Telecommunications in Cyprus
Telecommunications in Cyprus includes radio, television, fixed and mobile telephones, and the Internet in the Republic of Cyprus.
The Cyprus Telecommunication Authority, the state-owned telecommunications company, manages most telecommunications and Internet connections on the island. However, following the recent liberalization of the telecommunications sector, a few private telecommunications companies have emerged.
- Radio and television 1
- Telephones 2
- Internet 3
- Internet censorship and surveillance 4
- Northern Cyprus 5
- See also 6
- References 7
- External links 8
Radio and television
The Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation (CyBC) (Greek ΡΙΚ) is the main broadcaster in Cyprus, although there are also privately owned radio and TV stations. A TV channel from the Greek state broadcaster, ERT, is available. The British Forces Broadcasting Service also operates radio and TV stations, although the TV signal is now confined to the Sovereign Base Areas or encrypted for copyright reasons.
- Radio stations: A mixture of state and privately run radio services; the public broadcaster operates 4 radio stations; in addition a number of private radio stations are available; in areas under illegal occupation by the Turkish army, there are 4 public radio stations as well as privately owned radio broadcast stations (2007).
- Radios: 310,000 (1997).
- Television stations: A mixture of state and privately run TV services; the public broadcaster operates 2 TV channels; 6 private TV broadcasters, satellite and cable TV services including telecasts from Greece and Turkey are available; in areas under illegal occupation by the Turkish army, there are 2 public TV stations, and privately owned TV broadcast stations (2007).
- Television sets: 248,000 (1997).
Public TV stations:
- ΡΙΚ1, CyBC 1st channel, island-wide coverage.
- ΡΙΚ2, CyBC 2nd channel, island-wide coverage.
- ANT1, private, island-wide coverage.
- CNC PLUS TV, private, island-wide coverage.
- MEGA Channel, private, island-wide coverage.
- SIGMA TV, private, island-wide coverage.
- FRED TV, private, Nicosia local coverage.
- VOX TV, private, Larnaca local coverage.
- Extra TV, private, Limassol local coverage.
- Paphos TV, private, Paphos local coverage.
- Omega, private - Paphos local coverage.
- Subscriber TV: The first subscription channels in Cyprus were LTV and Alpha, offered by Multichoice since the mid-90s.
Some major subscription TV platforms today are:
- AthenaSAT, offering approximately 15 channels via satellite.
- Cablenet, offering services over their cable network with their triple-play package with over 30 channels.
- CytaVision, offering approximately 30 channels via an ADSL IPTV platform, and LTV and Alpha.
- NOVA Cyprus, with approximately 35 themed channels via satellite.
- PrimeTel, offers more than 30 digital TV channels using ADSL IPTV, as well as LTV and Nova packages.
- Calling code: +357 for the Republic of Cyprus and +90 for the areas under illegal occupation by the Turkish army which use the Turkish numbering plan.
- International call prefix: 00
- Domestic: excellent system in both the area under Republic of Cyprus government control and the area of the Republic of Cyprus under illegal occupation by the Turkish army; open wire, fibre-optic cable, and microwave radio relay.
- Tropospheric scatter;
- Communications cables: a number of submarine cables, including the SEA-ME-WE 3, combine to provide connectivity to Western Europe, the Middle East, and Asia;
- Satellite earth stations: 8 as follows: 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat.
- Main lines: 373,200 lines in use, 108th in the world (2012).
- Companies that offer land-based telecommunication services:
- Mobile cellular: 1.1 million lines, 155th in the world (2012).
- Companies that offer mobile cellular services:
ADSL is the most widespread broadband technology in Cyprus, is s available in most urban and sub-urban areas, with multiple providers offering packages that range from 512 kbit/s to 32 Mbit/s. Cable broadband is also available in some urban locations (Nicosia, Larnaca and Limassol) with speeds up to 100 Mbit/s. An ISP comparison website exists at the Cyprus Broadband portal. Many wireless networks are appearing in Cyprus, some with no minimum contract/pay as you go and others with a fixed contract.
- Top-level domains: .cy for Cyprus and .nc.tr for Northern Cyprus.
- Internet users: 694,223 users, 126th in the world; 61.0% of the population, 63rd in the world (2012).
- Fixed broadband: 218,783 subscriptions, 82nd in the world; 19.2% of population, 51st in the world (2012).
- Wireless broadband: 384,270 subscriptions, 98th in the world; 33.8% of the population, 47th in the world (2012).
- Internet hosts: 252,013 hosts, 67th in the world (2012).
- IPv4: 1.1 million addresses allocated, less than 0.05% of the world total, 999 addresses per 1000 people (2012).
- Internet Service Providers: 11 ISPs (2006).
- Internet providers in Cyprus:
Internet censorship and surveillance
There are no government restrictions on access to the Internet or reports that the government monitored e-mail or Internet chat rooms without appropriate legal authority. Individuals and groups engage in the peaceful expression of views via the Internet, including e‑mail.
The law provides for freedom of speech and press, and the government generally respects these rights in practice. An independent press, an effective judiciary, and a functioning democratic political system combine to ensure freedom of speech and of the press. The law prohibits arbitrary interference with privacy, family, home, or correspondence, and the government generally respects these prohibitions in practice.
Northern Cyprus is under illegal occupation by the Turkish army. It is the so-called "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC). It is a self declared state that comprises the northern portion of the island of Cyprus. Recognised only by Turkey, Northern Cyprus is considered by the international community as occupied territory of the Republic of Cyprus. A buffer zone, the Green Line, under the control of the United Nations stretches between Northern Cyprus and the rest of the island and divides Nicosia, the island's largest city and capital of both states.
International telephone calls to Northern Cyprus are routed via a Turkish dialing code (+90 392) as Northern Cyprus has neither its own country code nor official ITU prefix. Similarly, there is no Internet top-level domain for Northern Cyprus, which is instead under the Turkish second-level domain .nc.tr. Amateur radio operators sometimes use callsigns beginning with "1B", but these have no standing for awards or other operating credit.
- Cyprus Amateur Radio Society
- Cyprus Internet Exchange (CyIX)
- Cyprus Safer Internet Helpline
- Cyprus Safer Internet Hotline
- This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2013 edition".
- This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of State.
- "Communications: Cyprus", World Factbook, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, 5 December 2013. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
- Dialing Procedures (International Prefix, National (Trunk) Prefix and National (Significant) Number) (in Accordance with ITY-T Recommendation E.164 (11/2010)), Annex to ITU Operational Bulletin No. 994-15.XII.2011, International Telecommunication Union (ITU, Geneva), 15 December 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
- Cyprus Broadband portal. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
- Cyprus Internet, Leap Wireless. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
- Calculated using penetration rate and population data from "Countries and Areas Ranked by Population: 2012", Population data, International Programs, U.S. Census Bureau, retrieved 26 June 2013
- "Percentage of Individuals using the Internet 2000-2012", International Telecommunications Union (Geneva), June 2013, retrieved 22 June 2013
- "Fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants 2012", Dynamic Report, ITU ITC EYE, International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved on 29 June 2013.
- "Active mobile-broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants 2012", Dynamic Report, ITU ITC EYE, International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved on 29 June 2013.
- Select Formats, Country IP Blocks. Accessed on 2 April 2012. Note: Site is said to be updated daily.
- Population, The World Factbook, United States Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 2 April 2012. Note: Data are mostly for 1 July 2012.
- "Cyprus", Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2012, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, U.S. Department of State, 22 March 2013. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
- Emerson, Michael (2004). The Wider Europe Matrix. CPSE.
- "The status of Northern Cyprus as a separate entity is recognised only by Turkey, which keeps around 30,000 troops in the north of the island" in "Cyprus country profile", BBC News, 23 December 2011. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
- United Nations Security Council resolution 550 states "Gravely concerned about the further secessionist acts in the occupied part of the Republic of Cyprus which are in violation of resolution 541(1983), namely the purported "exchange of Ambassadors" between Turkey and the legally invalid "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" and the contemplated holding of a "Constitutional referendum" and "elections", as well as by other actions or threats of action aimed at further consolidating the purported independent state and the division of Cyprus".
- "Rule of Law In Armed Conflicts Project – Cyprus", Judicial Decisions of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights (Switzerland). Retrieved 7 January 2014.
- Cyprus Telecommunication Authority (CYTA), website.