Gallo Opera House (1927)
Casino de Paris (1933)
WPA Federal Music Theatre (1937)
New Yorker Theatre (1939)
CBS Studio No. 52 (1942)
Studio 54 (1977)
Studio 54 logo designed by Gilbert Lesser
254 West 54th Street
New York City
|Owner||Roundabout Theatre Company|
|Capacity||1,006 (519 Orchestra/487 Mezzanine)|
|Architect||Eugene De Rosa|
Studio 54 was a popular New York nightclub from 1977 until 1981 when it was sold by founders and creators Steve Rubell and Ian Schrager. It continued to operate as a nightclub until 1991 by other owners. Located at 254 West 54th Street in Manhattan, New York City, the space was originally the Gallo Opera House, opening in 1927, after which it changed names several times, eventually becoming CBS radio and television Studio 52. Since November 1998 it has been a venue for the Roundabout Theatre Company and is still called Studio 54, but is no longer a nightclub. A separate restaurant and nightclub, called 54 Below, operates in the basement of the famed venue.
- CBS Studio 52 1.1
Nightclub era 1.2
- The scene (1970s) 1.2.1
- End of the first era 1.2.2
- The Ritz and Cabaret Royale 1.3.1
Roundabout Theater at Studio 54, mid 1990s-Present 1.4
- Notable productions 1.4.1
- Upstairs at Studio 54 1.5
- Other tenants 2
- Cultural impact 3
- Studio 54 Radio 4
- DJs during the Studio 54 Nightclub era 5
- See also 6
- Literature 7
- References 8
- External links 9
Designed by famed architect Eugene De Rosa, the venue opened in 1927 as the Gallo Opera House (soon revised to Gallo Theatre), named for its owner, Fortune Gallo. Beginning with a very large-scale production of La Bohème which closed after three weeks, the Gallo was met with a succession of failed attempts to draw an audience, and was lost to foreclosure after only two years. It later reopened under new ownership as The New Yorker, but continued failing to attract sufficient crowds. It changed hands in the early 1930s, then 1937 it became the WPA Federal Music Project of New York City's Federal Music Theatre/Theatre of Music then it became the New Yorker Theatre in 1939, housing an all-black version of The Swing Mikado, originally from Chicago, for two months, when the production moved to the 44th Street Theatre to finish its run. The New Yorker Theatre saw its final production, Medicine Show, end in May 1940, following which the building remained vacant for three years.
CBS Studio 52
In 1943 CBS purchased the theatre, renaming it Studio 52. CBS named its studios in order of purchase; the number 52 was unrelated to the street it was located on. During these years, CBS used the theater for radio broadcasts.
From the 1940s to the mid-1970s, CBS used the location as a radio and TV stage that housed such shows as What's My Line?, The $64,000 Question, Video Village, Password, To Tell the Truth, Beat the Clock, The Jack Benny Show, I've Got a Secret, Ted Mack and the Original Amateur Hour, and Captain Kangaroo. The soap opera Love of Life was produced there until 1975.
In 1976, CBS moved most of its broadcast operations to the Ed Sullivan Theater and the CBS Broadcast Center, and sold Studio 52. The Ed Sullivan Theater once had access to Studio 52 through an access door, which was cinder-blocked during the theater's 1993 renovation for Late Show with David Letterman.
When CBS began marketing the building in 1976, various interests in the art and fashion world expressed interest in seeing it converted into a nightclub. Male model Uva Harden tried to get gallery owner Frank Lloyd to finance the club, until Lloyd lost a $9 million lawsuit to the estate of the artist Mark Rothko, the Rothko Case.
In 1977 the theater was transformed into a nightclub called Studio 54 by Steve Rubell and Ian Schrager, with Jack Dushey as a financial backer. They operated the company as Broadway Catering Corp. It took only six weeks to transform the theater into a nightclub and cost $400,000 before its grand opening on April 26.
Rubell and Schrager hired Scott Bromley as architect, Ron Doud as interior designer and Brian Thompson as lighting designer. Jules Fisher and Paul Marantz, two well-known lighting designers, created the dance floor environment and created moveable, theatrical sets and lights using the copious existing TV lighting circuits and fly system, which allowed for a dynamic constantly changing environment. Where formerly all clubs had been very dark, at Studio 54 the crowd could be lit brightly.
Within a month of opening, the New York State Liquor Authority raided Studio 54 for selling liquor without a license, and closed it. The owners of the nightclub said the incident was a "misunderstanding". The next night the club reopened, serving fruit juice and soda instead of liquor. Prior to the raid, the nightclub had been using daily "caterers' permits", which enabled the nightclub to serve alcohol but were intended for weddings or political events. The State had denied the daily permit for the night and raided the nightclub. The nightclub had been using these permits while waiting for its liquor license to be processed.
The scene (1970s)
Event planner Robert Isabell had four tons of glitter dumped in a four-inch layer on the floor of Studio 54 for a New Year's Eve party, which owner Ian Schrager described as like "standing on stardust" and left glitter that could be found months later in their clothing and homes. Frequent regulars at Studio 54 included Andy Warhol, Liza Minnelli, Bianca Jagger, Elizabeth Taylor, Halston, Mick Jagger, Jerry Hall, Debbie Harry, Grace Jones, Michael Jackson, Calvin Klein, Elton John, Tina Turner, Divine, Margaret Trudeau, Sylvia Miles, Francesco Scavullo, Truman Capote, Margaux Hemingway, Janice Dickinson, Mikhail Baryshnikov, Diana Ross, Cher, Salvador Dali, Diana Vreeland, John Travolta, Jackie Kennedy Onassis, Geraldo Rivera Brooke Shields and Martha Graham. Actor Al Corley was a doorman during the late 70's.
Performers at Studio 54 during its first few years of operation included Grace Jones, Donna Summer, Stevie Wonder, James Brown, Gloria Gaynor, Sylvester, Amii Stewart, Stephanie Mills, The Ritchie Family, The Village People, Anita Ward, Two Tons o' Fun, Jocelyn Brown, France Joli, Cheryl Lynn, Jean Carne, Claudja Barry, Klaus Nomi and Linda Clifford.
End of the first era
In December 1978 Rubell was quoted in the New York newspapers as saying that Studio 54 had made $7 million in its first year and that "only the Mafia made more money". Shortly thereafter the nightclub was raided and Rubell and Schrager were arrested for skimming $2.5 million.
Studio 54 closed with a final party on February 4, 1980, when Diana Ross personally serenaded Rubell and Schrager. Ryan O'Neal, Mariel Hemingway, Jocelyn Wildenstein, Richard Gere, Gia Carangi, Jack Nicholson, Reggie Jackson, and Sylvester Stallone were among the guests that night. Schrager and Rubell pleaded guilty to tax evasion and spent 13 months in prison. It was the first time anyone had ever been prosecuted for a one-year tax evasion.
In 1981, Rubell and Schrager sold the building, but opted to keep a lease. Later that year, the building was sold to Mark Fleischman with Rubell and Schrager staying on as consultants for six months afterward. Studio 54 reopened on September 12, 1981, with a guest list of Andy Warhol, Calvin Klein, Cary Grant, Lauren Hutton, Gloria Vanderbilt, Mark Gastineau, Gina Lollobrigida, and Brooke Shields. Billy Amato's "Z100/WPLJ" Saturday Night radio parties and Michael Fesco's "Sundays at the Studio" artists who performed at the time, Madonna, Wham!, Duran Duran, Cyndi Lauper, Culture Club, Lime, Spandau Ballet, Menudo, and Run-DMC would perform at the club, before going on to future success. KISS held a concert at the club in 1982 that was broadcast via satellite to the Sanremo Festival in Italy. During 1985, heavy metal groups Slayer, Venom and Exodus filmed a video at Studio 54 called Ultimate Revenge for Disco. In the 1980s many legendary freestyle music artists performed at the club such as Noel Pagan, Nocera, Cynthia, Coro, Tony Moran, India, TKA, Black Riot, Fascination, Sweet Sensation, Pajama Party, Johnny O, Hanson & Davis, and many others. Radio stations such as 92 KTU, HOT-103, and HOT-97 would broadcast each live event for these freestyle music artists.
The Ritz and Cabaret Royale
From 1981 to April 1986 Studio 54 was under the ownership of Mark Fleischman. Then from 1988 until early 1993 Studio 54's name was changed to The Ritz (previously located on 11th Street 3rd Avenue from 1980 to 1987). The club then became strictly a concert venue for New Wave, Punk, and Eurodisco artists. The new owners were CAT Entertainment Corp and during that period the nightclub hosted occasional rock concerts, and was otherwise used by CAT Entertainment as a public venue available for rent. In 1993 CAT Entertainment was acquired by Cabaret Royale Corporation, a nightclub operator based in Dallas. CAT Entertainment completed a renovation of the nightclub earlier abandoned because of a lack of funds, and resurrected both the nightclub and the Studio 54 trademark, which had never been properly registered by any of the prior owners or operators. The newly remodeled nightclub was operated as "Cabaret Royale at Studio 54" by CAT Entertainment until early 1995. The Pilevsky interests which owned the theater itself and the adjacent office building had several years earlier granted a mortgage on the properties to the Bank of Tokyo and, in an effort to resolve a large unpaid indebtedness of Pilevsky to the bank and to forestall foreclosure, a trustee had been appointed by Pilevsky and the bank and granted the right to sell those and numerous other properties owned by Pilevsky. During late 1994 Allied Partners acquired the Studio 54 properties and, after protracted litigation, CAT Entertainment lost its lease on the nightclub and ceased operations.
Roundabout Theater at Studio 54, mid 1990s-Present
During 1994 Allied Partners bought the building for $5.5 million. They restored much of the architectural detail that had been painted black or covered with plywood by Schrager and Rubell. The nightclub reopened with a live concert by disco stars Gloria Gaynor, Vicki Sue Robinson, and Sister Sledge. The building again went into bankruptcy in 1996 and Allied announced plans to demolish it and replace it with Cyberdrome, a virtual reality gaming venue, however, the project was never completed.
During 1998 the collapse of a construction hoist blocked access to the Henry Miller Theatre on 43rd Street, where the successful revival of the Broadway musical Cabaret was playing. To keep the show accessible, the Roundabout Theater Company agreed to move the performance to Studio 54. Roundabout later bought the building in 2003 from Allied for $22.5 million, and Cabaret played until 2004.
- 1998: Cabaret
- 2004: Assassins
- 2004: Pacific Overtures
- 2005: A Streetcar Named Desire
- 2005: A Touch of the Poet
- 2006: The Threepenny Opera
- 2006: The Apple Tree
- 2007: 110 in the Shade
- 2007: The Ritz
- 2008: Sunday in the Park with George
- 2008: Pal Joey
- 2009: Waiting for Godot
- 2009: Wishful Drinking
- 2010: Sondheim on Sondheim
- 2010: Brief Encounter
- 2011: The People in the Picture
- 2012: Harvey
- 2012: The Mystery of Edwin Drood
- 2014: Cabaret
- 2015: An Act of God
Upstairs at Studio 54
The second floor of the theater was used as a nightclub on weeks when plays were not being staged under the name Upstairs at Studio 54. The club was operated by Josh Hadar who was one of the Allied partners.
Upstairs at Studio 54 Performances:
The building, which is still frequently referred to as the Studio 54 building, houses a variety of tenants, among them a theater venue, offices, and an educational facility called Mandl School, the College of Allied Health. This building also houses Olivtree Securities LLC. In 1965, the building housed Scepter Records's offices, warehouse space and a recording studio, where The Velvet Underground & Nico album was recorded in April 1966.
In the late 1970s, the club was arguably the best-known nightclub in the world. The club played a formative role in the growth of disco music and nightclub culture in general. Several franchises, notably in Las Vegas, have sprung up around the country. In November 2011, the Las Vegas Weekly reported that the club, located in the MGM Grand, would close on January 8, 2012.
A movie about the disco, entitled 54, was released in 1998.
Studio 54 Radio
On August 15, 2011, Sirius XM Radio launched a 24x7 Disco channel based around the Studio 54 theme, billed as Studio 54 Radio, broadcasting of Sirius XM 15. The channel, which replaced the previous Disco channel "The Strobe", features pure disco and dance classics, along with interviews and testimonials from the club's actual DJs and employees.
On October 18, 2011, Sirius XM Radio held a special "One Night Only" party at the club's original location to promote the new channel. In order to win tickets, contestants had to call in to the station and share their memorable Studio 54 experiences. 100 guests were also allowed to enter from the street. The club was decorated with both original and replica props to fully recreate the appearance of the club in its heyday. For the night, it featured the signature sun and "man on the moon" props as well as young shirtless waiters (a "trademark" of Studio 54). The event featured many of the original staff members, including Carmen D'Alessio, Mark Benecke, Billy Amato and original DJs such as John Benitez. Guest DJ Avicii also performed later in the night. The live DJ sets were broadcast on the Sirius XM channel. Many celebrities such as Martha Stewart, Kevin Bacon, Susan Lucci, Gayle King, Kirstie Alley, Cameron Diaz, Betsey Johnson, Kelly Preston, Tinsley Mortimer, Lance Bass, Carol Alt, Keith Richards, Tony Hawk, Donald Trump, and Andy Cohen were spotted in the crowd.
DJs during the Studio 54 Nightclub era
- Fiorucci, an Italian fashion boutique hosting the Studio 54 opening party
- Anthony Haden-Guest. The Last Party: Studio 54, Disco, and the Culture of the Night (New York: William Morrow and Company, 1997) ISBN 978-0688160982
- Jack Ricardo. "Last Dance at Studio 54" (2012) ISBN 978-1-4675-1362-3
- Steven Gaines and Robert Jon Cohen. "The Club, a Novel" (New York: William Morrow and Company, 1979)
- "Rent a Venue: Studio 54".
- "Studio 54".
- "A Short History of Roundabout Theatre Company". Archived from the original on 2010-12-21.
- "54 Below".
- "Works Progress Administration Composers' Forum-Laboratory, third series Fortnightly concerts of contemporary American music, W.P.A. Federal Music Theatre.".
- "WPA, Federal Music Project of New York City, Theatre of Music, Symphony concerts.".
- "At This Theatre: Studio 54".
- "Who We Are: Studio 54".
- "Studio 54". And We Danced: Disco and Dance Music History. Archived from the original on 2009-01-29.
- "Operators of Studio 54 In New York Indicted On Skimming Receipts".
- Blau, Eleanor (May 22, 1977). "Liquor Authority Head Stops Discothèque’s Music".
- Weber, Bruce (July 10, 2009). "Robert Isabell, Who Turned Events Into Wondrous Occasions, Dies at 57".
- "Geraldo Rivera"
- "Geraldo's Last Laugh"
- Brooke Shields. Interview with Jimmy Fallon. 2011-02-07. Late Night with Jimmy Fallon.
- Flint, Peter B. (July 27, 1989). "Steve Rubell, Studio 54's Creator And a 'Pasha of Disco,' Dies at 45".
- "Studio 54 owners admit tax evasion".
- Neill, Michael; Little, Benilde; Gross, Ken (August 14, 1989). "Steve Rubell, Studio 54's Puckish Ringmaster, Follows His Club into History".
- Abrahams, Andrew (December 10, 1990). "With Prison and Steve Rubell's Death Behind Him, Studio 54's Ian Schrager Is Back on Top with a Hot New Hotel".
- "Reality News; Studio 54".
- "Haoui Montaug; Disco Doorman, 39".
- Howe, Marvine (December 19, 1993). "Neighborhood Report: Midtown; A Stripped-Down Studio 54 For the Post-Disco Era".
- Studio 54, Broadway New York
- Holusha, John (October 1, 2003). "As 'Cabaret' Nears End, Cabaret Still Has a Place".
- Adams, Mark (November 16, 2011). "54 days to go until Studio 54 Las Vegas closes".
- Andy Warhol and Friends in Studio 54, 1981
- Broadway Theatre Guide with full show details for the Studio 54
- Official website for Roundabout Theater at Studio 54
- Studio 54 at the Internet Broadway Database
- Studio 54: The Hotspot's Heyday - slideshow by Life magazine
- BBC Radio 2 Documentary about Studio 54 with Boy George First broadcast 17 April 2007