ubon Air Base, and stationed B-52s at U-Tapao. Thai forces also saw heavy action in the covert war in Laos that occurred from 1964 to 1972.

    1973 to 1997

    1997 to 2001

    Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall, the old meeting place of the National Assembly; now only the State Opening is held there.
    Parliament House, the meeting place of the two chambers of the National Assembly of Thailand

    The 1997 Constitution was the first constitution to be drafted by popularly elected Constitutional Drafting Assembly, and was popularly called the "people's constitution".[36] The 1997 Constitution created a bicameral legislature consisting of a 500-seat House of Representatives (สภาผู้แทนราษฎร, sapha phu thaen ratsadon) and a 200-seat Senate (วุฒิสภา, wutthisapha). For the first time in Thai history, both houses were directly elected.

    Many human rights were explicitly acknowledged, and measures were established to increase the stability of elected governments. The House was elected by the first past the post system, where only one candidate with a simple majority could be elected in one constituency. The Senate was elected based on the provincial system, where one province could return more than one senator depending on its population size.

    The two houses of the National Assembly have two different terms. In accordance with the constitution the Senate is elected to a six-year term, while the House is elected to a four-year term. Overall the term of the National Assembly is based on that of the House. The National Assembly each year will sit in two sessions: an "ordinary session" and a "legislative session". The first session of the National Assembly must take place within thirty days after the general election of the House of Representatives. The first session must be opened by the king in person by reading a Speech from the Throne; this ceremony is held in the Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall. He may also appoint the crown prince or a representative to carry out this duty. It is also the duty of the king to prorogue sessions through a royal decree when the House term expires. The king also has the prerogative to call extraordinary sessions and prolong sessions upon advice of the House of Representatives.

    The National Assembly may host a "joint-sitting" of both Houses under several circumstances. These include: The appointment of a regent, any alteration to the 1924 Palace Law of Succession, the opening of the first session, the announcement of policies by the Cabinet of Thailand, the approval of the declaration of war, the hearing of explanations and approval of a treaty and the amendment of the Constitution.

    Members of the House of Representatives served four-year terms, while senators served six-year terms. The 1997 People's Constitution also promoted human rights more than any other constitution. The court system (ศาล, san) included a constitutional court with jurisdiction over the constitutionality of parliamentary acts, royal decrees, and political matters.

    2001 to 2008

    The January 2001 general election, the first election under the 1997 Constitution, was called the most open, corruption-free election in Thai history.[37] Thai Rak Thai Party, led by Thaksin Shinawatra won the election. The Thaksin government was the first in Thai history to complete a four-year term. The 2005 election had the highest voter turnout in Thai history,[38][39] and Thai Rak Thai Party won an absolute majority. However, despite efforts to clean up the system, vote buying and electoral violence remained electoral problems in 2005.[40]

    The PollWatch Foundation, Thailand's most prominent election watchdog, declared that vote buying in this election, specifically in the north and the northeast, was more serious than in the 2001 election. The organisation also accused the government of violating the election law by abusing state power in presenting new projects in a bid to seek votes.

    2006 coup d'état

    Without meeting much resistance, a military junta overthrew the interim government of Thaksin Shinawatra on 19 September 2006. The junta abrogated the constitution, dissolved Parliament and the Constitutional Court, detained and later removed several members of the government, declared martial law, and appointed one of the king's Privy Counselors, General Surayud Chulanont, as the Prime Minister. The junta later wrote a highly abbreviated interim constitution and appointed a panel to draft a new permanent constitution. The junta also appointed a 250-member legislature, called by some critics a "chamber of generals" while others claimed that it lacks representatives from the poor majority.[41][42]

    In this interim constitution draft, the head of the junta was allowed to remove the prime minister at any time. The legislature was not allowed to hold a vote of confidence against the cabinet and the public was not allowed to file comments on bills.[43] This interim constitution was later surpassed by the permanent constitution on 24 August 2007. Martial law was partially revoked in January 2007. The ban on political activities was lifted in July 2007,[44] following the 30 May dissolution of the Thai Rak Thai party. The new constitution was approved by referendum on 19 August, which led to a return to a democratic general election on 23 December 2007.

    2008–2010 political crisis

    People's Alliance for Democracy, Yellow shirts, rally on Sukhumvit Road in 2008.
    United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship, Red Shirts, protest on Ratchaprasong intersection in 2010.

    The People's Power Party (Thailand), led by Samak Sundaravej formed a government with five smaller parties. Following several court rulings against him in a variety of scandals, and surviving a vote of no confidence, and protesters blockading government buildings and airports, in September 2008, Sundaravej was found guilty of conflict of interest by the Constitutional Court of Thailand (due to being a host in a TV cooking program),[45] and thus, ended his term in office.

    He was replaced by PPP member Somchai Wongsawat. As of October 2008, Wongsawat was unable to gain access to his offices, which were occupied by protesters from the People's Alliance for Democracy. On 2 December 2008, Thailand's Constitutional Court in a highly controversial ruling found the Peoples Power Party[46] guilty of electoral fraud, which led to the dissolution of the party according to the law. It was later alleged in media reports that at least one member of the judiciary had a telephone conversation with officials working for the Office of the Privy Council and one other. The phone call was taped and has since circulated on the Internet. In it, the callers discuss finding a way to ensure the ruling PPP party would be disbanded. Accusations of judicial interference were levelled in the media but the recorded call was dismissed as a hoax. However, in June 2010, supporters of the eventually disbanded PPP were charged with tapping a judge's phone.

    Immediately following what many media described as a "judicial coup", a senior member of the Armed Forces met with factions of the governing coalition to get their members to join the opposition and the Democrat Party was able to form a government, a first for the party since 2001. The leader of the Democrat party, and former leader of the opposition, Abhisit Vejjajiva was appointed and sworn-in as the 27th Prime Minister, together with the new cabinet on 17 December 2008.

    In April 2009, protests by the National United Front of Democracy Against Dictatorship (UDD, or "Red Shirts") forced the cancellation of the Fourth East Asia Summit after protesters stormed the Royal Cliff hotel venue in Pattaya, smashing the glass doors of the venue to gain entry, and a blockade prevented the Chinese premier at the time, Wen Jiabao, from attending. The summit was eventually held in Thailand in October 2009.[47][48]

    About a year later, a set of new "Red Shirts" protests resulted in 87 deaths (mostly civilian and some military) and 1,378 injured.[49] When the army tried to disperse the protesters on 10 April 2010, the army was met with automatic gunfire, grenades, and fire bombs from the opposition faction in the army, known as the "watermelon". This resulted in the army returning fire with rubber bullets and some live ammunition. During the time of the "red shirt" protests against the government, there have been numerous grenade and bomb attacks against government offices and the homes of government officials. Gas grenades were fired at "yellow-shirt" protesters, that were protesting against the "red-shirts" and in favour of the government, by unknown gunmen killing one pro-government protester, the government stated that the Red Shirts were firing the weapons at civilians.[50][51][52][53] Red-shirts continued to hold a position in the business district of Bangkok and it was shut down for several weeks.[54]

    On 3 July 2011, the oppositional Pheu Thai Party, led by Yingluck Shinawatra (the youngest sister of Thaksin Shinawatra), won the general election by a landslide (265 seats in the House of Representatives, out of 500). She had never previously been involved in politics, Pheu Thai campaigning for her with the slogan 'Thaksin thinks, Pheu Thai acts'. Yingluck is the nation's first female prime minister and her role was officially endorsed in a ceremony presided over by King Bhumibol Adulyadej. The Pheu Thai Party is a continuation of Thaksin's Thai Rak Thai party.[55]

    2013–2014 political crisis

    Protests recommenced in late 2013, as a broad alliance of protestors, led by former opposition deputy leader Suthep Thaugsuban, demanded an end to the so-called Thaksin regime. A blanket amnesty for people involved in the 2010 protests, altered at the last minute to include all political crimes – including all convictions against Thaksin – triggered a mass show of discontent, with numbers variously estimated between 98,500 (the police) and 400,000 (an aerial photo survey done by the Bangkok Post), taking to the streets. The Senate was urged to reject the bill to quell the reaction, but the measure failed. A newly named group, the People's Democratic Reform Committee (PDRC) along with allied groups, escalated the pressure, with the opposition Democrat party resigning en masse to create a parliamentary vacuum. Protesters demands variously evolved as the movement's numbers grew, extending a number of deadlines and demands that became increasingly unreasonable or unrealistic, yet attracting a groundswell of support. They called for the establishment of an indirectly elected “people’s council”—in place of Yingluck's government—that will cleanse Thai politics and eradicate the Thaksin regime.[56]

    In response to the intensive protests, Yingluck dissolved parliament on 9 December 2013 and proposed a new election for 2 February 2014, a date that was later approved by the election commission.[57] The PDRC insisted that the prime minister stand down within 24 hours, regardless of her actions, with 160,000 protesters in attendance at Government House on 9 December. Yingluck insisted that she would continue her duties until the scheduled election in February 2014, urging the protesters to accept her proposal: "Now that the government has dissolved parliament, I ask that you stop protesting and that all sides work towards elections. I have backed down to the point where I don't know how to back down any further."[58]

    In response to the Electoral Commission (EC)'s registration process for party-list candidates—for the scheduled election in February 2014—anti-government protesters marched to the Thai-Japanese sports stadium, the venue of the registration process, on 22 December 2013. Suthep and the PDRC led the protest, of which security forces claimed that approximately 270,000 protesters joined. Yingluck and the Pheu Thai Party reiterated their election plan and anticipate presenting a list of 125 party-list candidates to the EC.[59]

    On 7 May 2014, the Constitutional Court ruled that Yingluck would have to step down as the Prime Minister as she was deemed to have abused her power in transferring a high-level government official.[60] On 21 August 2014 she was replaced by army chief General Prayut Chan-o-cha.[61]

    2014 coup d'état

    On 20 May 2014 the Thai army declared martial law and began to deploy troops in the capital, denying that it was a coup attempt.[62] On 22 May, the army admitted that it was a coup and that it was taking control of the country and suspending the country's constitution.[63][64] On the same day, the military imposed a curfew between the hours of 22:00–05:00, ordering citizens and visitors to remain indoors during this period.[65][66][67][68][69] On 21 August 2014 the National Assembly of Thailand elected the army chief, General Prayut Chan-o-cha, as prime minister. Martial law was declared formally ended on 1 April 2015."Uniformed or ex-military men have led Thailand for 55 of the 83 years since absolute monarchy was overthrown in 1932,..." observed one journalist from the vantage point of 2015.[70]

    Administrative divisions

    Thailand is divided into 76 provinces (จังหวัด, changwat), which are gathered into five groups of provinces by location. There are also two specially-governed districts: the capital Bangkok (Krung Thep Maha Nakhon) and Pattaya. Bangkok is at provincial level and thus often counted as a province.

    Each province is divided into districts and the districts are further divided into sub-districts (tambons). As of 2006 there were 877 districts (อำเภอ, amphoe) and the 50 districts of Bangkok (เขต, khet). Some parts of the provinces bordering Bangkok are also referred to as Greater Bangkok (ปริมณฑล, pari monthon). These provinces include Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Samut Prakan, Nakhon Pathom and Samut Sakhon. The name of each province's capital city (เมือง, mueang) is the same as that of the province. For example, the capital of Chiang Mai Province (Changwat Chiang Mai) is Mueang Chiang Mai or Chiang Mai.

    A clickable map of Thailand exhibiting its provinces.


    Southern region

    Southern provinces of Thailand showing the Malay-Muslim majority areas.

    Thailand controlled the Malay Peninsula as far south as Malacca in the 15th century and held much of the peninsula, including Temasek (Singapore), some of the Andaman Islands, and a colony on Java, but eventually contracted when the British used force to guarantee their suzerainty over the sultanate.

    Mostly the northern states of the Malay Sultanate presented annual gifts to the Thai king in the form of a golden flower—a gesture of tribute and an acknowledgement of vassalage. The British intervened in the Malay State and with the Anglo-Siamese Treaty tried to build a railway from the south to Bangkok. Thailand relinquished sovereignty over what are now the northern Malay provinces of Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan, and Terengganu to the British. Satun and Pattani Provinces were given to Thailand.

    The Malay peninsular provinces were occupied by the Japanese during World War II, and infiltrated by the PULO. Most victims since the uprisings have been Buddhist and Muslim bystanders.

    Foreign relations

    The foreign relations of Thailand are handled by the Minister of Foreign Affairs.

    Thailand participates fully in international and regional organisations. It is a major non-NATO ally and Priority Watch List Special 301 Report of the United States. The country remains an active member of ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Thailand has developed increasingly close ties with other ASEAN members: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Brunei, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, and Vietnam, whose foreign and economic ministers hold annual meetings. Regional co-operation is progressing in economic, trade, banking, political, and cultural matters. In 2003, Thailand served as APEC (Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation) host. Dr. Supachai Panitchpakdi, the former Deputy Prime Minister of Thailand, currently serves as Secretary-General of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). In 2005 Thailand attended the inaugural East Asia Summit.

    In recent years, Thailand has taken an increasingly active role on the international stage. When East Timor gained independence from Indonesia, Thailand, for the first time in its history, contributed troops to the international peacekeeping effort. Its troops remain there today as part of a UN peacekeeping force. As part of its effort to increase international ties, Thailand has reached out to such regional organisations as the Organization of American States (OAS) and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Thailand has contributed troops to reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq.

    Thaksin initiated negotiations for several free trade agreements with China, Australia, Bahrain, India, and the US. The latter especially was criticised, with claims that uncompetitive Thai industries could be wiped out.[71]

    Thaksin also announced that Thailand would forsake foreign aid, and work with donor countries to assist in the development of neighbours in the Greater Mekong Sub-region.[72] Thaksin sought to position Thailand as a regional leader, initiating various development projects in poorer neighbouring countries like Laos. More controversially, he established close, friendly ties with the Burmese dictatorship.[73]

    Thailand joined the US-led invasion of Iraq, sending a 423-strong humanitarian contingent.[74] It withdrew its troops on 10 September 2004. Two Thai soldiers died in Iraq in an insurgent attack.

    Abhisit appointed Peoples Alliance for Democracy leader Kasit Piromya as foreign minister. In April 2009, fighting broke out between Thai and Cambodian troops on territory immediately adjacent to the 900-year-old ruins of Cambodia's Preah Vihear Hindu temple near the border. The Cambodian government claimed its army had killed at least four Thais and captured 10 more, although the Thai government denied that any Thai soldiers were killed or injured. Two Cambodian and three Thai soldiers were killed. Both armies blamed the other for firing first and denied entering the other's territory.[75][76]

    Armed forces

    The Royal Thai Armed Forces (Thai: กองทัพไทย, Kong Thap Thai) constitute the military of the Kingdom of Thailand. It consists of the Royal Thai Army (กองทัพบกไทย), the Royal Thai Navy (กองทัพเรือไทย), and the Royal Thai Air Force (กองทัพอากาศไทย). It also incorporates various paramilitary forces.

    The Thai Armed Forces have a combined manpower of 306,000 active duty personnel and another 245,000 active reserve personnel.[77] The head of the Thai Armed Forces (จอมทัพไทย, Chom Thap Thai) is the king,[78] although this position is only nominal. The armed forces are managed by the Ministry of Defence of Thailand, which is headed by the Minister of Defence (a member of the cabinet of Thailand) and commanded by the Royal Thai Armed Forces Headquarters, which in turn is headed by the Chief of Defence Forces of Thailand.[79] In 2011, Thailand's known military expenditure totalled approximately US$5.1 billion.[80]

    According to the constitution, serving in the armed forces is a duty of all Thai citizens.[81] However, only males over the age of 21, who have not gone through reserve training of the Army Reserve Force Students, are given the option of volunteering for the armed forces, or participating in the random draft. The candidates are subjected to varying lengths of training, from six months to two years of full-time service, depending on their education, whether they have partially completed the reserve training course, and whether they volunteered prior to the draft date (usually 1 April every year).

    Candidates with a recognised bachelor's degree serve one year of full-time service if they are conscripted, or six months if they volunteer at their district office (สัสดี, satsadi). Likewise, the training length is also reduced for those who have partially completed the three-year reserve training course (ร.ด., ro do). A person who completed one year out of three will only have to serve full-time for one year. Those who completed two years of reserve training will only have to do six months of full-time training, while those who complete three years or more of reserve training will be exempted entirely.

    Royal Thai Armed Forces Day is celebrated on 18 January, commemorating the victory of Naresuan of the Ayutthaya Kingdom in battle against the crown prince of the Taungoo Dynasty in 1593.

    Geography

    View of the Luang Prabang Range, which straddles the Thai-Lao border, in Nan Province, Northern Thailand

    Totalling 513,120 square kilometres (198,120 sq mi),[1] Thailand is the world's 51st-largest country by total area. It is slightly smaller than Yemen and slightly larger than Spain.

    Satellite image of flooding in Thailand, Oct 2011.

    Thailand comprises several distinct geographic regions, partly corresponding to the provincial groups. The north of the country is the mountainous area of the Thai highlands, with the highest point being Doi Inthanon in the Thanon Thong Chai Range at 2,565 metres (8,415 ft) above sea level. The northeast, Isan, consists of the Khorat Plateau, bordered to the east by the Mekong River. The centre of the country is dominated by the predominantly flat Chao Phraya river valley, which runs into the Gulf of Thailand.

    Southern Thailand consists of the narrow Kra Isthmus that widens into the Malay Peninsula. Politically, there are six geographical regions which differ from the others in population, basic resources, natural features, and level of social and economic development. The diversity of the regions is the most pronounced attribute of Thailand's physical setting.

    The Chao Phraya and the Mekong River are the indispensable water courses of rural Thailand. Industrial scale production of crops use both rivers and their tributaries. The Gulf of Thailand covers 320,000 square kilometres (124,000 sq mi) and is fed by the Chao Phraya, Mae Klong, Bang Pakong, and Tapi Rivers. It contributes to the tourism sector owing to its clear shallow waters along the coasts in the southern region and the Kra Isthmus. The eastern shore of the Gulf of Thailand is an industrial centre of Thailand with the kingdom's premier deepwater port in Sattahip and its busiest commercial port, Laem Chabang.

    The Andaman Sea is a precious natural resource as it hosts the most popular and luxurious resorts in Asia. Phuket, Krabi, Ranong, Phang Nga, and Trang and their islands all lay along the coasts of the Andaman Sea and despite the 2004 tsunami, they are a tourist magnet for visitors from around the world.

    Plans have resurfaced for a canal which would connect the Andaman Sea to the Gulf of Thailand, analogous to the Suez and the Panama Canals. The idea has been greeted positively by Thai politicians as it would cut fees charged by the Ports of Singapore, improve ties with China and India, lower shipping times, and eliminate pirate attacks in the Strait of Malacca, and support the Thai government's policy of being the logistical hub for Southeast Asia. The canal, it is claimed, would improve economic conditions in the south of Thailand, which relies heavily on tourism income, and it would also change the structure of the Thai economy by making it an Asia logistical hub. The canal would be a major engineering project and has an expected cost of US$20–30 billion.

    Climate

    Most of Thailand has a "tropical wet and dry or savanna climate" type (Köppen's Tropical savanna climate).[82] The south and the eastern tip of the east have a tropical monsoon climate.

    Countrywide, temperatures normally range from an average annual high of 38 °C (100.4 °F) to a low of 19 °C (66.2 °F). During the dry season, the temperature rises dramatically in the second half of March, spiking to well over 40 °C (104 °F) in some areas by mid-April when the sun passes its zenith.

    Southwest monsoons that arrive between May and July (except in the south) signal the advent of the rainy season (ruedu fon). This lasts into October and the cloud covering reduces the temperature again, with the high humidity experienced as 'hot and sticky'. November and December mark the onset of the dry season and night temperatures on high ground can occasionally drop to a light frost. Temperatures begin to climb again in January.

    Wildlife

    The population of Asian elephants in Thailand's wild has dropped to an estimated 2,000–3,000.[83]

    The elephant is Thailand's national symbol. Although there were 100,000 domesticated elephants in Thailand in 1850, the population of elephants has dropped to an estimated 2,000.[83] Poachers have long hunted elephants for ivory, meat, and hides. Young elephants are often captured for use in tourist attractions or as work animals, although their use has declined since the government banned logging in 1989. There are now more elephants in captivity than in the wild, and environmental activists claim that elephants in captivity are often mistreated.[84]

    Poaching of protected species remains a major problem. Hunters have decimated the populations of tigers, leopards, and other large cats for their valuable pelts. Many animals (including tigers, bears, crocodiles, and king cobras) are farmed or hunted for their meat, which is considered a delicacy, and for their supposed medicinal properties. Although such trade is illegal, the famous Bangkok market Chatuchak is still known for the sale of endangered species.[85]

    The practice of keeping wild animals as pets threatens several species. Baby animals are typically captured and sold, which often requires killing the mother. Once in captivity and out of their natural habitat, many pets die or fail to reproduce. Affected populations include the Asiatic black bear, Malayan sun bear, white-handed lar, pileated gibbon and binturong.[86]

    Education

    Primary school students in Thailand

    In 2014 the literacy rate was 93.5%.[87] Education is provided by a well-organized school system of kindergartens, primary, lower secondary and upper secondary schools, numerous vocational colleges, and universities. The private sector of education is well developed and significantly contributes to the overall provision of education which the government would not be able to meet with public establishments. Education is compulsory up to and including age 14, with the government providing free education through to age 17.

    Chulalongkorn University, established in 1917, is the oldest university in Thailand.

    Teaching relies heavily on rote learning rather than on student-centred methodology. The establishment of reliable and coherent curricula for its primary and secondary schools is subject to such rapid changes that schools and their teachers are not always sure what they are supposed to be teaching, and authors and publishers of textbooks are unable to write and print new editions quickly enough to keep up with the volatility. Issues concerning university entrance has been in constant upheaval for a number of years. Nevertheless, Thai education has seen its greatest progress in the years since 2001. Most of the present generation of students are computer literate. Thailand was ranked 54th out of 56 countries globally for English proficiency, the second-lowest in Asia.[88]

    Students in ethnic minority areas score consistently lower in standardised national and international tests.[89] [90] [91] This is likely due to unequal allocation of educational resources, weak teacher training, poverty, and low Thai language skill, the language of the tests.[89] [92] [93]

    Extensive nationwide IQ tests were administered to 72,780 Thai students from December 2010 to January 2011. The average IQ was found to be 98.59, which is higher than previous studies have found. IQ levels were found to be inconsistent throughout the country, with the lowest average of 88.07 found in the southern region of Narathiwat Province and the highest average of 108.91 reported in Nonthaburi Province. The Ministry of Public Health blames the discrepancies on iodine deficiency and steps are being taken to require that iodine be added to table salt, a practice common in many Western countries.[94]

    In 2013, the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology announced that 27,231 schools would receive classroom-level access to high-speed internet.[95]

    Science and technology

    The National Science and Technology Development Agency is an agency of the government of Thailand which supports research in science and technology and its application in the Thai economy.

    The Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI) is a Thai synchrotron light source for physics, chemistry, material science, and life sciences. It is at the Suranaree University of Technology (SUT), in Nakhon Ratchasima, about 300 km northeast of Bangkok. The institute, financed by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), houses the only large scale synchrotron in Southeast Asia. It was originally built as the SORTEC synchrotron in Japan and later moved to Thailand and modified for 1.2 GeV operation. It provides users with regularly scheduled light.

    Internet

    In Bangkok, there are 23,000 free public Wi-Fi Internet hotspots.[96] The Internet in Thailand includes 10Gbit/s high speed fibre-optic lines that can be leased and ISPs such as KIRZ that provide residential Internet services.

    The Internet is Royal Thai Police, the Communications Authority of Thailand, and the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology (MICT).

    Economy

    Bangkok, the largest city, business and industrial centre of Thailand.

    Thailand is an emerging economy and is considered a newly industrialised country. Thailand had a 2013 GDP of US$673 billion (on a purchasing power parity [PPP] basis).[98] Thailand is the 2nd largest economy in Southeast Asia after Indonesia. Thailand ranks midway in the wealth spread in Southeast Asia as it is the 4th richest nation according to GDP per capita, after Singapore, Brunei, and Malaysia.

    Thailand functions as an anchor economy for the neighbouring developing economies of Laos, Myanmar, and Cambodia. In the third quarter of 2014, the unemployment rate in Thailand stood at 0.84% according to Thailand's National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB).[99]

    Recent economic history

    Thailand experienced the world's highest economic growth rate from 1985 to 1996 – averaging 12.4% annually. In 1997 increased pressure on the baht, a year in which the economy contracted by 1.9%, led to a crisis that uncovered financial sector weaknesses and forced the Chavalit Yongchaiyudh administration to float the currency. Prime Minister Chavalit Yongchaiyudh was forced to resign after his cabinet came under fire for its slow response to the economic crisis. The baht was pegged at 25 to the US dollar from 1978 to 1997. The baht reached its lowest point of 56 to the US dollar in January 1998 and the economy contracted by 10.8% that year, triggering the Asian financial crisis.

    Thailand's economy started to recover in 1999, expanding 4.2–4.4% in 2000, thanks largely to strong exports. Growth (2.2%) was dampened by the softening of the global economy in 2001, but picked up in the subsequent years owing to strong growth in Asia, a relatively weak baht encouraging exports, and increased domestic spending as a result of several mega projects and incentives of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra, known as Thaksinomics. Growth in 2002, 2003, and 2004 was 5–7% annually.

    Growth in 2005, 2006, and 2007 hovered around 4–5%. Due both to the weakening of the US dollar and an increasingly strong Thai currency, by March 2008 the dollar was hovering around the 33 baht mark. While Thaksinomics has received criticism, official economic data reveals that between 2001 and 2011, Isan's GDP per capita more than doubled to US$1,475, while, over the same period, GDP in the Bangkok area increased from US$7,900 to nearly US$13,000.[100]

    With the instability surrounding major 2010 protests, the GDP growth of Thailand settled at around 4–5%, from highs of 5–7% under the previous civilian administration. Political uncertainty was identified as the primary cause of a decline in investor and consumer confidence. The IMF predicted that the Thai economy would rebound strongly from the low 0.1% GDP growth in 2011, to 5.5% in 2012 and then 7.5% in 2013, due to the monetary policy of the Bank of Thailand, as well as a package of fiscal stimulus measures introduced by the incumbent Yingluck Shinawatra government.[101]

    Following the Thai military coup of 22 May 2014, the AFP global news agency published an article that claimed that the nation was on the verge of recession. The article focused on the departure of nearly 180,000 Cambodians from Thailand due to fears of an immigration clampdown, but concluded with information on the Thai economy's contraction of 2.1% quarter-on-quarter, from January to the end of March 2014.[102]

    Exports and manufacturing

    A proportional representation of Thailand's exports.

    The economy of Thailand is heavily export-dependent, with exports accounting for more than two-thirds of gross domestic product (GDP). Thailand exports over US$105 billion worth of goods and services annually.[1] Major exports include rice, textiles and footwear, fishery products, rubber, jewellery, cars, computers, and electrical appliances.[1]

    Substantial industries include electric appliances, components, computer components, and vehicles. Thailand's recovery from the 1997–1998 Asian financial crisis depended mainly on exports, among various other factors. As of 2012, the Thai automotive industry was the largest in Southeast Asia and the 9th largest in the world.[103][104][105] The Thailand industry has an annual output of near 1.5 million vehicles, mostly commercial vehicles.[105]

    Most of the vehicles built in Thailand are developed and licensed by foreign producers, mainly Japanese and South Korean. The Thai car industry takes advantage of the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) to find a market for many of its products. Eight manufacturers, five Japanese, two US, and Tata of India, produce pick-up trucks in Thailand.[106] Thailand is the second largest consumer of pick-up trucks in the world, after the US. In 2014, pick-ups accounted for 42% of all new vehicle sales in Thailand.[106]

    Tourism

    Prostitution in Thailand and sex tourism also form a de facto part of the economy. Cultural milieu combined with poverty and the lure of money have caused prostitution and sex tourism in particular to flourish in Thailand. One estimate published in 2003 placed the trade at US$4.3 billion per year or about 3% of the Thai economy.[107] According to research by Chulalongkorn University on the Thai illegal economy, prostitution in Thailand in the period between 1993 and 1995, made up around 2.7% of the GDP.[108] It is believed that at least 10% of tourist dollars are spent on the sex trade.[109]

    Agriculture

    Thailand had long been the largest rice exporter in the world. Forty-nine percent of Thailand's labour force is employed in agriculture.[110]

    Forty-nine per cent of Thailand's labour force is employed in agriculture.[110] This is down from 70% in 1980.[110] Rice is the most important crop in the country and Thailand had long been the world's leading exporter of rice, until recently falling behind both India and Vietnam.[111] Thailand has the highest percentage of arable land, 27.25%, of any nation in the Greater Mekong Subregion.[112] About 55% of the arable land area is used for rice production.[113]

    Agriculture has been experiencing a transition from labour-intensive and transitional methods to a more industrialised and competitive sector.[110] Between 1962 and 1983, the agricultural sector grew by 4.1% per year on average and continued to grow at 2.2% between 1983 and 2007.[110] The relative contribution of agriculture to GDP has declined while exports of goods and services have increased.

    Energy

    75% of Thailand's electrical generation is powered by natural gas in 2014.[114] Coal-fired power plants produce an additional 20% of electricity, with the remainder coming from biomass, hydro, and biogas.[114]

    Thailand produces roughly one-third of the oil it consumes. It is the second largest importer of oil in SE Asia. Thailand is a large producer of natural gas, with reserves of at least 10 trillion cubic feet. After Indonesia, it is the largest coal producer in SE Asia, but must import additional coal to meet domestic demand.

    Demographics

    Thailand had a population of 66,720,153[115] as of 2013. Thailand's population is largely rural, concentrated in the rice-growing areas of the central, northeastern, and northern regions. Thailand had an urban population of 45.7% as of 2010, concentrated mostly in and around the Bangkok Metropolitan Area.

    Thailand's government-sponsored family planning program resulted in a dramatic decline in population growth from 3.1% in 1960 to around 0.4% today. In 1970, an average of 5.7 people lived in a Thai household. At the time of the 2010 census, the average Thai household size was 3.2 people.

    Ethnic groups

    Ethnic Thais make up the majority of Thailand's population, 95.9% in 2010. This number includes Thai Chinese, a historically and economically important minority. The remaining 4.1% of the population are Burmese (2.0%), others 1.3%, and unspecified 0.9%.[1]

    Thailand is home to a large expatriate community of around 200,000 foreigners. Some 41,000 Britons alone live in Thailand.[116] Increasing numbers of migrants from neighbouring Myanmar, Laos, and Cambodia, as well as from Nepal and India, have pushed the total number of non-national residents to around 3.5 million as of 2009, up from an estimated 2 million in 2008, and about 1.3 million in the year 2000.[117]

    Population centres

    Language

    The official language of Thailand is Thai, a Tai–Kadai language closely related to Lao, Shan in Myanmar, and numerous smaller languages spoken in an arc from Hainan and Yunnan south to the Chinese border. It is the principal language of education and government and spoken throughout the country. The standard is based on the dialect of the central Thai people, and it is written in the Thai alphabet, an abugida script that evolved from the Khmer alphabet. Several other dialects exist, and coincide with the regional designations. Southern Thai is spoken in the southern provinces, and Northern Thai is spoken in the provinces that were formerly part of the independent kingdom of Lan Na.

    Thailand is also host to several other minority languages, the largest of which is the Lao dialect of Isan spoken in the northeastern provinces. Although sometimes considered a Thai dialect, it is a Lao dialect, and the region in where it is traditionally spoken was historically part of the Lao kingdom of Lan Xang. In the far south, Kelantan-Pattani Malay is the primary language of Malay Muslims. Varieties of Chinese are also spoken by the large Thai Chinese population, with the Teochew dialect best-represented.

    Numerous tribal languages are also spoken, including many Austroasiatic languages such as Mon, Khmer, Viet, Mlabri and Orang Asli; Austronesian languages such as Cham and Moken; Sino-Tibetan languages like Lawa, Akha, and Karen; and other Tai languages such as Tai Yo, Phu Thai, and Saek. Hmong is a member of the Hmong–Mien languages, which is now regarded as a language family of its own.

    English is a mandatory school subject, but the number of fluent speakers remains low, especially outside cities.

    Religion

    Thailand's prevalent religion is Theravada Buddhism, which is an integral part of Thai identity and culture. Active participation in Buddhism is among the highest in the world. According to the 2000 census, 94.6% of the country's population self-identified as Buddhists of the Theravada tradition. Muslims constitute the second largest religious group in Thailand, comprising 4.6% of the population.[1][127]

    Islam is concentrated mostly in the country's southernmost provinces: Pattani, Yala, Satun, Narathiwat, and part of Songkhla Chumphon, which are predominantly Malay, most of whom are Sunni Muslims. Christians represent 0.7% of the population, with the remaining population consisting of Sikhs and Hindus, who live mostly in the country's cities. There is also a small but historically significant Jewish community in Thailand dating back to the 17th century.

    Culture

    Theravada Buddhism, highly practised in Thailand.

    Thai culture has been shaped by many influences, including Indian, Lao, Burmese, Cambodian, and Chinese.

    Its traditions incorporate a great deal of influence from India, China, Cambodia, and the rest of Southeast Asia. Thailand's national religion, Theravada Buddhism, is central to modern Thai identity. Thai Buddhism has evolved over time to include many regional beliefs originating from Hinduism, animism, as well as ancestor worship. The official calendar in Thailand is based on the Eastern version of the Buddhist Era (BE), which is 543 years ahead of the Gregorian (Western) calendar. Thus the year 2015 is 2558 BE in Thailand.

    Several different ethnic groups, many of which are marginalised, populate Thailand. Some of these groups spill over into Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia and Malaysia and have mediated change between their traditional local culture, national Thai, and global cultural influences. Overseas Chinese also form a significant part of Thai society, particularly in and around Bangkok. Their successful integration into Thai society has allowed for this group to hold positions of economic and political power. Thai Chinese businesses prosper as part of the larger bamboo network, a network of overseas Chinese businesses operating in the markets of Southeast Asia that share common family and cultural ties.[128]

    Khon Show is the most stylised form of Thai performance.

    The traditional Thai greeting, the wai, is generally offered first by the younger of the two people meeting, with their hands pressed together, fingertips pointing upwards as the head is bowed to touch face to fingertips, usually coinciding with the spoken words "sawatdi khrap" for male speakers, and "sawatdi kha" for females. The elder may then respond in the same way. Social status and position, such as in government, will also have an influence on who performs the wai first. For example, although one may be considerably older than a provincial governor, when meeting it is usually the visitor who pays respect first. When children leave to go to school, they are taught to wai their parents to indicate their respect. The wai is a sign of respect and reverence for another, similar to the namaste greeting of India and Nepal.

    As with other Asian cultures, respect towards ancestors is an essential part of Thai spiritual practice. Thais have a strong sense of hospitality and generosity, but also a strong sense of social hierarchy. Seniority is paramount in Thai culture. Elders have by tradition ruled in family decisions or ceremonies. Older siblings have duties to younger ones.

    Taboos in Thailand include touching someone's head or pointing with the feet, as the head is considered the most sacred and the foot the lowest part of the body.

    Cuisine

    Thai cuisine blends five fundamental tastes: sweet, spicy, sour, bitter, and salty. Some common ingredients used in Thai cuisine include garlic, chillies, lime juice, lemon grass, coriander, galangal, palm sugar, and fish sauce (nam pla). The staple food in Thailand is rice, particularly jasmine variety rice (also known as "hom Mali" rice) which is included at almost every meal. Thailand was long the world's largest exporter of rice, and Thais domestically consume over 100 kg of milled rice per person per year.[113] Over 5,000 varieties of rice from Thailand are preserved in the rice gene bank of the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), based in the Philippines. The king of Thailand is the official patron of IRRI.[129]

    Media

    Thai society has been influenced in recent years by its widely available multi-language press and media. There are some English and numerous Thai and Chinese newspapers in circulation. Most Thai popular magazines use English headlines as a chic glamour factor. Many large businesses in Bangkok operate in English as well as other languages.

    Thailand is the largest newspaper market in Southeast Asia with an estimated circulation of over 13 million copies daily in 2003. Even upcountry, out of Bangkok, the media flourish. For example, according to Thailand's Public Relations Department Media Directory 2003–2004, the nineteen provinces of Isan, Thailand's northeastern region, hosted 116 newspapers along with radio, TV, and cable. Since then, another province, Bueng Kan, was incorporated, totalling twenty provinces. In addition, a military coup on 22 May 2014 led to severe state restrictions on all media and forms of expression.

    Units of measurement

    Thailand generally uses the metric system, but traditional units of measurement for land area are used, and imperial units of measurement are occasionally used for building materials, such as wood and plumbing fixtures. Years are numbered as B.E. (Buddhist Era) in educational settings, the civil service, government, and on contracts and newspaper datelines. In banking, and increasingly in industry and commerce, standard Western year (Christian or Common Era) counting is the standard practice.[130]

    Sports

    Muay Thai, Thailand's signature sport

    Muay Thai (Thai: มวยไทย, RTGS: Muai Thai,  , lit. "Thai boxing") is a native form of kickboxing and Thailand's signature sport. It incorporates kicks, punches, knees and elbow strikes in a ring with gloves similar to those used in Western boxing and this has led to Thailand gaining medals at the Olympic Games in boxing.

    Football has possibly overtaken muay Thai as the most widely followed sport in contemporary Thai society. Thailand national football team has played the AFC Asian Cup six times and reached the semifinals in 1972. The country has hosted the Asian Cup twice, in 1972 and in 2007. The 2007 edition was co-hosted together with Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam. It is not uncommon to see Thais cheering their favourite English Premier League teams on television and walking around in replica kit. Another widely enjoyed pastime, and once a competitive sport, is kite flying.

    Takraw (Thai: ตะกร้อ) is a sport native to Thailand, in which the players hit a rattan ball and are only allowed to use their feet, knees, chest, and head to touch the ball. Sepak takraw is a form of this sport which is similar to volleyball. The players must volley a ball over a net and force it to hit the ground on the opponent's side. It is also a popular sport in other countries in Southeast Asia. A rather similar game but played only with the feet is Buka ball.

    Snooker has enjoyed increasing popularity in Thailand in recent years, with interest in the game being stimulated by the success of Thai snooker player James Wattana in the 1990s.[131] Other notable players produced by the country include Ratchayothin Yotharuck, Noppon Saengkham and Dechawat Poomjaeng.[132]

    Rugby is also a growing sport in Thailand with the Thailand national rugby union team rising to be ranked 61st in the world.[133] Thailand became the first country in the world to host an international 80 kg welterweight rugby tournament in 2005.[134] The national domestic Thailand Rugby Union (TRU) competition includes several universities and services teams such as Chulalongkorn University, Mahasarakham University, Kasetsart University, Prince of Songkla University, Thammasat University, Rangsit University, the Thai Police, the Thai Army, the Thai Navy and the Royal Thai Air Force. Local sports clubs which also compete in the TRU include the British Club of Bangkok, the Southerners Sports Club (Bangkok) and the Royal Bangkok Sports Club.

    Thailand has been called the golf capital of Asia[135] as it is a popular destination for golf. The country attracts a large number of golfers from Japan, Korea, Singapore, South Africa, and Western countries who come to play golf in Thailand every year.[136] The growing popularity of golf, especially among the middle classes and expats, is evident as there are more than 200 world-class golf courses nationwide,[137] and some of them are chosen to host PGA and LPGA tournaments, such as Amata Spring Country Club, Alpine Golf and Sports Club, Thai Country Club, and Black Mountain Golf Club.

    Basketball is a growing sport in Thailand, especially on the professional sports club level. The Chang Thailand Slammers won the 2011 ASEAN Basketball League Championship.[138] The Thailand national basketball team had its most successful year at the 1966 Asian Games where it won the silver medal.[139]

    Other sports in Thailand are slowly growing as the country develops its sporting infrastructure. The success in sports like weightlifting and taekwondo at the last two summer Olympic Games has demonstrated that boxing is no longer the only medal option for Thailand.

    Sporting venues

    Thammasat Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Bangkok. It is currently used mostly for football matches. The stadium holds 25,000. It is on Thammasat University's Rangsit campus. It was built for the 1998 Asian Games by construction firm Christiani and Nielsen, the same company that constructed the Democracy Monument in Bangkok.

    Rajamangala National Stadium is the biggest sporting arena in Thailand. It currently has a capacity of 65,000. It is in Bang Kapi, Bangkok. The stadium was built in 1998 for the 1998 Asian Games and is the home stadium of the Thailand national football team.

    The well-known Lumpini Boxing Stadium will host its final Muay Thai boxing matches on 7 February 2014 after the venue first opened in December 1956. Managed by the Royal Thai Army, the stadium was officially selected for the purpose of muay Thai bouts following a competition that was staged on on 15 March 1956. From 11 February 2014, the stadium will relocate to Ram Intra Road, due to the new venue's capacity to accommodate audiences of up to 3,500. Foreigners typically pay between 1,000–2,000 baht to view a match, with prices depending on the location of the seating.[140]

    International rankings

    Organisation Survey Ranking
    Heritage Foundation Indices of Economic Freedom 60 of 179
    A.T. Kearney/Foreign Policy Magazine Global Services Location Index 2011 7 of 50
    Reporters Without Borders Worldwide Press Freedom Index, 2014 130 of 180
    Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 80 of 179
    United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 89 of 187
    World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report (2008) 34 of 134[141]
    World Gold Council Gold reserve (2010) 24 of 111
    HSBC International Expat Explorer Survey (2012) 2 of 30[142]

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    Bibliography

    External links

    Government
    • Thaigov.go.th Government of Thailand
    • Chief of State and Cabinet Members
    • Mfa.go.th Ministry of Foreign Affairs
    • Thailand Internet Information National Electronics and Computer Technology Center
    • Ministry of Culture
    General information
    Travel
    • Thailand travel guide from Wikivoyage
    • Tourism Authority of Thailand Official tourism website
    Other
    • Thailand Country Fact Sheet from the Common Language Project