Socialist Party USA
|Socialist Party USA|
|National Secretary||Greg Pason (NJ)|
May 30th, 1973 (as Socialist Party USA)July 29th, 1901 (as Socialist Party of America)
|Preceded by||Socialist Party of America|
339 Lafayette St. Suite #303
New York, NY 10012
|Youth wing||Young People's Socialist League|
|Elected offices||1 (2014)|
Politics of the United States
|Part of a series on|
the United States
|Parties and organizations|
The Socialist Party USA (SPUSA) is a multi-tendency democratic socialist party in the United States. The SPUSA was founded in 1973 and is the ideological continuation and successor of the Socialist Party of America, which existed from 1901 to 1972.
The party is officially committed to left-wing democratic socialism. The Socialist Party USA, along with its predecessor, has received varying degrees of support when its candidates have competed against those from the Republican and Democratic parties. Some attribute this to the party having to compete with the financial dominance of the two major parties, as well as the limitations of the United States' legislatively and judicially entrenched two-party system. The Party supports third-party candidates, particularly socialists, and opposes the candidates of the two major parties.
The Party self-describes as opposing all forms of oppression, specifically capitalism and authoritarian forms of Communism, the Party advocates for the creation of a "radical democracy that places people's lives under their own control - a non-racist, classless, feminist socialist society... where working people own and control the means of production and distribution through democratically-controlled public agencies, cooperatives, or other collective groups.; where full employment is realized for everyone who wants to work; where workers have the right to form unions freely, and to strike and engage in other forms of job actions; and where the production of society is used for the benefit of all humanity, not for the private profit of a few."
While there are numerous political organizations in the United States that advocate Trotskyism, Marxism–Leninism and derivatives of Marxism–Leninism, including Stalinism, the Socialist Party USA is the only political party on the national level that advocates for democratic socialism.
- Background 1.1
- Founding 1.2
- Subsequent History 1.3
- Membership 1.4
- Current Elected Officials 1.5
- International affairs 2.1.1
- Government 2.1.2
- Positions 2.1
- Presidential tickets 3
- See also 4
- Notes 5
- References 6
- Further reading 7
- External links 8
In 1958, the 
In its 1972 Convention, the Socialist Party changed its name to "Social Democrats, USA" by a vote of 73 to 34. The change of name was supported by the two Co-Chairmen, Bayard Rustin and Charles S. Zimmerman (of the International Ladies Garment Workers' Union, ILGWU), and by the First National Vice Chairman, James S. Glaser; these three were re-elected by acclamation.
Renaming the party as SDUSA was meant to be "realistic". The New York Times observed that the Socialist Party had last sponsored Darlington Hoopes as its candidate for President in the 1956 election, who received only 2,121 votes, which were cast in only six states. Because the party no longer sponsored candidates in presidential elections, the name "party" had been "misleading"; "party" had hindered the recruiting of activists who participated in the Democratic Party, according the majority report. The name "Socialist" was replaced by "Social Democrats" because many American associated the word "socialism" with Soviet communism. Also, the Party wished to distinguish itself from two small Marxist parties.
The Convention elected a national committee of 33 members, with 22 seats for the majority caucus, 8 seats for Harrington's coalition caucus, 2 for the Debs caucus, and one for the "independent" Samuel H. Friedman, who also had opposed the name change.
The convention voted on and adopted proposals for its program by a two-one vote, with the majority caucus winning every vote. On foreign policy, the program called for "firmness toward Communist aggression". However, on the Vietnam War, the program opposed "any efforts to bomb Hanoi into submission" and to work for a peace agreement that would protect Communist political cadres in South Vietnam from further military or police reprisals. Harrington's proposal for an immediate 
After their defeat at the Convention, members of two minority caucuses helped to found new socialist organizations. At most 200 members of the Coalition Caucus joined
- Official website
- The Radical Pamphlet Collection at the Library of Congress contains materials from the Socialist Party of the United States of America.
- David A. Epstein, Left, Right, Out: The History of Third Parties in America. Arts and Letters Imperium Publications, 2008.
- Alan Feuer, "Inside Socialist Party Headquarters," New York Times, Oct. 20, 2008.
- R.W. Tucker, "The Debs Caucus: A Party Within a Party." Madison, WI: Socialist Party of Wisconsin, Dec. 1970.
- Smallwood, Frank (1983). The Other Candidates: Third Parties in Presidential Elections.
- Presidential Elections since 1789.
- Busky, Donald F. (2000). Democratic socialism: A global survey.
- Freeman, Joe (2008). We Will be Heard: Women's Struggles for Political Power in the United States.
- http://socialistparty-usa.org/platform/environment.html (for Green Politics)
- Green Shoots of Red Electoralism - Socialist WebZine
- Winger, Richard. "Institutional Obstacles to a Multiparty System," in Multiparty Politics in America, Paul S. Herrnson and John C. Green, eds. (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1997)
- Ansolabehere, Stephen and Gerber, Alan. "The Effects of Filing Fees and Petition Requirements on U.S. House Elections," Legislative Studies Quarterly 21 no. 2 (1996)
- Fitts, Michael A. "Back to the Future: Enduring Dilemmas Revealed in the Supreme Court's Treatment of Political Parties", in The U.S. Supreme Court and the Electoral Process (2nd ed.) David K. Ryden, ed. Washington: Georgetown University Press, 2002 ISBN 978-0-87840-886-3 pp. 103-105 and passim
- 2008, pp. 63.
Drucker, Peter (1994). Max Shachtman and his left: A socialist's odyssey through the "American Century". Humanities Press.
- Anonymous (December 31, 1972). "Socialist Party now the Social Democrats, U.S.A." (PDF). New York Times. p. 36. Archived from the original on ?. Retrieved February 8, 2010.
- Johnston, Laurie (December 31, 1972). "Young Socialists support Meany; Group urges the Democrats to join labor movement". The New York Times. p. 36.
- Johnston, Laurie (December 28, 1972). "Young Socialists defeat motion favoring recognition of Cuba" (PDF). New York Times. p. 15. Archived from the original on ?.
- Gerald Sorin, The Prophetic Minority: American Jewish Immigrant Radicals, 1880-1920. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985; pg. 155.
- Anonymous (December 27, 1972). "Young Socialists open parley; to weigh 'New Politics' split" (PDF). New York Times. p. 25. Archived from the original on ?.
- Anonymous (January 1, 1973). Firmness' urged on Communists: Social Democrats reach end of U.S. Convention here"'" (PDF). New York Times. p. 11.
O'Rourke (1993, pp. 195–196):
O'Rourke, William (1993). "L: Michael Harrington". Signs of the literary times: Essays, reviews, profiles, 1970-1992'. The Margins of Literature (SUNY Series). SUNY Press. pp. 192–196.
Originally: O'Rourke, William (November 13, 1973). "Michael Harrington: Beyond Watergate, Sixties, and reform". SoHo Weekly News 3 (2): 6–7.
- Mitgang, Herbert (August 2, 1989). "Michael Harrington, Socialist and Author, Is Dead".
- Busky 2000, pp. 164.
- "Constitution of the Socialist Party of the United States of America".
- Busky 2000, pp. 165.
- "Socialists Pick '76 candidate".
- "Socialists pick ex-mayor for presidency".
- Lowenstein, Adam (May 26, 1999). "Kubby won't run again for City Council".
- "Norquist, Watts Win Mayoral Primary Election in Milwaukee" St. Paul Pioneer Press February 16, 2000; p. 2B
- "2008 General Election Results - Senator in General Assembly District 34". State of Rhode Island: Board of Election. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
- "State of Ohio 2010 General Election November 2, 2010 Unofficial Results". Ohio Secretary of State. November 2, 2010. Retrieved November 6, 2010.
- "Socialist Candidate Elected To City Of Detroit Downtown Citizens District Council". Detroit's Downtown District Citizens’ District Council. April 16, 2011. Retrieved August 11, 2011.
- "New Jersey Socialist Party Secretary Elected to Regional High School Board of Education". Ballot Access News. November 7, 2012. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
- "Election Results". Courier Journal. November 12, 2012. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
- "MN Election Results". November 8, 2012. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- "Official Report of the Canvassing Committee United States and Vermont Statewide Offices General Election, November 6, 2012" (PDF). Vermont Secretary of State Elections Division. November 13, 2012. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
- "Support a skatepark in Home Depot". The Commons. July 18, 2012. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
- Herbst, Moira (May 22, 2009). "Socialism? Hardly, Say Socialists".
- Kinane, Sean (June 13, 2008). "Brian Moore – Socialist Party USA Presidential Candidate".
- Kenning, Chris (March 1, 2010). "Socialists Get Newfound Attention as 'Red-Baiting' Draws Interest From Youth".
- Berger, Joseph (May 22, 2011). "Workers of the world, please see our web site" (membership 1,500). New York Times.
- Gordy ,Cynthia (February 28, 2012). "Stewart Alexander Wants Your Vote".
- "Socialist Party USA: Statement of Principles". Socialist Party USA. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
- "2010-2011 Platform". Socialist Party USA. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
- "Constitution of the Socialist Party USA". Socialist Party USA. Retrieved June 5, 2010.
- Mcauliff, Michael (March 22, 2010). "Tea Party Head Spinner: Socialists Oppose Health Bill".
- Harrington, Elizabeth (October 29, 2008). "Socialist Party Candidate Visits U. Tampa".
- Frank, John (October 23, 2008). "Top of Socialist Party ticket says Obama's not a believer". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved July 4, 2012.
- Altimari, Daniela (January 28, 2010). "Socialist Party response to Obama's state of the union speech".
- "End the Massacre in Gaza – No Solution Through Violence". Indybay.org. January 1, 2009. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- Jackson, Tom (September 4, 2007). "Likeable Guy Brandishes Loony Ideas".
- Altimari, Daniela (December 1, 2009). "If Obama's a socialist, his comrades aren't happy".
- "Voter Guide / Other third-party candidates for governor".
- Preston, Jennifer (September 14, 1997). "On Politics; Hearing From the Seven Who Are Seldom Heard".
- Kinane, Sean (June 13, 2008). "Brian Moore – Socialist Party USA Presidential Candidate".
- "1976 Presidential General Election Results". US Election Atlas.org. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- 1991, pp. 150.
- "1980 Presidential General Election Results". US Election Atlas.org. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- Smallwood 1983, pp. 56.
- "1984 Presidential General Election Results". US Election Atlas.org. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- "United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit. - 829 F.2d 157". Justia.com. Retrieved February 13, 2010.
- "1988 Presidential General Election Results". US Election Atlas.org. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- Freeman 2008, pp. 96.
- "1992 Election Results for the U.S. President, the U.S. Senate, and the U.S. House of Representatives" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
- "1992 Presidential General Election Results". US Election Atlas.org. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- "1996 Presidential General Election Results". US Election Atlas.org. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- "President - U.S. - 1996". US Election Atlas.org. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- "2000 Presidential General Election Results". US Election Atlas.org. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- "2004 Presidential General Election Results". US Election Atlas.org. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- Richardson, Darcy G. (October 14, 2004). : The Lonely Crusade of Walt Brown"The Other Progressive Candidate".
- "2008 Presidential General Election Results". US Election Atlas.org. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- "Election 2008: Primary, Caucus, and Convention Phase". The Green Papers. Retrieved August 26, 2013.
- "2012 Presidential Election by State Stewart Alexis Alexander". The Green Papers.com. Retrieved November 22, 2012.
- "2012 Presidential General Election Results". US Election Atlas.org. Retrieved December 27, 2012.
- Socialist Party of California
- Socialist Party of Michigan
- Socialist Party of New Jersey
- Socialist Party of New York
† In each line the first note refers to candidates and results, the second (if any) to ballot access
(the number of state + D.C. ballots, out of 51, on which the Socialist Party candidates appeared)
‡ ^ Endorsed the Citizens Party's candidates in 1984.
|Votes||Percent||for President||for Vice President|
|1976||6,038||0.01%||Frank Zeidler||J. Quinn Brisben||7|||
|1980||6,898||0.01%||David McReynolds||Diane Drufenbrock||10|||
|1984[‡]||72,161||0.08%||Sonia Johnson||Richard Walton||19|||
|1988||3,882||0.0%||Willa Kenoyer||Ron Ehrenreich||6|||
|1992||3,057||0.0%||J. Quinn Brisben||Barbara Garson||4|||
|1996||4,764||0.0%||Mary Cal Hollis||Eric Chester||5|||
|2000||5,602||0.01%||David McReynolds||Mary Cal Hollis||7|||
|2004||10,822||0.01%||Walt Brown||Mary Alice Herbert||8|||
|2008||6,581||0.01%||Brian Moore||Stewart Alexander||8|||
|2012||4,430||0.0%||Stewart Alexander||Alejandro Mendoza||3|||
|2016||n.a.||n.a.||Mimi Soltysik||Angela Walker||n.a.|||
SP candidates, such as 2009 New Jersey gubernatorial candidate Greg Pason have also emphasized immediate public service demands, such as socializing the U.S. health care system, a steeply graduated income tax, universal rent control, and the elimination of all educational debts and tuition fees. In 1997, Pason called auto insurance "a regressive tax against working people". Moore was also vocal of his support for public healthcare and socialized medicine. Moore believes that capitalism is a system based on both exploitation and selfishness, which operates to serve the interests of corporations and the ruling class, at the expense of workers and the poor. During his presidential campaign he claimed that the lack of available remedy to collapsing economic conditions stems from the capitalist system's foundation upon "greed", and advocated its replacement with a new system founded upon economic democracy through social ownership and workers' control of our reigning industrial and financial institutions.
The Party's National Action Committee condemned the Israeli actions during the Hartford.
During his campaign, the Socialist Party candidate for president, Brian Moore, was very vocal against the idea that Barack Obama was a socialist of any kind. He further commented on the issue, saying it was "misleading of the Republicans" to spread that message. In a later statement about Obama's policies, Wharton called Obama's 2010 State of the Union Address a "public relations ploy". He concluded with; "The time for slick public relations campaigns has ended - the time for building our grassroots movements is more urgent than ever. The Socialist Party USA stands ready to join in such a political revitalization".
While some SP members favor a more gradual approach to socialism, most others envision a more sweeping or revolutionary transformation of society from capitalist to socialist through the decisive victory of the working class in the class struggle. Some SP members also advocate revolutionary nonviolence or pacifism, while some consider armed struggle a possible necessity. The Party's Statement of Principles rejects equating socialism with a "welfare state" and calls for democratic social revolution from below. The party is strongly committed to principles of socialist national conventions. The Socialist Party also rejected the new healthcare reform law of 2010 approved by the Obama administration, with SP National Co-Chair Billy Wharton claiming it to be "a corporate restructuring of the health insurance industry created to protect the profit margins of private insurance companies".
Current Elected Officials
 stated that the Party had a "membership around 1,500."The Root In February 2012, an article from  article in May 2011 stated that the party has "about 1,000 members nationally.".New York Times A  In 2008,  The Socialist Party experienced substantial growth during the late 1970s and early to mid-1980s, expanding from only around 600 dues-paying members to around 1,700. According to the party's first chairman, Frank Zeidler, the party had around 500 members nationwide in 1975.
Since 1936, a member of the party was elected to the city council of Iowa City and several members have won tens of thousands of votes when losing elections for statewide offices. In 1992, Socialist Iowa City Councilwoman Karen Kubby won her re-election with the highest vote in a contested election in the history of the Iowa City Council, and was re-elected until retiring from the Council in 2000. In 2000, Socialist Wendell Harris received 19% of the vote for Mayor of Milwaukee, Wisconsin in the primary. In 2008, Socialist Jon Osborne pulled in 22% of the vote for Rhode Island's 34th District State Senate seat, while listed on the ballot under the Socialist Party USA label. During the 2010 United States Senate elections Dan La Botz of the Socialist Party of Ohio received 25,368 (0.68%) votes in Ohio. In 2011, Socialist Matt Erard was elected to a three-year term on the city of Detroit’s Downtown District Citizens’ District Council. In 2012, Socialist Pat Noble unseated his incumbent opponent in winning election to the Red Bank Regional High School Board of Education, Socialist John Strinka received 10% of the vote while running with the party's ballot label for Indiana's 39th district State House seat, and Socialist Troy Thompson received 27% of the vote for Mayor of Floodwood, Minnesota. Also in 2012, candidate Mary Alice Herbert received 13.1% of the vote for Vermont Secretary of State while running with the dual nomination of both the Socialist and Vermont Liberty Union parties.
After its founding, the party promoted itself as the legitimate heir of the Socialist Party of America. Former socialism.
The Debs Caucus formed the Union for Democratic Socialism, and, on May 30, 1973, incorporated the Socialist Party of the United States of America, (Socialist Party USA). Many activists from the local and state branches of the old Socialist Party, including the party's Wisconsin, California, Illinois, New York City, Philadelphia, and Washington D.C. organizations, participated in the reconstitution of the Socialist Party USA.
 in reconstituting the Socialist Party USA also in 1973.David McReynolds Second, many members of the Debs Caucus joined  At its start, DSOC had 840 members, of which 2 percent served on its national board in 1973 when SDUSA stated its membership at 1,800, according to a 1973 profile of Harrington..Democratic Socialists of America which later became the