Republic of Slovenia
A Toast[lower-roman 1]
Location of (dark green)
– in (green & dark grey)
and largest city
|Ethnic groups (2002)|
|-||Prime Minister||Miro Cerar|
|-||Upper house||National Council|
|-||Lower house||National Assembly|
State of Slovenes,
Croats and Serbs
29 October 1918
Kingdom of Serbs,
Croats and Slovenes
(Kingdom of Yugoslavia)
4 December 1918
|-||Yugoslavia becomes a republic||29 November 1945|
|-||Independence from Yugoslavia||25 June 1991|
|-||Joined the European Union||1 May 2004|
20,273 km2 (153rd)
7,827 sq mi
|-||2014 estimate||2,061,085 (144th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2014 estimate|
|-||Per capita||$29,358 (38)|
|GDP (nominal)||2014 estimate|
|-||Per capita||$24,211 (33)|
very high · 25th
|Currency||Euro (€)[lower-roman 2] (EUR)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|-||Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||SI|
|Internet TLD||.si[lower-roman 3]|
Slovenia ( or ; Slovene: Slovenija, ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Republika Slovenija, ( ), Slovene abbreviation: RS ), is a nation state on the Adriatic Sea, bordering Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Croatia to the south and southeast, and Hungary to the northeast. It covers 20,273 square kilometers (7,827 sq mi) and has a population of 2.05 million. It is a parliamentary republic and a member of the European Union and NATO. Its capital and largest city is Ljubljana.
The territory, located in southern Central Europe[Note 2] at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes, is mainly mountainous with mainly continental climate, with the exception of the Slovene Littoral that has the sub-Mediterranean climate and the north-western area that has the Alpine climate. Additionally, Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Plain meet on the territory of Slovenia. The country, marked by a significant biological diversity, is one of the most water-rich in Europe, with a dense river network, a rich aquifer system, and significant karstic underground watercourses. Over half of the territory is covered by forest. The human settlement of Slovenia is dispersed and uneven.
The Slavic, Germanic, Romance, and Hungarian languages meet here. Although the population is not homogenous, the majority is Slovene. Slovene is the only official language throughout the country, whereas Italian and Hungarian are regional minority languages. Slovenia is a largely secularized country, but its culture and identity have been significantly influenced by Catholicism as well as Lutheranism. The economy of Slovenia is small, open, and export-oriented and has been strongly influenced by international conditions. It has been severely hurt by the Eurozone crisis, started in late 2000s. The main economic field is services, followed by industry and construction.
Historically, the current territory of Slovenia was part of many different state formations, including the OECD, a global association of high-income developed countries.
Prehistory to Slavic settlement 1.1
- Prehistory 1.1.1
- Ancient Romans 1.1.2
- Slavic settlement 1.1.3
- The Middle Ages to the early modern period 1.2
- Between the 18th century and the end of World War I 1.3
- World War I 1.4
Kingdom of Yugoslavia 1.5
- Fascist Italianization of Littoral and resistance 1.5.1
- Slovenia during and after World War II 1.6
- The socialist period 1.7
- Slovenian Spring, democracy and independence 1.8
- Slovenian disillusionment with socio-economic elites 1.9
- Prehistory to Slavic settlement 1.1
- Judiciary 2.1
- Military 2.2
Administrative divisions and traditional regions 2.3
- Municipalities 2.3.1
- Administrative districts 2.3.2
- Traditional regions and identities 2.3.3
- Statistical regions 2.3.4
- Geology 3.1
- Natural regions 3.2
- Climate 3.3
- Waters 3.4
- Biodiversity 4
- Economic growth 5.1
- National debt 5.2
- Services and industry 5.3
- Energy 5.4
- Tourism 5.5
- Transport 5.6
- Urbanisation 6.1
- Slovene 6.2.1
Languages of the minorities and other languages 6.2.2
- Hungarian and Italian 188.8.131.52
- Romani 184.108.40.206
- German 220.127.116.11
- Other Slavic languages and Albanian 18.104.22.168
- Foreign languages 22.214.171.124
- Religion 6.3
- Immigration 6.4
- Education 7
- Comedy 8.1
- Cuisine 8.2
- Folk dance 8.3.1
- Festivals, book fairs, and other events 8.4
- Film 8.5
- Authors and book reviews 8.6
- Classical music, opera, and film music 8.7.1
- Folk music 8.7.2
- Slovenska popevka 8.7.3
- Popular music 8.7.4
- Theatre 8.8
Visual arts, architecture and design 8.9
- Architecture 8.9.1
- Comics and animation 8.9.2
- Conceptual art 8.9.3
- Design 8.9.4
- Sculpture 8.9.5
- Graphics 8.9.6
- Illustration 8.9.7
- Painting 8.9.8
- Photography 8.9.9
- Sports 9
- See also 10
- Notes 11
- References 12
- Further reading 13
External links 14
- Government 14.1
- Travel 14.2
- News 14.3
Prehistory to Slavic settlement
Present-day Slovenia was long inhabited in prehistoric times, and there is evidence of human habitation from around 250,000 years ago. A pierced cave bear bone, dating from 43100 ± 700 BP, found in 1995 in Divje Babe cave near Cerkno, is possibly the oldest musical instrument discovered in the world. In 1920s and 1930s, artifacts belonging to the Cro-Magnon such as pierced bones, bone points, and needle have been found by archaeologist Srečko Brodar in Potok Cave.
In 2002, remains of pile dwellings over 4,500 years old were discovered in the Ljubljana Marshes, now protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with the Ljubljana Marshes Wooden Wheel, the oldest wooden wheel in the world. It shows that wooden wheels appeared almost simultaneously in Mesopotamia and Europe. In the transition period between the Bronze age to the Iron age, the Urnfield culture flourished. Archaeological remains dating from the Hallstatt period have been found, particularly in southeastern Slovenia, among them a number of situlas in Novo Mesto, the "Town of Situlas". In the Iron Age, present-day Slovenia was inhabited by Illyrian and Celtic tribes until the 1st century BC.
When the Ancient Romans conquered the area, they established the provinces of Pannonia, and Noricum and present-day western Slovenia was included directly under Roman Italia as part of the X region Venetia et Histria. The Romans established posts at Emona (Ljubljana), Poetovio (Ptuj), and Celeia (Celje); and constructed trade and military roads that ran across Slovene territory from Italy to Pannonia. In the 5th and 6th centuries, the area was subject to invasions by the Huns and Germanic tribes during their incursions into Italy. A part of the inner state was protected with a defensive line of towers and walls called Claustra Alpium Iuliarum.
The Slavic tribes migrated to the Alpine area after the westward departure of the Lombards (the last Germanic tribe) in 568, and with aid from Avars established a Slavic settlement in the Eastern Alps. From 623 to 624 or possibly 626 onwards, King Samo united the Alpine, Western, and Northern Slavs against the nomadic Eurasian Avars and established what is referred to as Samo's Kingdom. After its disintegration following Samo's death in 658 or 659, the ancestors of Slovenes located in present-day Carinthia formed the independent duchy of Carantania. Other parts of present-day Slovenia were again ruled by Avars before Charlemagne's victory over them in 803.
The Middle Ages to the early modern period
In the mid-8th century, Carantania became a vassal duchy under the rule of the Bavarians, who began spreading Christianity. Three decades later, the Carantanians were incorporated, together with the Bavarians, into the Carolingian Empire. During the same period Carniola, too, came under the Franks, and was Christianised from Aquileia. Following the anti-Frankish rebellion of Ljudevit Posavski at the beginning of the 9th century, the Franks removed the Carantanian princes, replacing them with their own border dukes. Consequently, the Frankish feudal system reached the Slovene territory.
The Magyar invasion of the Pannonian Plain in the late 9th century effectively isolated the Slovene-inhabited territory from the western Slavs. Thus, the Slavs of Carantania and of Carniola began developing into an independent Slovene ethnic group. After the victory of Emperor Otto I over the Magyars in 955, Slovene territory was divided into a number of border regions of the Holy Roman Empire. Carantania, being the most important, was elevated into the Duchy of Carinthia in 976.
In the late Middle Ages, the historic provinces of Carniola, Styria, Carinthia, Gorizia, Trieste, and Istria developed from the border regions and were incorporated into the medieval German state. The consolidation and formation of these historical lands took place in a long period between the 11th and 14th centuries, and were led by a number of important feudal families, such as the Dukes of Spannheim, the Counts of Gorizia, the Counts of Celje, and, finally, the House of Habsburg. In a parallel process, an intensive German colonisation significantly diminished the extent of Slovene-speaking areas. By the 15th century, the Slovene ethnic territory was reduced to its present size.
In the 14th century, most of the territory of Slovenia was taken over by the Habsburgs. The counts of Celje, a feudal family from this area who in 1436 acquired the title of state princes, were their powerful competitors for some time. This large dynasty, important at a European political level, had its seat in Slovene territory but died out in 1456. Its numerous large estates subsequently became the property of the Habsburgs, who retained control of the area right up until the beginning of the 20th century.
At the end of the Middle Ages, the Slovene Lands suffered a serious economic and demographic setback because of the Turkish raids. In 1515, a peasant revolt spread across nearly the whole Slovene territory. In 1572 and 1573 the Croatian-Slovenian peasant revolt wrought havoc throughout the wider region. Such uprisings, which often met with bloody defeats, continued throughout the 17th century.
Between the 18th century and the end of World War I
The Slovene Lands were part of the Illyrian provinces, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary (in Cisleithania). They encompassed Carniola, southern part of Carinthia, southern part of Styria, Istria, Gorizia and Gradisca, Trieste, and Prekmurje. Industrialization was accompanied by construction of railroads to link cities and markets, but the urbanization was limited.
Due to limited opportunities, between 1880-1910 there was extensive emigration, and around 300,000 Slovenes (i.e. 1 in 6) emigrated to other countries, mostly to the US, but also to South America, Germany, Egypt, and to larger cities in Austria-Hungary, especially Zagreb and Vienna. Despite this, the Slovene population increased significantly. Literacy was exceptionally high, at 80-90%.
World War I
World War I brought heavy casualties for the Slovenes, particularly the twelve Battles of the Isonzo, which took place in present-day Slovenia's western border area. Hundreds of thousands of Slovene conscripts were drafted into the Austro-Hungarian Army, and over 30,000 of them died. Hundreds of thousands of Slovenes from Gorizia and Gradisca were resettled in refugee camps in Italy and Austria. While the refugees in Austria received decent treatment, the Slovene refugees in Italian camps were treated as state enemies, and several thousand died of malnutrition and diseases between 1915 and 1918. Entire areas of the Slovene Littoral were destroyed.
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
The Slovene People's Party launched a movement for self-determination, demanding the creation of a semi-independent South Slavic state under Habsburg rule. The proposal was picked up by most Slovene parties, and a mass mobilization of Slovene civil society, known as the Declaration Movement, followed. This demand was rejected by the Austrian political elites; but following the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the aftermath of the First World War, the National Council of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs took power in Zagreb on 6 October 1918. On 29 October, independence was declared by a national gathering in Ljubljana, and by the Croatian parliament, declaring the establishment of the new State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs.
On 1 December 1918 the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs merged with Serbia, becoming part of the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes; in 1929 it was renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The main territory of Slovenia, being the most industrialized and westernized compared to other less developed parts of Yugoslavia, became the main center of industrial production: Compared to Serbia, for example, Slovenian industrial production was four times greater; and it was 22 times greater than in Macedonia. The interwar period brought further industrialization in Slovenia, with rapid economic growth in the 1920s, followed by a relatively successful economic adjustment to the 1929 economic crisis and Great Depression.
Following a plebiscite in October 1920, the Slovene-speaking southern Carinthia was ceded to Austria. With the Treaty of Trianon, on the other hand, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was awarded the Slovene-inhabited Prekmurje region, formerly part of Austro-Hungary.
Slovenes living in territories that fell under the rule of the neighboring states: Italy, Austria and Hungary, were subjected to assimilation.
Fascist Italianization of Littoral and resistance
The annexed western quarter of Slovene speaking territory and approximately 327,000 out of the total population of 1.3 million Slovenes were cut off from the remaining three-quarters of Slovenes, and subjected to forced Fascist Italianization after the rise to power of Fascists, who sought to eradicate especially the Slovene middle class and the intelligentsia after the territories were annexed by Kingdom of Italy with the secret Treaty of London and later Treaty of Rapallo (1920), especially after Benito Mussolini came to power in 1922. Italy abolished education in the Slovene language in 1923, and required the Italianization of Slovene surnames and personal names between 1926 and 1932. By 1927, the government banned all Slovene associations, and prohibited all public use of the Slovene language. By the mid-1930s, several thousand Slovenes, especially intellectuals from Trieste region, emigrated to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (in 1929 renamed Yugoslavia) and to South America. Both Italian Black Shirts and police personnel attacked opponents of the Fascist regime.
After all Slovene minority organizations in Italy had been suppressed, the TIGR was formed in 1927 in order to fight the Fascist regime. After 1930, TIGR opted for targeted attacks on infrastructure and high-ranking military, militia and police personnel and established an agreement of co-operation with the Communist Party of Italy, and a wide intelligence network that included contacts with Yugoslav and British intelligence services.
Slovenia during and after World War II
|During WWII, Nazi Germany and Hungary annexed northern areas (brown and dark green areas, respectively), while Fascist Italy annexed the vertically hashed black area (solid black western part being annexed by Italy already with the Treaty of Rapallo). Some villages were occupied by the Independent State of Croatia. After 1943, Germany took over the Italian occupational area, as well.|
The Nazis had a plan of ethnic cleansing of northern Slovenia, with the exception of north-eastern part that was annexed by Hungary, and they resettled or chased away the Slovene civilian population to the puppet states of Nedić's Serbia (7,500) and NDH (10,000) and to Germany. Because Hitler opposed having the ethnic German Gottscheers in the Italian annexation zone, they were moved out of it. Out of total 46,000 Slovenes who were expelled to Germany, including children who were separated from their families and sent to German families to be raised as Germans, about 32,000 Slovenes from the area were transported to Saxony in order to make space for the relocated 10,500 Gottscheers, while 30,000 to 40,000 Slovenians were drafted to German army and sent to Eastern front. In schools, the expelled Slovene teachers were replaced by Austrian teachers who taught only in German.
In central Slovenia, annexed by Fascist Italy and renamed the Slovene Partisans as part of the Europe's most effective anti-Nazi resistance and creating structures of a future post-war state of Slovenes that would include majority of Slovenes within a socialist Yugoslav federation led by Yugoslav revolutionary communists.
After the resistance started, Italian violence against the Slovene civilian population escalated and easily matched that of the Germans. The 
The British, American and Spanish governments, fearful of the post-war Italian Communist Party, effectively undermined the Slovenian quest for justice by tolerating Italy's efforts to avoid any of the alleged Italian war criminals being extradited and taken to court.
Some Slovenes collaborated with the Axis powers, with the German-sponsored Slovene Home Guard having 21,000 members at the peak of its power. More than 30,000 Partisans died fighting Axis forces and their collaborators. Approximately 8% of Slovenes died during WWII in the Slovene territories.
In 1945, Yugoslavia liberated itself and shortly thereafter became a nominally federal Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Slovenia joined the federation as a socialist republic; its own Communist Party was formed in 1937. After the withdrawal of the Axis forces, the vast majority of the relocated Gottscheers were deported or fled to Austria and Germany. An indeterminate number of Italians and anti-Communist Yugoslavs were killed in the foibe massacres.
Following the re-establishment of Yugoslavia during World War II, Slovenia became part of Federal Yugoslavia. A socialist state was established, but because of the Tito–Stalin split in 1948, economic and personal freedoms were broader than in the rest of the Eastern Bloc. In 1947, the Slovene Littoral and half of Inner Carniola, which had been annexed by Italy after the First World War, were regained by Slovenia. Both had exclusively ethnic Slovene populations with the exception of the towns Koper, Izola, and Piran, Italian-populated urban enclaves that saw mass ethnic Italian emigration (part of the Istrian Exodus) due to the ongoing foibe killings and other revenge against them for war crimes committed by Italians in the Province of Ljubljana and due to their fear of Communism, which by 1947 had nationalised all private property.
After the failure of forced collectivisation that was attempted from 1949–53, a policy of gradual economic liberalisation, known as workers self-management, was introduced under the advice and supervision of the Slovene Edvard Kardelj, the main theorist of the Titoist path to socialism. After the 1950s, Slovenia enjoyed relatively broad autonomy within the federation. In 1956, Josip Broz Tito, together with other leaders, founded the Non-Aligned Movement. Particularly in the 1950s, Slovenia's economy developed rapidly and was strongly industrialised. With further economic decentralisation of Yugoslavia in 1965-66, Slovenia's domestic product was 2.5 times the average of Yugoslav republics, which strengthened national confidence among the Slovenes. After the death of Tito in 1980, the economic and political situation in Yugoslavia became very strained. Political disputes around economic measures were echoed in the public sentiment, as many Slovenians felt they were being economically exploited, having to sustain an expensive and inefficient federal administration.
Slovenian Spring, democracy and independence
In 1987 a group of intellectuals demanded Slovene independence in the 57th edition of the magazine Nova revija. Demands for democratisation and more Slovenian independence were sparked off. A mass democratic movement, coordinated by the Committee for the Defense of Human Rights, pushed the Communists in the direction of democratic reforms.
In September 1989, numerous constitutional amendments were passed to introduce parliamentary democracy to Slovenia. The same year Action North united both the opposition and democratized communist establishment in Slovenia as the first defense action against attacks by Slobodan Milošević's supporters, leading to Slovenian independence. On 7 March 1990, the Slovenian Assembly changed the official name of the state to the "Republic of Slovenia". In April 1990, the first democratic election in Slovenia took place, and the united opposition movement DEMOS led by Jože Pučnik emerged victorious.
These revolutionary events in Slovenia pre-dated by almost one year the Revolutions of 1989 in Eastern Europe, but went largely unnoticed by international observers. On 23 December 1990, more than 88% of the electorate voted for a sovereign and independent Slovenia. On 25 June 1991, Slovenia became independent through the passage of appropriate legal documents. On 27 June in the early morning, the Yugoslav People's Army dispatched its forces to prevent further measures for the establishment of a new country, which led to the Ten-Day War. On 7 July, the Brijuni Agreement was signed, implementing a truce and a three-month halt of the enforcement of Slovenia's independence. In the end of the month, the last soldiers of the Yugoslav Army left Slovenia.
In December 1991, a new constitution was adopted, followed in 1992 by the laws on denationalisation and privatization. The members of the European Union recognised Slovenia as an independent state on 15 January 1992, and the United Nations accepted it as a member on 22 May 1992.
Slovenia joined the European Union on 1 May 2004. Slovenia has one Commissioner in the European Commission, and seven Slovene parliamentarians were elected to the European Parliament at elections on 13 June 2004. In 2004 Slovenia also joined NATO. Slovenia subsequently succeeded in meeting the Maastricht criteria and joined the Eurozone (the first transition country to do so) on 1 January 2007. It was the first post-Communist country to hold the Presidency of the Council of the European Union, for the first six months of 2008. On 21 July 2010, it became a member of the OECD.
Slovenian disillusionment with socio-economic elites
The disillusionment with domestic socio-economic elites at municipal and national levels was expressed at the 2012–2013 Slovenian protests on a wider scale than in the smaller 15 October 2011 protests. In relation to the leading politicians' response to allegations made by the official Commission for the Prevention of Corruption of the Republic of Slovenia, legal experts expressed the need for changes in the system that would limit political arbitrariness.
Slovenia is a parliamentary democracy republic with a multi-party system. The head of state is the president, who is elected by popular vote and has an important integrative role. He is elected for five years and at maximum for two consecutive terms. He has mainly a representative role and is the commander-in-chief of the Slovenian military forces.
The executive and administrative authority in Slovenia is held by the Government of Slovenia (Vlada Republike Slovenije), headed by the Prime Minister and the council of ministers or cabinet, who are elected by the National Assembly (Državni zbor Republike Slovenije). The legislative authority is held by the bicameral Parliament of Slovenia, characterised by an asymmetric duality. The bulk of power is concentrated in the National Assembly, which consists of ninety members. Of those, 88 are elected by all the citizens in a system of proportional representation, whereas two are elected by the registered members of the autochthonous Hungarian and Italian minorities. Election takes place every four years. The National Council (Državni svet Republike Slovenije), consisting of forty members, appointed to represent social, economic, professional and local interest groups, has a limited advisory and control power.
The 1992-2004 period was marked by the rule of the Liberal Democracy of Slovenia, which was responsible for gradual transition from the Titoistic economy to the capitalist market economy. It later attracted much criticism by neo-liberal economists, who demanded a less gradual approach. The party's president Janez Drnovšek, who served as prime minister between 1992 and 2002, was one of the most influential Slovenian politicians of the 1990s, alongside President Milan Kučan (who served between 1990 and 2002).
The 2005-2008 period was characterized by over-enthusiasm after joining the EU. During the first term of Janez Janša's government, for the first time after independence, the Slovenian banks saw their loan-deposit ratios veering out of control. There was over-borrowing from foreign banks and then over-crediting of customers, including local tycoons.
After the onset of the financial crisis of 2007-2010 and European sovereign-debt crisis, the left-wing coalition that replaced Janša's government in the 2008 elections, had to face the consequences of the 2005-2008 over-borrowing. Attempts to implement reforms that would help economic recovery were met by student protesters, led by a student who later became a member of Janez Janša's SDS, and by the trade unions. The proposed reforms were postponed in a referendum. The left-wing government was ousted with a vote of no confidence. Janez Janša attributed the boom of spending and overborrowing to the period of left-wing government; he proposed harsh austerity reforms which he had previously helped postpone.
Judicial powers in Slovenia are executed by judges, who are elected by the National Assembly. Judicial power in Slovenia is implemented by courts with general responsibilities and specialised courts that deal with matters relating to specific legal areas. The State Prosecutor is an independent state authority responsible for prosecuting cases brought against those suspected of committing criminal offences. The Constitutional Court, composed of nine judges elected for nine-year terms, decides on the conformity of laws with the Constitution; all laws and regulations must also conform with the general principles of international law and with ratified international agreements.
The standing army. The Commander-in-Chief is the President of the Republic of Slovenia, while operational command is in the domain of the Chief of the General Staff of the Slovenian Armed Forces. In 2008, military spending was an estimated 1.5% of the country's GDP. Since joining NATO, the Slovenian Armed Forces have taken a more active part in supporting international peace. They have participated in peace support operations and humanitarian activities. Among others, Slovenian soldiers are a part of international forces serving in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, and Afghanistan.
According to the 2012 Global Peace Index, Slovenia is one of the world's most peaceful countries.
Administrative divisions and traditional regions
2b Inner, 2c Lower
Officially, Slovenia is subdivided into 211 municipalities (eleven of which have the status of urban municipalities). The municipalities are the only bodies of local autonomy in Slovenia. Each municipality is headed by a mayor (župan), elected every four years by popular vote, and a municipal council (občinski svet). In the majority of municipalities, the municipal council is elected through the system of proportional representation; only a few smaller municipalities use the plurality voting system. In the urban municipalities, the municipal councils are called town (or city) councils. Every municipality also has a Head of the Municipal Administration (načelnik občinske uprave), appointed by the mayor, who is responsible for the functioning of the local administration.
There is no official intermediate unit between the municipalities and the Republic of Slovenia. The 62 administrative districts, officially called "Administrative Units" (upravne enote), are only territorial sub-units of government administration and are named after their capital. They are headed by a Head of the Unit (načelnik upravne enote), appointed by the Minister of Public Administration.
Traditional regions and identities
Traditional regions were based on the former Habsburg crown lands that included Carniola, Carinthia, Styria, and the Littoral. Stronger than with either the Carniola as a whole, or with Slovenia as the state, Slovenes historically tend to identify themselves with the traditional regions of Slovene Littoral, Prekmurje, and even traditional (sub)regions, such as Upper, Lower and, to a lesser extent, Inner Carniola.
The capital city Ljubljana was historically the administrative center of Carniola and belonged to Lower Carniola, except for the Šentvid district, which was in Upper Carniola where the border between the German occupation zone and Province of Ljubljana also was during WWII.
The 12 statistical regions have no administrative function and are subdivided into two macroregions for the purpose of the Regional policy of the European Union. These two macroregions are:
- East Slovenia (Vzhodna Slovenija – SI01), which groups the Mura, Drava, Carinthia, Savinja, Central Sava, Lower Sava, Southeast Slovenia, and Inner Carniola–Karst statistical regions.
- West Slovenia (Zahodna Slovenija – SI02), which groups the Central Slovenia, Upper Carniola, Gorizia, and Coastal–Karst statistical regions.
Slovenia is situated in Central and Southeastern Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. It lies between latitudes 45° and 47° N, and longitudes 13° and 17° E. The 15th meridian east almost corresponds to the middle line of the country in the direction west-east. The Geometrical Center of the Republic of Slovenia is located at coordinates 46°07'11.8" N and 14°48'55.2" E. It lies in Slivna in the Municipality of Litija. Slovenia's highest peak is Triglav (2,864 m or 9,396 ft); the country's average height above sea level is 557 m (1,827 ft).
Four major European geographic regions meet in Slovenia: the Alps, the Dinarides, the Pannonian Plain, and the Mediterranean. Although on the shore of the Adriatic Sea near the Mediterranean Sea, most of Slovenia is in the Black Sea drainage basin. The Alps—including the Julian Alps, the Kamnik-Savinja Alps and the Karavanke chain, as well as the Pohorje massif—dominate Northern Slovenia along its long border with Austria. Slovenia's Adriatic coastline stretches approximately 47 km (29 mi) from Italy to Croatia.
The term "above sea level.
Over half of the country (10,124 km2 or 3,909 sq mi) is covered by forests. This makes Slovenia the third most forested country in Europe, after Finland and Sweden. The areas are covered mostly by beech, fir-beech and beech-oak forests and have a relatively high production capacity. Remnants of primeval forests are still to be found, the largest in the Kočevje area. Grassland covers 5,593 km2 (2,159 sq mi) and fields and gardens (954 km2 or 368 sq mi). There are 363 km2 (140 sq mi) of orchards and 216 km2 (83 sq mi) of vineyards.
Slovenia is in a rather active seismic zone because of its position on the small Adriatic Plate, which is squeezed between the Eurasian Plate to the north and the African Plate to the south and rotates counter-clockwise. Thus the country is at the junction of three important geotectonic units: the Alps to the north, the Dinaric Alps to the south and the Pannonian Basin to the east. Scientists have been able to identify 60 destructive earthquakes in the past. Additionally, a network of seismic stations is active throughout the country. Many parts of Slovenia have a carbonate ground, and an extensive subterranean system has developed.
The first regionalisations of Slovenia were made by geographers Anton Melik (1935–1936) and Svetozar Ilešič (1968). The newer regionalisation by Ivan Gams divided Slovenia in the following macroregions:
- the Alps (Alpe)
- the subalpine landscapes (predalpski svet)
- the Slovene Littoral or Submediterranean Slovenia (Primorje or submediteranska Slovenija)
- the Dinaric plateaus of the continental Slovenia (dinarske planote celinske Slovenije)
- Subpannonian Slovenia (subpanonska Slovenija)
According to a newer natural geographic regionalisation, the country consists of four macroregions. These are the Alpine, the Mediterranean, the Dinaric, and the Pannonian landscapes. Macroregions are defined according to major relief units (the Alps, the Pannonian plain, the Dinaric mountains) and climate types (submediterranean, temperate continental, mountain climate). These are often quite interwoven.
Protected areas of Slovenia include national parks, regional parks, and nature parks, the largest of which is Triglav National Park. There are 286 Natura 2000 designated protected areas, which comprise 36% of the country's land area, the largest percentage among European Union states. Additionally, according to Yale University's Environmental Performance Index, Slovenia is considered a "strong performer" in environmental protection efforts.
Slovenia is located in temperate latitudes. The climate is also influenced by the variety of relief, and the influence of the Alps and the Adriatic Sea. In the Northeast, the continental climate type with greatest difference between winter and summer temperatures prevails. In the coastal region, there is sub-Mediterranean climate. The effect of the sea on the temperature rates is visible also up the Soča valley, while a severe Alpine climate is present in the high mountain regions. There is a strong interaction between these three climatic systems across most of the country.
Precipitation varies across the country as well, with over 3,500 mm (138 in) in some Western regions and dropping down to 800 mm (31 in) in Prekmurje. Snow is quite frequent in winter and the record snow cover in Ljubljana was recorded in 1952 at 146 cm (57 in).
Compared to Western Europe, Slovenia is not very windy, because it lies in the slipstream of the Alps. The average wind speeds are lower than in the plains of the nearby countries. Due to the rugged terrain, local vertical winds with daily periods are present. Besides these, there are three winds of particular regional importance: the bora, the jugo, and the foehn. The jugo and the bora are characteristic of the Littoral. Whereas jugo is humid and warm, bora is usually cold and gusty. The foehn is typical of the Alpine regions in the north of Slovenia. Generally present in Slovenia are the northeast wind, the southeast wind and the north wind.
The territory of Slovenia mainly (16,423 square kilometers or 6,341 square miles, i.e. 81%) belongs to the Black Sea basin, and a smaller part (16,423 square kilometers or 6,341 square miles, i.e. 19%) belongs to the Adriatic Sea basin. These two parts are divided into smaller units in regard to their central rivers, the Mura River basin, the Drava River basin, the Sava River basin with Kolpa River basin, and the basin of the Adriatic rivers.
Slovenia signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 13 June 1992, and became a party to the convention on 9 July 1996. It has subsequently produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, which was received by the convention on 30 May 2002.
Slovenia is distinguished by an exceptionally wide variety of habitats, due to the contact of geological units and biogeographical regions, but also due to human influences. Around 12.5% of the territory is protected with different protection categories, and 35.5% within the Natura 2000 ecological network. Despite this, because of pollution and environmental degradation, diversity has been in decline.
The country contains 24,000 animal species, accounting for 1% of the world's organisms despite its small size (0.004% of the Earth's surface area). These include marmots, Alpine ibex, and chamois. There are numerous deer, roe deer, boar, and hares. The edible dormouse is often found in the Slovenian beech forests. Trapping these animals is a long tradition and is a part of the Slovenian national identity.
Some important carnivores include the Eurasian lynx (reintroduced to the Kočevje area in 1973), European wild cats, foxes (especially the red fox), and European jackal. There are also hedgehogs, martens, and snakes such as vipers and grass snakes. According to recent estimates, Slovenia also has up to 50 wolves and about 450 brown bears.
There is a wide variety of birds, such as the Tawny Owl, the Long-eared Owl, the Eagle Owl, hawks, and Short-toed Eagles. Various other birds of prey have been recorded, as well as a growing number of ravens, crows and magpies migrating into Ljubljana and Maribor where they thrive. Other birds include both Black and Green Woodpeckers and the White Stork, which nests mainly in Prekmurje.
There are thirteen domestic animals native to Slovenia, of eight species (hen, pig, dog, horse, sheep, goat, honey bee, and cattle). Among these are the Karst Shepherd, the Carniolan honeybee, and the Lipizzan horse. They have been preserved ex situ and in situ. The marble trout or marmorata (Salmo marmoratus) is an indigenous Slovenian fish. Extensive breeding programmes have been introduced to repopulate the marble trout into lakes and streams invaded by non-indigenous species of trout. Slovenia is also home to the wels catfish.
More than 2400 fungal species have been recorded from Slovenia and, since that figure does not include lichen-forming fungi, the total number of Slovenian fungi already known is undoubtedly much higher. Doubtless many more also remain to be discovered.
Slovenia is the third most forested country in Europe, with 58.5% of the territory covered by forests. The forests are an important natural resource, but logging is kept to a minimum, as Slovenians also value their forests for the preservation of natural diversity, for enriching the soil and cleansing the water and air, for the social and economic benefits of recreation and tourism, and for the natural beauty they give to the Slovenian landscape. In the interior of the country are typical Central European forests, predominantly oak and beech. In the mountains, spruce, fir, and pine are more common. Pine trees also grow on the Kras plateau, although only one third of the region is now covered by pine forest. The lime/linden tree, also common in Slovenian forests, is a national symbol. The tree line is at 1,700 to 1,800 meters (or 5,575 to 5,900 ft).
In the Alps, flowers such as Daphne blagayana, various gentians (Gentiana clusii, Gentiana froelichi), Primula auricula, edelweiss (the symbol of Slovene mountaineering), Cypripedium calceolus, Fritillaria meleagris (snake's head fritillary), and Pulsatilla grandis are found.
Slovenia harbors many plants of ethnobotanically useful groups. Of 59 known species of ethnobotanical importance, some species such as Aconitum napellus, Cannabis sativa and Taxus baccata are not allowed to collect and use as per the Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia.
Slovenia has a
- Slovenian Press Agency. News in English.
- The Slovenian Tourist portal. Slovenian Tourist Board.
- Geographic data related to Slovenia at OpenStreetMap
- Slovenia.si The main national access point to information about Slovenia.
- The Republic of Slovenia. Official institutions.
- Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia
- National Meteorological Service of Slovenia
- Slovenia from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Slovenia at DMOZ
- "Facts About Slovenia", publication from the Slovenian Government Communication Office. pdf. In English, Spanish, French, German and Russian.
- Slovenia – Landmarks. Virtual reality panoramas of various spots in the country.
- Slovenia: a geographical overview. Association of the Geographical Societies of Slovenia.
- Stanić, Stane, Slovenia (London, Flint River Press, 1994).
- Oto Luthar (ed), The Land Between: A history of Slovenia. With contributions by Oto Luthar, Igor Grdina, Marjeta Šašel Kos, Petra Svoljšak, Peter Kos, Dušan Kos, Peter Štih, Alja Brglez and Martin Pogačar (Frankfurt am Main etc., Peter Lang, 2008).
- "PisRS". Pisrs.si. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- Božič, Dragan (3 November 2010). " [Which Stanza Should We As the Anthem Sing?]'"Katero kitico č'mo kot himno zapet (in Slovenian).
- Škrinjar, Klara (3 September 2012). "Zdravljica v političnem in pravnem primežu" [Zdravljica in the Political and Legal Vice]. Delo.si (in Slovenian).
- "Census 2002: 7. Population by ethnic affiliation, Slovenia, Census 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991 and 2002". Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
- Škrk, Mirjam (1999). "Recognition of States and Its (Non-)Implication on State Succession: The Case of Successor States to the Former Yugoslavia". In Mrak, Mojmir. Succession of States. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 5.
- "Površina ozemlja in pokrovnost tal, določena planimetrično, 2005" [Surface area and land cover determined planimetrically, 2005] (in Slovene, English). Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
- "Gostota naseljenosti, 1. 7." [Population density, 1 July] (in Slovene, English). Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
- "Slovenia". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved October 2014.
- "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income (source: SILC)". Eurostat Data Explorer. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- "2014 Human Development Report". 14 March 2013. pp. 21–25. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- "Slovenski pravopis 2001: Slovenija".
- "Slovenski pravopis 2001: Republika Slovenija".
- Europe beyond 2000: the enlargement of the European Union towards the East. Whurr Publishers. 1998. p. 121.
- "About Slovenia: Republic of Slovenia". Vlada.si. Government of Slovenia, Republic of Slovenia. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- Radonjić, Biljana (2005). "Political Overview". In Reuvid, Jonathan. Doing Business with Slovenia.
- "Slovenia First 20 Years" (58). Slovenia: South Australia Newsletter. Winter 2010–2011.
- Vuk Dirnberk, Vojka; Tomaž Valantič. ]Statistical Portrait of Slovenia in the EU 2011 [Statistični portret Slovenije v EU 2011 (in Slovene, English). Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia.
- Armstrong, Werwick. Anderson, James (2007). "Borders in Central Europe: From Conflict to Cooperation". Geopolitics of European Union Enlargement: The Fortress Empire. Routledge. p. 165.
- "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings". UN Statistics Division. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
- "The World Factbook: Field listing – Location".
- Černe, Andrej (2004). Orožen Adamič, Milan, ed. "Slovenia: A Geographical Overview". Association of the Geographical Societies of Slovenia. p. 127.
- Murovec, Nika. Kavaš, Damijan (December 2010). SWOT Analysis: Status of the Creative Industries in Ljubljana. Ljubljana: Inštitut za ekonomska raziskovanja [Institute for Economic Research]. p. 5.
- Perko, Drago (2008). "Slovenia at the Junction of Major European Geographical Units". The Slovenian (Toronto: Vse Slovenski Kulturni Odbor [The All Slovenian Cultural Committee]).
- Fallon, Steve (2007). "Environment". Slovenia (5th ed.). Lonely Planet. p. 40.
- Ogrin, Darko (2004). "Modern Climate Change in Slovenia". In Orožen Adamič, Milan. Slovenia: A Geographical Overview. Association of the Geographical Societies of Slovenia. p. 45.
- Blažič, Mateja. Arih, Andrej. Nartnik, Irena. Turk, Inga (26 March 2008). "Endangered Species". Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning. Retrieved 8 March 2012.
- Hlad, Branka. Skoberne, Peter, ed. (2001). "Characteristics of Biological and Landscape Diversity in Slovenia". Biological and Landscape Diversity in Slovenia: An Overview. Ljubljana: Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning. p. 13.
- "World Water Day 2011". Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. 18 March 2011.
- "Country Introduction". European state of the environment 2010 - contributions from Slovenia. Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning. Retrieved 8 March 2012.
- "Slovenian Forest in Figures". Slovenia Forest Service. February 2010.
- Kladnik, Drago (2004). "Modern Climate Change in Slovenia". In Orožen Adamič, Milan. Slovenia: A Geographical Overview. Association of the Geographical Societies of Slovenia. p. 93.
- "SOER: Country Introduction". Environment Agency of the Republic of Slovenia. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
- Vinkler, Jonatan (2008). ]Intercultural Dialogue as the Fundamental Value of the EU [Medkulturni dialog kot temeljna vrednota EU (in Slovene, English). Faculty of Humanities Koper, University of Primorska.
- "Resolution on the National Security Strategy of the Republic of Slovenia". National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia. 21 June 2001. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
- Zupančič, Jernej (2004). "Ethnic Structure of Slovenia and Slovenes in Neighbouring Countries". In Orožen Adamič, Milan. Slovenia: A Geographical Overview. Association of the Geographical Societies of Slovenia. p. 87.
- Martinšek, Maja (2007). ]The Relationship Between the State and Religion in Slovenia [Odnos med državo in religijo v Sloveniji. Faculty of Humanities, University of Ljubljana.
- Štrubelj, Dejan (2006). ]Comparison of Ethnic, Religious and Ethnic Structure of Slovenia: Diploma Thesis [Primerjava narodne, verske in jezikovne sestave Slovenije: diplomsko delo (in Slovenian). Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- Lahovnik, Matej (January–February 2011). "Corporate Strategies In The Post-Transition Economy: The Case Of Slovenian Companies". The Journal of Applied Business Research 27 (1): 61–68.
- Banutai, Andreja (2011). ]Analysis of the Economic Diplomacy Model of the Republic of Slovenia [Analiza modela gospodarske diplomacije Republike Slovenije (in Slovene, with a summary in Slovene and English). Ljubljana: Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana. p. 5.
- "Osnovni gospodarski podatki o Sloveniji" [Basic Economic Data about Slovenia] (in Slovenian). Embassy of the Republic of Slovenia Vienna. Retrieved 15 March 2012.
- Fajić, Lejla, ed. (September 2011). "Tabela 2b: Dodana vrednost po dejavnostih in bruto domači proizvod" [Table 2b: Added Value by Activities and Gross Domestic Product]. ]Autumn Prediction of Economic Movements 2011: Statistical Appendix [Jesenska napoved gospodarskih gibanj 2011: statistična priloga (in Slovenian). Ljubljana: Institute for Macroeconomic Analysis and Development (UMAR/IMAD), Republic of Slovenia. p. 45.
- Sečen, Ernest (16 April 2005). "Mejo so zavarovali z žico in postavili mine" [They Protected the Border with Wire and Set up Mines]. Dnevnik.si (in Slovenian).
- P. Ramet, Sabrina (2008). "Democratization in Slovenia – The Third Stage". Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia at Peace and at War: Selected Writings, 1983-2007. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 272.
- Dutta, Manoranjan (2011). "Historical Progression of the EU". The United States of Europe: European Union and the Euro Revolution. 9781780523149. p. 31.
- Luthar, Oto (2008). "From Prehistory to the End of the Ancient World". The Land Between: A History of Slovenia. Peter Lang. p. 15.
- "Potočka zijavka". Parc.si. Palaeolithic Research Centre.
- Debeljak, Irena; Turk, Matija. "Potočka zijalka". In Šmid Hribar, Mateja. Torkar, Gregor. Golež, Mateja. Podjed, Dan. Drago Kladnik, Drago. Erhartič, Bojan. Pavlin, Primož. Jerele, Ines. Enciklopedija naravne in kulturne dediščine na Slovenskem – DEDI (in Slovene). Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- "The oldest wooden wheel in the world: Virtual exhibition". 4 January 2013.
- Alexander Gasser (March 2003). "World's Oldest Wheel Found in Slovenia". Government Communication Office of the Republic of Slovenia. Retrieved 19 August 2010.
- "Application for the Title of the European Capital of Culture 2012". City Municipality of Maribor. 2008.
- Štih, Peter. ]At the Junction of the Worlds: Slovene History from the Prehistoric Cultures to the End of the 18th Century [Na stičišču svetov: slovenska zgodovina od prazgodovinskih kultur do konca 18. stoletja (in Slovenian). Modrijan Publishing House. p. 33.
- "About Slovenia - Culture of Slovenia". Culture.si. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- Benderly, Jill; Kraft, Evan (1996). "In the Beginning: The Slovenes from the Seventh Century to 1945". Independent Slovenia: Origins, Movements, Prospects. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 9–11.
- Petra Svoljšak, Slovenski begunci v Italiji med prvo svetovno vojno (Ljubljana 1991).
- Kranjec, Silvo (1925–1991). "Korošec Anton". Slovenski biografski leksikon (in Slovenian) (Online ed.).
- Lipušček, U. (2012) Sacro egoismo: Slovenci v krempljih tajnega londonskega pakta 1915, Cankarjeva založba, Ljubljana. ISBN 978-961-231-871-0
- Cresciani, Gianfranco (2004) Clash of civilisations, Italian Historical Society Journal, Vol. 12, No. 2, p. 4
- Mira Cencič, TIGR (Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga, 1997)
- Tatjana Rejec, Pričevanja o TIGR-u (Ljubljana: Slovenska matica, 1995)
- Gregor Joseph Kranjc (2013).To Walk with the Devil, University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division, p. introduction 5
- Haar, I., Fahlbusch, M. (2006): German Scholars and Ethnic Cleansing, 1919-1945, Berghahn Books, ISBN 9781845450489, p. 115
- Lumans, V.O. (1993): Himmler's Auxiliaries: The Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle and the German National Minorities of Europe, 1933-1945, Univ of North Carolina Press, ISBN 9780807820667, p. 175
- Lukšič-Hacin, M., Mlekuž J. (2009): Go Girls!: When Slovenian Women Left Home, Založba ZRC SAZU, ISBN 9789612541705, p. 55
- Zdravko Troha (2004). Kočevski Nemci - partizani [fotografije Zdravko Troha, Pokrajinski muzej Kočevje, Arhiv Slovenije]. Ljubljana: Slovensko kočevarsko društvo Peter Kosler. ISBN 961-91287-0-2
- Jeffreys-Jones, R. (2013): In Spies We Trust: The Story of Western Intelligence, Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780199580972
- Adams, Simon (2005): The Balkans, Black Rabbit Books, ISBN 9781583406038
- Tomasevich, Jozo (2001). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration 2. San Francisco: Stanford University Press. pp. 96–97.
- Rusinow, Dennison I. (1978). The Yugoslav experiment 1948–1974.
- Marco Ottanelli. "La verità sulle foibe" (in Italian). Archived from the original on 2007-12-17. Retrieved 2006-06-03.
- Crimini di Guerra. "La mancata estradizione e l'impunità dei presunti criminali di guerra italiani accusati per stragi in Africa e in Europa" (in Italian). Archived from the original on 2006-09-02. Retrieved 2006-06-03.
- Italy's bloody secret (Archived by WebCite®), written by Rory Carroll, Education, The Guardian, June 2001
- Effie Pedaliu (2004) Britain and the 'Hand-over' of Italian War Criminals to Yugoslavia, 1945-48. Journal of Contemporary History. Vol. 39, No. 4, Special Issue: Collective Memory, pp. 503-529 (JStor.org preview)
- Zajc, Drago (2004). ]The Development of Parliamentarism: The Functions of Modern Parliaments [Razvoj parlamentarizma: funkcije sodobnih parlamentov (in Slovenian). Publishing House of the Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana. p. 109.
- "Osamosvojitveni akti Republike Slovenije" [Independence Acts of the Republic of Slovenia] (in Slovenian). Office for Legislation, Government of the Republic of Slovenia. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
- "Historical Circumstances in Which "The Rally of Truth" in Ljubljana Was Prevented". Journal of Criminal Justice and Security. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
- Rally of truth" (Miting resnice)""". A documentary published by
- Innovatif and ORG.TEND (14 May 1992). "Year 1990 | Slovenia 20 years". Twenty.si. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "Odlok o razglasitvi ustavnih amandmajev k ustave Socialistične Republike Slovenije" [The Decree About the Proclamation of Constitutional Amendments to the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia]. Uradni list Republike Slovenije (in Slovenian). 16 March 1990. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
- Felicijan Bratož, Suzana (2007). "Prevzem arhivskega gradiva plebiscitnega referenduma o samostojnosti Republike Slovenije" [Acquisition of Plebiscite on the Sovereignty and Independence of the Republic of Slovenia Archives]. 6. zbornik referatov dopolnilnega izobraževanja s področja arhivistike, dokumentalistike in informatike v Radencih od 28. do 30. marca 2007 (in Slovene, abstract in Slovene and English, summary in English). Regional Archives Maribor. pp. 453–458.
- "Volitve" [Elections]. Statistični letopis 2011 [Statistical Yearbook 2011]. Statistical Yearbook 2011 15 (Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia). 2011. p. 108.
- Jonsson, Anna (2006). "Changing Concepts of Rights". In P. Ramet, Sabrina; Fink-Hafner, Danica. Democratic Transition in Slovenia: Value Transformation, Education, And Media. Texas A&M University Press. p. 75.
- Race, Helena (2005). ]"A Day Before" – 26 June 1991: Diploma Thesis ["Dan prej" – 26. junij 1991: diplomsko delo (in Slovenian). Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
- "About the Slovenian Military Forces: History". Slovenian Armed Forces, Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
- Bennett, Christopher (1995). "Slovenia Fights". Yugoslavia's Bloody Collapse: Causes, Course and Consequences. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 159.
- Klemenčič, Matjaž; Žagar, Mitja (2004). "Democratization in the Beginning of the 1990s". The Former Yugoslavia's Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook. ABC-CLIO. p. 298.
- Borak, Neven; Borak, Bistra (2004). "Institutional Setting for the New Independent State". In Mrak, Mojmir; Rojec, Matija; Silva-Jáuregui, Carlos. Slovenia: From Yugoslavia to the European Union. World Bank Publications. p. 58.
- Joachim Becker: "Nujno je treba zavreti poglabljanje neoliberalizma v Evropski uniji, saj je to slepa ulica", an interview with Joachim Becker, Mladina, 23 Nov. 2012
- A Symposium of Law Experts. Political arbitrariness has gone wild. (In Slovene: "Posvet pravnikov. Samovolja politikov presega vse meje"), Dnevnik, 18 Januar 2013.
- Furtlehner, Petra (2008). "Slovenia". In Falkner, Gerda; Treib, Oliver; Holzleithner, Elizabeth. Compliance in the Enlarged European Union: Living Rights Or Dead Letters?. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 126–127.
- Šturm, Lovro (2006). "Slovenia". In Robbers, Gerhard. The President of the Republic. Encyclopedia of World Constitutions. Infobase Publishing. p. 832.
- Prunk, Janko; Pikalo, Jernej; Milosavljevič, Marko (2007). Facts about Slovenia. Government Communication Office, Government of the Republic of Slovenia. p. 23.
- "Življenje Janeza Drnovška :: Prvi interaktivni multimedijski portal, MMC RTV Slovenija". Rtvslo.si. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- P. Ramet, Sabrina; Fink-Hafner, Danica. "Key Trends in Slovenian Politics, 1988 – 2004". Democratic Transition in Slovenia: Value Transformation, Education, And Media. p. 30.
- Ágh, Attila (1998). "The Regions in Comparative Transition". The Politics of Central Europe. SAGE.
- "The SIPRI Military Expenditure Database".
- "International Cooperation". Slovenian Armed Forces. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
- "2012 Global Peace Index « Vision of Humanity". Visionofhumanity.org. 12 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- "Sprejet zakon". .gov.si. 13 July 2000. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- Repe, Božo (2003) Od deželana do državljana: Regionalni razvoj Slovencev v letih 1918-1991, Zgodovinski časopis, 3-4, Ljubljana.
- Mihovec M., Barbka (2008)Kje so naše meje?, Gorenjski Glas, 19 March 2008.
- "Regions in the European Union: Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics". Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 2012-11-125.
- Jenko, Marjan (2005). "O pomenu meridiana 15° vzhodno od Greenwicha" [About the Significance of the 15th Degree to the East of Greenwich Meridian]. Geodetski vestnik (in Slovenian) 49 (4). pp. 637–638. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
- "Simboli in sestavine" [Symbols and Constituent Parts] (in Slovenian). GEOSS Society. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- ]Geographical coordinates of the extreme points [Geografske koordinate skrajnih točk (in Slovene, English). Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- Valantič, Tomaž (2010). ]Slovenia in Figures [Slovenija v številkah (in Slovene, English). Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia.
- "Forestation and variety of forests". Slovenia Forest Service. 2009. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
- "Seismology". Retrieved 30 July 2008.
- Perko, Drago (1998). "The Regionalization of Slovenia". Geografski zbornik 38. pp. 11–57.
- Ogrin, Darko (August 2004). "Modern climate change in Slovenia" (PDF). Slovenia: a geographical overview. Association of the Geographical Societies of Slovenia. Retrieved 1 April 2008.
- "Natura 2000 in Slovenia". natura2000.gov.si. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- "2012 EPI :: Rankings | Environmental Performance Index". Epi.yale.edu. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- Tanja Cegnar. "Climate of Slovenia at Glance". Arso.gov.si. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- "National Meteorological Service of Slovenia - Archive". Meteo.si. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- Bertalanič, Renato (2003). "Značilnosti vetra v Sloveniji" [Characteristics of Wind in Slovenia]. ]Climatography of Slovenia [Klimatografija Slovenije (in Slovenian). Meteorology Office, Slovenian Environment Agency.
- ]Water Wealth of Slovenia: Running Water [Vodno bogastvo Slovenije: tekoče vode. Slovenian Environment Agency. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
- "List of Parties". Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- "European Day of Parks 2012". News (Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia).
- "Did you know... - Slovenia - Official Travel Guide". Slovenia.info. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- Perko, Franc, ed. (2008). "Habitats of wild game in Slovenia, guidelines and conditions for the preservation and protection of wild game and their habitats, and provision of coexistence with humans". Resolution on National Forest Programme. Federation of Forest Associations of Slovenia. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food, Slovenia. pp. 87–104.
- Peršak, Magda (30 September 1998). "Dormouse Hunting as Part of Slovene National Identity". Natura Croatica 7 (3). pp. 199–211.
- Krofel, Miha (2009). ) in Slovenia"Canis aureus"Confirmed presence of territorial groups of golden jackals (. Natura Sloveniae: Journal of Field Biology 11 (1) (Association for Technical Culture of Slovenia). pp. 65–68.
- "Koliko medvedov živi v Sloveniji?" [How Many Bears Live in Slovenia?] (in Slovenian). Finance.si. 23 September 2011.
- "Medveda znamo držati nazaj, volka še ne" [We Know How to Keep the Bear Back, the Wolf Not Yet]. Dnevnik (in Slovenian) (Dnevnik, d. d.). 18 January 2012.
- "Delfini pri nas" (in Slovenian). Morigenos. Retrieved 6 April 2006.
- "Puška poči, vrana pade. Koliko jih še sedi?". Vecer.Com. 9 February 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- Kompan, Dragomir et al. (May 2011). ]The Program of the Conservation of Biotic Diversity in Livestock Farming: 2011 Program [Program varstva biotske raznovrstnosti v živinoreji: program za leto 2011 (in Slovenian). Oddelek za zootehniko, Biotehniška fakulteta, Univerza v Ljubljani [Department of Zootechnics, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana].
- Meglič, Vladimir; Kraigher, Hojka; Dovč, Peter (2003). "Opis obstoječih zbirk" [Description of Extant Collections]. In Meglič, Vladimir. ]Evaluation of the Conditions and Mechanisms for the Ex-Situ Preservation of Genetic Sources of Agricultural Plants, Gene Banks in Forestry and Stock Breeding [Ocena pogojev in mehanizmov za ex-situ varstvo genskih virov kmetijskih rastlin, genskih bank v gozdarstvu in živinoreji (in Slovenian). Ministry of Environment and Space, Republic of Slovenia. p. 17.
- "Brief Historical Summary, breed standard (DOC file)". Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- Janko Spreizer, Alenka (2006). ]Autochthony in the Slovene Nation(al) Question and the Concept of Indigenity: The Starts for the Analysis of Ideologies of a Primate [Avtohtonost v slovenskem narod(nost)nem vprašanju in koncept staroselstva: nastavki za analizo ideologij primata. Razprave in gradivo (in Slovenian) (Ljubljana: Inštitut za narodnostna vprašanja [Institute for Ethnic Studies]). pp. 257–258.
- "Marble trout (Salmo marmoratus)". Balkan Trout Restoration Group. Retrieved 10 March 2009.
- Dušan Jurc, Andrej Piltaver & Nikica Ogris, Glive Slovenije - Fungi of Slovenia (Ljubljana, 2005), 497 pp.
- Golob A. "Forests and forestry in Slovenia".
- Lovrenčak, Franc (2007). Zgornja gozdna meja slovenskih Alp, visokih kraških planot in Prokletij. Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana.
- Kala, C.P. and Ratajc, P. (2012). "High altitude biodiversity of the Alps and the Himalayas: ethnobotany, plant distribution and conservation perspectives. Biodiversity and Conservation, 21: 1115-1126". Rd.springer.com. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- M. Magstadt, Thomas (2010). "Eastern Europe". Nations and Government: Comparative Politics in Regional Perspective (6th ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 27.
- Jože Mencinger (2011) Razprodaja?, Gospodarska gibanja, EIPF, Ljubljana
- "Slovenia's Economy: Next in Line". The Economist. 18 August 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- "Double Dip Recession is the 'Slovenian' Reality". The Slovenia Times. 13 March 2012.
- "Statistics Office to Release GDP Data for Q2". The Slovenia Times. 31 August 2012.
- Cerni, Boris (29 February 2012). "Slovenia’s Economy Falls Into a Recession as Exports Weaken".
- "Zdrs v recesijo so ekonomisti pričakovali" [The Slid into Recession Was Expected by Economists]. MMC RTV Slovenija (in Slovenian) (RTV Slovenija). 29 February 2012.
- "Weekly Review of Events Involving Slovenia, 24-30 December". Slovenian Press Agency. 31 December 2012.
- Pohjanpalo, Kati (2013-04-04). "Sharks Circling Europe Won’t Bring Down Slovenia, Finland’s Europe Minister Alexander Stubb". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2014-04-04.
- Das sind die nächsten vier Opfer der Euro-Krise, Die Welt, 7 April 2013.
- Die Welt: Slovenia is a positive surprise (in Slovene: Slovenija je pozitivno presenečenje), MMC RTV Slovenija, 8 April 2013.
- "The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency, United States. 23 February 2012. Economy.
- "Dr. Pavle Sicherl: Slovenija je po produktivnosti dela 23 let za Evropo" [Dr. Pavle Sicherl: Regarding the Workforce Productivity, Slovenia Lags 23 Years behind Europe]. Delo.si (in Slovenian). 8 August 2011.
- "Konkurenčnost slovenske industrije pod evropskim povprečjem" [The Competitiveness of the Slovene Industry Below the European Average]. Delo.si (in Slovenian). 14 October 2011.
- "The World Factbook 2007 – Slovenia, Economy".
- Perše, Simon; Štuhec Lončarević, Snježana; Kozar, Alenka; Urbiha, Almira; Živec, Jana; Mušić, Amira (January 2012). Slovenia’S Trade in Goods / In The 2000-2010 Period. p. 20.
- Naidu-Ghelani, Rajeshni (23 January 2012). "Countries with Aging Populations". Cnbc.com (CNBC LLC).
- "Tematska Kartografija". Stat.si. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "Slovenian Tourism in Numbers - Official Travel Guide". Slovenia.info. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- Horvat, Uroš (2004). "Tourism in Slovenia". In Orožen Adamič, Milan. Slovenia: A Geographical Overview. Association of the Geographical Societies of Slovenia. p. 146.
- "Active holidays - Slovenia - Official Travel Guide". Slovenia.info. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "Občina Piran-O občini". Piran.si. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- Katz, Liane (23 June 2006). "Detox, retox in Slovenia". The Guardian (London).
- "15 Spas in Slovenia, Official Travel Guide". Slovenia.info. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- "Architectural Heritage - Slovenia - Official Travel Guide". Slovenia.info. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "Castles - Slovenia - Official Travel Guide". Slovenia.info. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "Slovenia photo gallery - pictures, facts and information on Slovenia". Earthinpictures.com. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "East Europe Casinos and Gambling". Worldcasinodirectory.com. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
- "I Feel Slovenia: 2010". Slovenia.info. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- "Slovenia, a Country at the Crossroads of Transport Links". Government Communication Office, Republic of Slovenia. November 2000.
- "Teden mobilnosti 2009" [Mobility Week 2009]. Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. 15 September 2009.
- Bernard Vukadin, Barbara. Kušar, Urška. Burja, Alenka (25 October 2009). "Lastništvo avtomobilov v gospodinjstvih" [Car Ownership in Households] (in Slovenian). Environment Agency of Slovenia.
- "Situation per mode of transport". Study on Strategic Evaluation on Transport Investment Priorities under Structural and Cohesion funds for the Programming Period 2007-2013. ECORYS Nederland BV. August 2006.
- Oplotnik, Žan. Križanič, France (November 2004). "Highways: cost and regulation in Europe".
- Gabrijelčič, Peter (October 2010). "10th Slovenian Road and Transport Congress" (in Slovene, with an English abstract).
- Plevnik, Aljaž. Polanec, Vesna (18 November 2011). "Vlaganja v prometno infrastrukturo: Komentar" [The Investments in the Transport Infrastructure: a Comment] (in Slovenian). Slovenian Environment Agency.
- "Executive Summary". Analysis of the infrastructure network in Slovenia and report on SWOT analysis. Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor. Port of Koper. April 2011.
- Plevnik, Aljaž. Polanec, Vesna (18 November 2011). "Obseg in sestava blagovnega prevoza in prometa: Komentar" [The Scale and the Structure of the Freight Transport and Traffic: a Comment]. Slovenian Environment Agency.
- Plevnik, Aljaž. Polanec, Vesna (18 November 2011). "Obseg in sestava potniškega prevoza in prometa: Komentar" [The Scale and the Structure of the Passenger Transport and Traffic: a Comment]. Slovenian Environment Agency.
- LUZ, d. d. (March 2010). ]The National Space Plan for the Ljubljana Rail Hub: Draft [Državni prostorski načrt za Ljubljansko železniško vozlišče (in Slovenian).
- "Koper Port Hits Record High in Container Traffic". Green Med Journal. 21 November 2011.
- "Konecranes to deliver three further RTGs to Luka Koper". Port Technology International. 23 January 2012.
- Twrdy, Elen. Trupac, Igor. "European Conference on Shipping & Ports 2011: Proceedings".
- Gosar, Anton (2008). "Sodobne pol1t1čno-geografske značilnosti alpsko-jadranskega prostora brez meja" [Contemporary Political Geography Of The Alpen-Adriatic Region Without Borders]. Acta Histriae (in Slovene, with an abstract in English and Italian) 16 (3).
- "Transport". Statistične informacije [Rapid Reports] (21): 11. 4 November 2011.
- "Resolucija o nacionalnem programu razvoja pomorstva Republike Slovenije" [Resolution on the National Programme for the Development of Maritime Transport in the. Republic of Slovenia] (in Slovenian). Ministry of Transport, Republic of Slovenia. 3 November 2010.
- "Edini slovenski ladjar praznuje" [The Only Slovenian Shipowner Celebrates]. MMC RTV Slovenija. 22 October 2004.
- "Transport". Statistične informacije [Rapid Report] (26). 22 November 2010.
- Information Booklet. Aerodrom Ljubljana. 2011.
- Konda, Jože (2006). "Cerklje Airport on its way to future growth". Slovenska vojska XIV (8). p. 29.
- "30.9 Gostota naseljenosti 1.7 - Population Density, 1 July". Stat.si. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- Medvešek, Mojca (2007). "Kdo so priseljenci z območja nekdanje Jugoslavije" [Who Are the Immigrants from the Area of Former Yugoslavia]. Razprave in gradivo (in Slovenian) (53–54) (Institute for Ethnic Studies). p. 34.
- Repolusk, Peter (2006). "Narodnostno neopredeljeno prebivalstvo ob popisih 1991 in 2002 v Sloveniji" [Ethnically Undeclared Population in Slovenian Population Censuses 1991 and 2002]. Dela (in Slovene, with an English abstract and summary) 25 (Anton Melik Geographical Institute). pp. 87–96.
- "International Mother Language Day 2010". Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. 19 February 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- "Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia". National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
- Šabec, Ksenija (2009). ]Report: The Italian National Community in the Slovenian Istria [Poročilo: Italijanska narodna skupnost v Slovenski Istri (in Slovenian). Center for Cultural and Religious Studies, University of Ljubljana. p. 7. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- Gajšek, Nina (2004). ]Rights of the Roma Community in the Republic of Slovenia [Pravice romske skupnosti v Republiki Sloveniji (in Slovenian). Faculty of Social Science, University of Ljubljana.
- Zupančič, Jernej (2007). "Romska naselja kot poseben del naselbinskega sistema v Sloveniji" [Roma Settlements as a Specific Part Of Settlement System in Slovenia]. Dela (in Slovene, with an English abstract and summary) 27 (Institute of Geography). pp. 215–246.
- Zupanič, Milena (20 June 2011). "Demografski preobrat: tiha revolucija med nami" [The Demographic Overturn: The Silent Revolution Among Us]. Delo.si (in Slovenian) (Delo, d. d.).
- Hlebec, Valentina; Šircelj, Milivoja (September 2011). "Population Ageing in Slovenia and Social Support Networks of Older People". In Hoff, Andreas. Population Ageing in Central and Eastern Europe: Societal and Policy Implications. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 118–119.
- "Strong Growth but an Ageing Workforce". Slovenia. OECD Publishing. July 2009. p. 34.
- "World Suicide Prevention Day 2010". Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. 8 September 2010.
- "World Suicide Prevention Day 2011". Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. 8 September 2011.
- Bole, David (2008). "Ekonomska preobrazba slovenskih mest".
- Zavodnik Lamovšek, Alma. Drobne, Samo. Žaucer, Tadej (2008). "Small and Medium-Size Towns as the Basis of Polycentric Urban Development". Geodetski vestnik 52 (2) (Association of Surveyors of Slovenia). p. 303.
- ":: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia - How frequent are the same names of settlements and streets? ::". Stat.si. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "Slovenščina materni jezik za 88 odstotkov državljanov".
- Šircelj, Milivoja (2003). ]Religious, Linguistic, and National Composition of the Slovenian Population: 1921-2002 Censuses [Verska, jezikovna in narodna sestava prebivalstva Slovenije: Popisi 1921-2002 (PDF) (in Slovenian) (2). Statistični urad Republike Slovenije.
- "Linguist Says Slovenian Language Not Endangered". Slovenian Press Agency. 21 February 2010.
- "International Mother Language Day". Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. 19 February 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
- McDonald, Gordon C. 1979. Yugoslavia: A Country Study. Washington, DC: American University, p. 93
- Greenberg, Marc L. 2009. "Slovene." In Keith Brown & Sarah Ogilvie (eds.), Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World, pp. 981–984. Oxford: Elsevier, p. 981.
- Brown, E. K. & Anne Anderson. 2006. Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics: Sca-Spe. Oxford: Elsevier, p. 424
- Sussex, Roland, & Paul V. Cubberley. 2006. The Slavic languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 502.
- Sławski, Franciszek. 1962. Zarys dialektologii południowosłowiańskiej. Warsaw: PAN.
- Priestly, Tom M. S. 1993. "On 'Drift' in Indo-European Gender Systems.' Journal of Indo-European Studies 11: 339–363.
- Klopčič, Vera (2007). "Legal Protection of Roma in Slovenia". Treatises and Documents: Journal of Ethnic Studies (Institute for Ethnic Studies) (52): 234–255.
- Klopčič, Vera; Miroslav Polzer (2003). ]Europe, Slovenia and Roma [Evropa, Slovenija in Romi (in Slovenian). Institute for Ethnic Studies.
- "Granish – a Minority Language Spoken in Slovenia". Norway.si. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- European Day of Languages, Eurostat Newsrelease, 24 September 2009
- "Special Eurobarometer 386 Europeans and Their Languages" (PDF). June 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
- "Eurobarometer pool (2006), page 152" (PDF). Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, Census of Population, Households and Housing, 2002
- "Uskoška dediščina Bele krajine na RTVS|Ljudje|Lokalno aktualno". Lokalno.si. 6 January 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "Predstavitev". Evang-cerkev.si. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "The Virtual Jewish History Tour - Slovenia". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. 4 March 2003. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "Islamska Skupnost v Republiki Sloveniji". Islamska-skupnost.si. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "Special Eurobarometer, biotechnology, page 204" (PDF). Fieldwork: Jan-Feb 2010.
- "Vsak osmi prebivalec Slovenije priseljenec :: Prvi interaktivni multimedijski portal, MMC RTV Slovenija". Rtvslo.si. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "Odgovor na pisno poslansko vprašanje v zvezi z nastanitvijo tujcev v Sloveniji". Racunovodja.com. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "Statistični urad RS – Selitveno gibanje, Slovenija, 2007". Stat.si. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "Table: Range of rank on the PISA 2006 science scale" (PDF). PISA 2006. OECD. 4 December 2007. Retrieved 15 April 2008.
- OECD. "Slovenia – OECD Better Life Index". Oecdbetterlifeindex.org. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- "About Slovenia - Culture of Slovenia". Culture.si. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "Statistics (by Country) of Academic Ranking of World Universities | ARWU | First World University Ranking | Shanghai Ranking". ARWU. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "University of Ljubljana once again on Shanghai and Webometrics ranking lists". Uni-lj.si. Retrieved 2014-04-04.
- "Univerza v Mariboru". Uni-mb.si. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "Univerza na Primorskem: SLO". Upr.si. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "Univerza v Novi Gorici". Ung.si. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "EMUNI University". Retrieved 13 February 2011.
- Smrekar, Andrej. "Slovenska moderna" [Slovene Early Modernism] (in Slovenian). National Gallery of Slovenia.
- Naglič, Miha (6 June 2008). "Je človek še Sejalec" [Is a Man Still a Sower]. Gorenjski glas (in Slovenian).
- ]The Sower"Pogled na ...: Ivan Grohar, Sejalec" [A Look on...: Ivan Grohar, (in Slovenian). RTV Slovenija. 4 December 2007.
- Golob, Katja (2011)TV Poper - Alora pridem več k'sno, Siol.net, 18 November.
- History of the Elephant and a Fruit group
- The special edition of post marks, depicting roasted potatoes, with accompanying text by the notable Slovene ethnologist Janez Bogataj
- Ljubljana Jazz Festival, an official site (in English)
- Museum of Slovene Film Actors, Divača, official website.
- "Umrl je Polde Bibič, starosta slovenskega igralskega ceha". Prvi interaktivni multimedijski portal, MMC RTV Slovenija (in Slovenian). 13 July 2012.
- Furlan, S. (1994) Filmografija slovenskih celovečernih filmov: 1931 - 1993. Slovenski gledališki in filmski muzej. Ljubljana.
- filmarchives-online.eu on Slovenian Cinematheque
- "Boris Pahor je ime leta po izboru Vala 202 :: Prvi interaktivni multimedijski portal, MMC RTV Slovenija". Rtvslo.si. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
- "Mladinska knjiga - Iz medijev". Mladinska.com. 2009-08-26. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
- Oto Luthar The land between: a history of Slovenia
- George J. Buelow (2004) A History of Baroque Music, p. 701.
- Sojar Voglar, Črt (2005). ]Composers' Traces After 1900 [Skladateljske sledi po letu 1900 (in Slovene, English) (2nd ed.). Society of Slovene Composers. pp. 6–7.
- Slovenska popevka: velik poudarek na pevcih in skladateljih, pesniki bolj v oklepaju. Enkrat še zapoj: 50 let Slovenske popevke Vladimirja Frantarja pri celjski Mohorjevi družbi., Delo, 5. September 2012.
- Perpetuum Jazzile: Africa on YouTube. Accessed on 9 September 2013.
- "Perpetuum Jazzile Official Web Site". 7 July 2009. Retrieved 17 July 2009.
- 15 years of Mi2 band, Delo, 26 October 2010
- Pripotovanje hrepenenca — Tomaž Pengov, kantavtor, Mladina, 3 March 2007
- Štravs, Smilja (8 April 2011). "Vurnikova hiša na Miklošičevi: najlepša hiša v Ljubljani" [Vurnik House at Miklošič Street: The Most Beautiful House in Ljubljana]. Delo.si (in Slovenian) (Delo, d. d.).
- "Slovenia's comic scene looks backward in time...". Wieninternational.at (Vienna: Compress VerlagsgesmbH & Co KG). 8 October 2011.
- "Razstava UZNLB v Bruslju - NLB". Nlb.si. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- Kiparstvo 19. in 20. stoletja, official website of the National Gallery of Slovenia
- "Life and work of Janez Puhar | (accessed December 13, 2009)".
- Slovenia River Excavation, National Geographic, January 2007.
- "Sport". Slovenia.si. I Feel Slovenia. Government Communication Office, Republic of Slovenia. 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2012.
- Medjugorac, Igor (November 2009). "Sports: The Competitive Gene". Sports&Champions: Magical Challenges, Inspiring Winners. I Feel Slovenia. Government Communication Office, Republic of Slovenia. pp. 4–5.
- "Boris Kristancic". dnevnik.si. dnevnik.si. dnevnik.si. 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- As defined by the Act Regulating the Coat-of-Arms, Flag and Anthem of the Republic of Slovenia and the Flag of the Slovene Nation ("Zakon o grbu, zastavi in himni Republike Slovenije ter o slovenski narodni zastavi") from 1994 and published on the web page of the National Assembly of Slovenia. The question whether the entire Zdravljica or only its seventh stanza constitutes the Slovenian national anthem, remains unresolved. Whereas the Constitution of Slovenia determines the title of the poem, the act about the anthem specifically determines its seventh stanza. It has been argued that the act contradicts the constitution and that the question should be resolved by the Slovenian Constitutional Court.
- Slovenia's placement within the regional classification schemes for Europe is controversial. It is most often placed in Central Europe but sometimes in Southeastern Europe. Examples include the United Nations Statistics Division (Southern Europe), The World Factbook (Central Europe), Encarta ("south central Europe") and Peter J. Katzenstein ("no way to decide"),
Since the major international success of the national football team, qualifying for two FIFA World Cups and one UEFA European Football Championship, association football has become increasingly popular, as well. Slovenian past and current football stars include Branko Oblak and Zlatko Zahovič. The national basketball team has qualified for 11 Eurobaskets, including a 4th place finish in 2009, and three FIBA World Championship appearances. Notable Slovenian basketball players include Goran Dragić, Jure Zdovc, Peter Vilfan, Ivo Daneu and Boris Kristančič. Slovenia was the host of European basketball championship in 2013, having previously hosted the final round of 1970 FIBA World Championship. The national ice hockey team has qualified for seven Ice Hockey World Championships. Anže Kopitar is the most notable Slovene ice hockey player, and is one of the best players in the world, having helped the Los Angeles Kings to the Stanley Cup Championship in 2012 and 2014. The national team qualified for the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, the first time it has qualified for the Olympics in its history.
Individual sports are also very popular in Slovenia, including tennis and mountaineering, which are two of the most widespread sporting activities in Slovenia. Several Slovenian extreme and endurance sportsmen have gained an international reputation, including the mountaineer Tomaž Humar, the mountain skier Davo Karničar, the ultramaraton swimmer Martin Strel and the ultracyclist Jure Robič. Past and current winter sports Slovenian champions include Alpine skiers, such as Mateja Svet, Bojan Križaj, and 2014 Olympic Alpine Downhill gold medalist Tina Maze, the cross-country skier Petra Majdič, and ski jumpers, such as Primož Peterka. Boxing has gained popularity since Dejan Zavec won the IBF Welterweight World Champion title in 2009.
Slovenia is a natural sports venue, with many Slovenians actively practicing sports. A variety of sports are played in Slovenia on a professional level, with top international successes in handball, basketball, volleyball, association football, ice hockey, rowing, Swimming, tennis, boxing and athletics. Prior to World War II, gymnastics and fencing used to be the most popular sports in Slovenia, with champions like Leon Štukelj and Miroslav Cerar gaining Olympic medals for Slovenia. Association football gained popularity in the interwar period. After 1945, basketball, handball and volleyball have become popular among Slovenians, and from the mid-1970s onward, winter sports have, as well. Since 1992, Slovenian sportspeople have won 22 Olympic medals, including three gold medals, and 19 Paralympic medals, also with three golds.
In 1841, Janez Puhar (1814–1864) invented a process for photography on glass, recognized on 17 June 1852 in Paris by the Académie Nationale Agricole, Manufacturière et Commerciale. Gojmir Anton Kos was a notable realist painter and photographer between First World War and WW II.
Historically, Ivana Kobilica, a woman-painter who worked in realistic tradition. Impressionist artists include Matej Sternen, Matija Jama, Rihard Jakopič, Ivan Grohar whose The Sower (Slovene: Sejalec) was depicted on the €0.05 Slovenian euro coins, and Franc Berneker, who introduced the impressionism to Slovenia. Espressionist painters include Veno Pilon and Tone Kralj whose picture book, reprinted thirteen times, is now the most recognisable image of the folk hero Martin Krpan. Some of the best known painters in the second half of the 20th century were Zoran Mušič, Gabrijel Stupica and Marij Pregelj.
Recently, Lila Prap's illustrations gained popularity in Japan where children's' cartoons based on her illustrations have been televised.
In 1917 Hinko Smrekar illustrated Fran Levstik's book about the famous Slovene folk hero, Martin Krpan. The children's books illustrators include a number of women illustrators, such as Marlenka Stupica, Marija Lucija Stupica, Ančka Gošnik Godec, Marjanca Jemec Božič, and Jelka Reichman.
The renewal of Slovene sculpture begun with Alojz Gangl (1859–1935) who created sculptures for the public monuments of the Carniolan polymath Johann Weikhard von Valvasor and Valentin Vodnik, the first Slovene poet and journalist, as well as The Genius of the Theatre and other statues for the Slovenian National Opera and Ballet Theatre building. The development of sculpture after World War II was led by a number of artists, including brothers Boris and Zdenko Kalin, Jakob Savinšek stayed with figural art. Younger sculptors, for example Janez Boljka, Drago Tršar and particularly Slavko Tihec, moved towards abstract forms. Jakov Brdar and Mirsad Begić returned to human figures.
An industrial design item that has changed the international ski industry is Elan SCX by Elan company. Even before the Elan SCX, Elan skis were depicted in two films, the 1985 James Bond film series part A View to a Kill with Roger Moore, and Working Girl where Katharine Parker (Sigourney Weaver) was depicted as skiing on the RC ELAN model skis and poles.
Internationally most notable Slovenian design items include the 1952 Rex chair, a Scandinavian design-inspired wooden chair, by interior designer Niko Kralj that was given in 2012 a permanent place in Designmuseum, Denmark, the largest museum of design in Scandinavia, and is included in the collection of the Museum of Modern Art MOMA in New York, as well.
A number of conceptual visual art groups formed, including OHO, Group 69, and IRWIN. Nowadays, the Slovene visual arts are diverse, based on tradition, reflect the influence of neighboring nations and are intertwinned with modern European movements.
The first Slovenian animated feature film was the 1998 Socialization of a Bull, made by Zvonko Čoh and Milan Erič who together drew fifty thousand frames during the ten years of its making. The first entirely computer made animations are the 2003 Perkmandeljc and the 2008 Čikorja an' kafe, both made by Dušan Kastelic.
Milko Bambič is known for the first Slovene comic strip Little Negro Bu-ci-bu, an allegory of Mussolini's career, and as the creator of the Three Hearts (Tri srca) brand, still used today by Radenska. After the WW II, both the comics and animated advertisements drawn by Miki Muster gained popularity in Slovenia.
Comics and animation
Modern architecture in Slovenia was introduced by Max Fabiani, and in the mid-war period, Jože Plečnik and Ivan Vurnik. In the second half of the 20th century, the national and universal style were merged by the architects Edvard Ravnikar and first generation of his students: Milan Mihelič, Stanko Kristl, Savin Sever. Next generation is mainly still active Marko Mušič, Vojteh Ravnikar, Jurij Kobe and groups of younger architects.
Slovenia's visual arts, architecture, and design are shaped by a number of architects, designers, painters, sculptors, photographers, graphics artists, as well as comics, illustration and conceptual artists. The most prestigious institutions exhibiting works of Slovene visual artists are the National Gallery of Slovenia and the Museum of Modern Art.
Visual arts, architecture and design
In addition to the main houses, which include Slovene National Theatre, Ljubljana and Maribor National Drama Theatre, a number of small producers are active in Slovenia, including physical theatre (e.g. Betontanc), street theatre (e.g. Ana Monró Theatre), theatresports championship Impro League, and improvisational theatre (e.g. IGLU Theatre). A popular form is puppetry, mainly performed in the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre. Theater has a rich tradition in Slovenia, starting with the 1867 first ever Slovene-language drama performance.
Slovenia has also produced two renowned DJs: DJ Umek and Valentino Kanzyani. Specialising in a frantic brand of party techno and tech-house, the pair co-founded the label Recycled Loops as well as having releases on labels such as Novamute, Primate, Intec and Bassethound Records.
- Techno and tech-house
Slovenia was the center for punk rock in the Titoist Yugoslavia. The most famous representatives of this genre were Pankrti, Niet, Lublanski Psi, Čao Pičke, Via Ofenziva, Tožibabe, and Otroci Socializma.
- Punk rock
The 1970s Bratko Bibič's band Begnagrad is considered one of the direct influences on modern world music. Bibič's unique accordion style, often solo, with no accompaniment, has also made him a solo star.
- World music
Slovenian post-WWII singer-songwriters include Frane Milčinski (1914-1988), Tomaž Pengov whose 1973 album Odpotovanja is considered to be the first singer-songwriter album in former Yugoslavia, Tomaž Domicelj, Marko Brecelj, Andrej Šifrer, Eva Sršen, Neca Falk, and Jani Kovačič. After 1990, Adi Smolar, Iztok Mlakar, Vita Mavrič, Vlado Kreslin, Zoran Predin, Peter Lovšin, and Magnifico have been popular in Slovenia, as well.
With more than 15 million views for the official a capella "Africa" performance video since its publishing on YouTube in May 2009 until September 2013, that earned them kudos from the song's co-writer, David Paich, Perpetuum Jazzile is the group from Slovenia that is internationally most listened online. Other Slovenian bands include a historically progressive rock ones that were also popular in Titoism Yugoslavia, such as Buldožer and Lačni Franz, which inspired later comedy rock bands including Zmelkoow, Slon in Sadež and Mi2. With exception of Terrafolk that made appearances worldwide, other bands, such as Zaklonišče Prepeva, Šank Rock, Big Foot Mama, Dan D, and Zablujena generacija, are mostly unknown outside the country. Slovenian metal bands include Negligence (thrash metal), Naio Ssaion (Gothic metal), Devil Doll (experimental rock),.
- Pop, rock, metal, and indie music
Many musicians followed Avsenik's steps, one of the most famous being Lojze Slak.
From 1952 on, the Slavko Avsenik's band began to appear in broadcasts, movies, and concerts all over the West Germany, inventing the original "Oberkrainer" country sound that has became the primary vehicle of ethnic musical expression not only in Slovenia, but also in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and in the Benelux, spawning hundreds of Alpine orchestras in the process. The band produced nearly 1000 original compositions, an integral part of the Slovenian-style polka legacy. Avsenik's most popular instrumental composition is the polka that is titled "Na Golici" (in Slovene), or "Trompetenecho" (in German), and "Trumpet Echoes" (in English). Oberkrainer music, which the Avsenik Ensemble popularized, is always a strong candidate for country (folk) music awards in Slovenia and Austria.
- Modern folk (Slovenian country) music
Harmony singing is a deep rooted tradition in Slovenia, and is at least three-part singing (four voices), while in some regions even up to eight-part singing (nine voices). Slovenian folk songs, thus, usually resounds soft and harmonious, and are very seldom in minor. Traditional Slovenian folk music is performed on Styrian harmonica (the oldest type of accordion), fiddle, clarinet, zithers, flute, and by brass bands of alpine type. In eastern Slovenia, fiddle and cimbalon bands are called velike goslarije.
- Traditional folk music
The Slovene National Opera and Ballet Theatre serves as the national opera and ballet house.
Modern composers include Uroš Rojko, Tomaž Svete, Brina Jež-Brezavšček, Božidar Kantušer and Aldo Kumar. Kumar's Sonata z igro 12 (A sonata with a play 12), a set of variations on a rising chromatic scale, is particularly notable.
In the early 20th century, impressionism was spreading across Slovenia, which soon produced composers Marij Kogoj and Slavko Osterc. Avant-garde classical music arose in Slovenia in the 1960s, largely due to the work of Uroš Krek, Dane Škerl, Primož Ramovš and Ivo Petrić, who also conducted the Slavko Osterc Ensemble. Jakob Jež, Darijan Božič, Lojze Lebič and Vinko Globokar have since composed enduring works, especially Globokar's L'Armonia, an opera.
Composers of Slovenian Lieder and art songs include Emil Adamič (1877–1936), Fran Gerbič (1840–1917), Alojz Geržinič (1915–2008), Benjamin Ipavec (1829–1908), Davorin Jenko (1835–1914), Anton Lajovic (1878–1960), Kamilo Mašek (1831–1859), Josip Pavčič (1870–1949), Zorko Prelovec (1887–1939), and Lucijan Marija Škerjanc (1900–1973).
In 1701, Johann Berthold von Höffer (1667–1718), a nobleman and amateur composer from Ljubljana, founded the Academia Philharmonicorum Labacensis, as one of the oldest such institutions in Europe, based on Italian models.
During the medieval era, secular music was as popular as church music, including wandering minnesingers. By the time of Protestant Reformation in the 16th century, music was used to proselytize. The first Slovenian hymnal, Eni Psalmi, was published in 1567. This period saw the rise of musicians like Jacobus Gallus and Jurij Slatkonja.
The Slovenian Philharmonics, established in 1701 as part of Academia operosorum Labacensis, is among the oldest such institutions in Europe. Music of Slovenia historically includes numerous musicians and composers, such as the Renaissance composer Jacobus Gallus (1550–1591), who greatly influenced Central European classical music, the Baroque composer Janez Krstnik Dolar (ca. 1620–1673), and the violin virtuoso Giuseppe Tartini.
Classical music, opera, and film music
In the Bukla Magazine, issued free of charge, both fiction and non-fiction Slovene books published in the previous month are reviewed since 2005.
- Book reviews
Postmodernist authors include Boris A. Novak, Marko Kravos, Drago Jančar, Evald Flisar, Tomaž Šalamun, and Brina Svit. Among the post-1990 authors best known are Aleš Debeljak, Miha Mazzini, and Alojz Ihan. There are several literary magazines that publish Slovene prose, poetry, essays, and local literary criticism.
History of Slovene literature begun in the 16th century with Primož Trubar and other Protestant Reformers. Poetry in the Slovene language achieved its highest level with the Romantic poet France Prešeren (1800–1849). In the 20th century, the Slovene literary fiction went through several periods: the beginning of the century was marked by the authors of the Slovene Modernism, with the most influential Slovene writer and playwright, Ivan Cankar; it was then followed by expressionism (Srečko Kosovel), avantgardism (Anton Podbevšek, Ferdo Delak) and social realism (Ciril Kosmač, Prežihov Voranc) before World War II, the poetry of resistance and revolution (Karel Destovnik Kajuh, Matej Bor) during the war, and intimism (Poems of the Four, 1953), post-war modernism (Edvard Kocbek), and existentialism (Dane Zajc) after the war.
- Literary history
Authors and book reviews
- Film criticism
Most notable documentaries made by Slovenian directors include the humanitarian films by Tomo Križnar on the Nuba people.
Feature film and short film production in Slovenia historically includes Karol Grossmann, František Čap, France Štiglic, Igor Pretnar, Jože Pogačnik, Peter Zobec, Matjaž Klopčič, Boštjan Hladnik, Dušan Jovanović, Vitan Mal, Franci Slak, and Karpo Godina as its most established filmmakers. Contemporary film directors Filip Robar - Dorin, Jan Cvitkovič, Damjan Kozole, Janez Lapajne, Marko Okorn, and Marko Naberšnik are among the representatives of the so-called "Renaissance of Slovenian cinema". Slovene screenwriters, who are not film directors, include Saša Vuga and Miha Mazzini. Women film directors include Polona Sepe, Hanna A. W. Slak, and Maja Weiss.
- Film directors
Slovene film actors and actresses historically include Ida Kravanja, who played her roles as Ita Rina in the early European films, and Metka Bučar. After the WW II, one of the most notable film actors was Polde Bibič, who played a number of roles in many films that were well received in Slovenia, including Don't Cry, Peter (1964), On Wings of Paper (1968), Kekec's Tricks (1968), Flowers in Autumn (1973), The Widowhood of Karolina Žašler (1976), Heritage (1986), Primož Trubar (1985), and My Dad, The Socialist Kulak (1987). Many of these were directed by Matjaž Klopčič. He also performed in television and radio drama. Altogether, Bibič played over 150 theatre and over 30 film roles.
- Film actors
The most notable music festival of Slovene music was historically the Slovenska popevka festival. Between 1981 and 2000 the Novi Rock festival was notable for bringing rock music across Iron curtain from the West to the Slovenian and then Yugoslav audience. In Titoist Yugoslavia, Jazz festival Ljubljana right after the World War II begun the long tradition of Jazz festivals in Slovenia.
In 2012, Maribor was the European Capital of Culture.
A number of music, theater, film, book, and children's festivals take place in Slovenia each year, including the music festivals Ljubljana Summer Festival and Lent Festival, the stand up comedy Punch Festival, the children's Pippi Longstocking Festival, and the book festivals Slovene book fair and Frankfurt after the Frankfurt.
Festivals, book fairs, and other events
- Modern dance
Pino Mlakar and Pia Mlakar were the most notable ballet dancers and members of the Ljubljana Opera and Ballet Company from 1946-1960. Pino Mlakar was also a full professor at the Academy for Theatre, Radio, Film and Television (AGRFT) of the University of Ljubljana.
Ethnologically most characteristic Slovene dishes were one-pot dishes, such as ričet, Istrian stew (jota), minestrone (mineštra), and žganci; in the Prekmurje region there is also bujta repa, and prekmurska gibanica pastry, and prosciutto (pršut) in the Slovene Littoral. The nut roll (potica) has become a trademark and symbol of Slovenia especially among Slovene diaspora in America. Soups were added to the traditional one-pot meals and various kinds of porridge and stew only in relatively recent history.
Slovenian cuisine is a mixture of the Central European cuisine (especially Austrian and Hungarian), the Mediterranean cuisine and the Balkan cuisine. Historically, Slovenian cuisine was divided into town, farmhouse, cottage, castle, parsonage and monastic cuisine. Due to the variety of Slovenian cultural and natural landscapes, there are more than 40 distinct regional cuisines.
The new generation of comedians include stand up comedians, such as Tin Vodopivec, who co-founded the Punch Festival, the radio host and impersonator Denis Avdić, and The Elephant and a Fruit group.
Comedians historically included the pioneer of Slovene comedy and singer-songwriter Frane Milčinski (1914-1988), the socialist period comedian Tone Fornezzi, the Italian-style comedians Nataša Tič Raljan with her Mona Liza character, Gojmir Lešnjak, and Boris Kobal with the characters from the legendary TV Poper Show, and the leading Slovene impersonator Sašo Hribar with his Radio Ga-Ga Show.
Among several universities in Slovenia, the best ranked is the University of Ljubljana, ranking among the first 500 or the first 3% of the world's best universities according to the ARWU. Two other public universities include the University of Maribor in Styria region and the University of Primorska in Slovene Littoral. In addition, there is a private University of Nova Gorica and an international EMUNI University.
After completing elementary school, nearly all children (more than 98%) go on to secondary education, either vocational, technical or general secondary programmes (gimnazija). The latter concludes with matura, the final exam that allows the graduates to enter a university. 84% of secondary school graduates go on to tertiary education.
Responsibility for education oversight at primary and secondary level in Slovenia lies with the Ministry of Education and Sports. After non-compulsory pre-school education, children enter the nine-year primary school at the age of six. Primary school is divided into three periods, each of three years. In the academic year 2006–2007 there were 166,000 pupils enrolled in elementary education and more than 13,225 teachers, giving a ratio of one teacher per 12 pupils and 20 pupils per class.
Slovenia's education ranks as the 12th best in the world and 4th best in the European Union, being significantly higher than the OECD average, according to the Programme for International Student Assessment. Among people age 25 to 64, 12% have attended higher education, whilst on average Slovenes have 9.6 years of formal education. According to an OECD report, 83% of adults ages 25–64 have earned the equivalent of a high school degree, well above the OECD average of 74%; among 25- to 34-year-olds, the rate is 93%. According to the 1991 census there is 99.6% literacy in Slovenia. Lifelong learning is also increasing.
Around 12% of the inhabitants of Slovenia were born abroad. According to data from 2008, there were around 100,000 non-EU citizens living in Slovenia, or around 5% of the overall population of the country. The highest number came from Bosnia-Herzegovina, followed by immigrants from Serbia, Macedonia, Croatia and Kosovo. The number of people migrating to Slovenia has been steadily rising from 1995; and has been increasing rapidly in recent years. Since Slovenia joined the EU in 2004, the yearly inflow of immigrants has doubled by 2006 and tripled by 2009. In 2007, Slovenia was one of the countries with the fastest growth of net migration rate in the European Union.
In the 2002, around 10% of Slovenes declared themselves as atheists, another 10% professed no specific denomination, and around 16% decided not to answer the question about their religious affiliation. According to the Eurobarometer Poll 2010, 32% of Slovenian citizens responded that "they believe there is a god", whereas 36% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 26% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force".
According to the 2002 census, Islam is the second largest religious denomination with around 2.4% of the population. Most Slovenian Muslims came from Bosnia. The third largest denomination, with around 2.2% of the population, is Orthodox Christianity, with most adherents belonging to the Serbian Orthodox Church while a minority belongs to the Macedonian and other Orthodox churches.
Besides these two Christian denominations, a small Jewish community has also been historically present. Despite the losses suffered during the Holocaust, Judaism still numbers a few hundred adherents, mostly living in Ljubljana, site of the sole remaining active synagogue in the country.
Despite a relatively small number of Protestants (less than 1% in 2002), the Protestant legacy is historically significant given that the Slovene standard language and Slovene literature were established by the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century. Today, a significant Lutheran minority lives in the easternmost region of Prekmurje, where they represent around a fifth of the population and are headed by a bishop with the seat in Murska Sobota.
Before World War II, 97% of the population declared itself Catholic (Roman Rite), around 2.5% as Lutheran, and around 0.5% of residents identified themselves as members of other denominations. Catholicism was an important feature of both social and political life in pre-Communist Slovenia. After 1945, the country underwent a process of gradual but steady secularization. After a decade of severe persecution of religions, the Communist regime adopted a policy of relative tolerance towards the churches, but limited their social functioning. After 1990, the Catholic Church regained some of its former influence, but Slovenia remains a largely secularized society. According to the 2002 census, 57.8% of the population is Catholic. As elsewhere in Europe, affiliation with Catholicism is dropping: In 1991, 71.6% were self-declared Catholics which means a drop of more than 1% annually. The vast majority of Slovenian Catholics belong to the Latin Rite. A small number of Greek Catholics live in the White Carniola region.
A reported 42% of Slovenes could speak German, which was one of the highest percentages outside German-speaking countries. Italian is widely spoken on the Slovenian Coast and in some other areas of the Slovene Littoral. Around 15% of Slovenians can speak Italian, which is (according to the Eurobarometer pool) the third highest percentage in the European Union, after Italy and Malta.
Regarding the knowledge of foreign languages, Slovenia is ranked among the top European countries. The most taught foreign languages are English, German, Italian, French and Spanish. As of 2007, 92% of the population between the age of 25 and 64 spoke at least one foreign language and around 71.8% of them spoke at least two foreign languages, which was the highest percentage in the European Union. According to the Eurobarometer survey, as of 2005 the majority of Slovenes could speak Croatian (61%) and English (56%).:21
A significant number of people in Slovenia speak a variant of Serbo-Croatian (Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, or Montenegrin) as their native language. These are mostly immigrants who moved to Slovenia from other former Yugoslav republics from the 1960s to the late 1980s, and their descendants. In 2002, 0.4% of the Slovenian population declared themselves to be native speakers of Albanian and 0.2% native speakers of Macedonian. Czech, which used to be the fourth-largest minority language in Slovenia prior to World War II (after German, Hungarian, and Serbo-Croatian), is now the native language of a few hundred residents of Slovenia.
Other Slavic languages and Albanian
German, which used to be the largest minority language in Slovenia prior to World War II (around 4% of the population in 1921), is now the native language of only around 0.08% of the population, the majority of whom are more than 60 years old. Gottscheerish or Granish, the traditional German dialect of Gottschee County, is now facing extinction.
Romani, spoken in 2002 as the native language by 0.2% of people, is a legally protected language in Slovenia. These people mainly belong to the geographically dispersed and marginalized Roma community.
Hungarian and Italian, spoken by the respective minorities, enjoy the status of official languages in the ethnically mixed regions along the Hungarian and Italian borders, to the extent that even the passports issued in those areas are bilingual. In 2002, around 0.2% of the Slovenian population spoke Italian and around 0.4% spoke Hungarian as their native language. Hungarian is co-official with Slovene in 30 settlements in 5 municipalities (whereof 3 are officially bilingual). Italian is co-official with Slovene in 25 settlements in 4 municipalities (all of them are officially bilingual).
Hungarian and Italian
Languages of the minorities and other languages
Slovene is sometimes characterized as the most diverse Slavic language in terms of dialects, with different degrees of mutual intelligibility. Accounts of the number of dialects range from as few as seven dialects, often considered dialect groups or dialect bases that are further subdivided into as many as 50 dialects. Other sources characterize the number of dialects as nine or eight.
The official language in Slovenia is Slovene, which is a member of the South Slavic language group. In 2002, Slovene was the native language of around 88% of Slovenia's population according to the census, with more than 92% of the Slovenian population speaking it in their home environment. This places Slovenia among the most homogeneous countries in the EU in terms of the share of speakers of predominant mother tongue.
Largest towns of Slovenia
Statistical Office: Largest settlements by population (1 January 2013)
|Rank||Town name||Statistical region||Pop.|
|7||Novo Mesto||Southeast Slovenia||23,341|
In 2009, the suicide rate in Slovenia was 22 per 100,000 persons per year, which places Slovenia among the highest ranked European countries in this regard. Nonetheless, from 2000 until 2010, the rate has decreased by about 30%. The differences between regions and the genders are pronounced.
Slovenia is among the European countries with the most pronounced ageing of population, ascribable to a low birth rate and increasing life expectancy. Almost all Slovenian inhabitants older than 64 are retired, with no significant difference between the genders. The working-age group is diminishing in spite of immigration. The proposal to raise the retirement age from the current 57 for women and 58 for men was rejected in a referendum in 2011. In addition, the difference among the genders regarding life expectancy is still significant. The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2014 was estimated at 1.33 children born/woman, which is lower than the replacement rate of 2.1. The majority of children are born to unmarried women (in 2013, 58% of all births were outside marriage). In 2014, life expectancy was 77.83 years (74.21 years male, and 81.69 years female).
According to the 2002 census, Slovenia's main ethnic group are the Slovenes (83%), however their share in the total population is continuously decreasing due to their relatively low fertility rate. At least 13% (2002) of the population were immigrants from other parts of Former Yugoslavia and their descendants. They have settled mainly in cities and suburbanised areas. Relatively small but protected by the Constitution of Slovenia are the Hungarian and the Italian ethnic minority. A special position is held by the autochthonous and geographically dispersed Roma ethnic community.
With 101 inhabitants per square kilometer (262/sq mi), Slovenia ranks low among the European countries in population density (compared to 402/km² (1042/sq mi) for the Netherlands or 195/km² (505/sq mi) for Italy). The Inner Carniola–Karst Statistical Region has the lowest population density while the Central Slovenia Statistical Region has the highest.
The air transport in Slovenia is quite low, but has significantly grown since 1991. Of the three international airports in Slovenia, Ljubljana Jože Pučnik Airport in central Slovenia is the busiest, with connections to many major European destinations. The Maribor Edvard Rusjan Airport is located in the eastern part of the country and the Portorož Airport in the western part. The state-owned Adria Airways is the largest Slovenian airline. Since 2003, several new carriers have entered the market, mainly low-cost airlines. The only Slovenian military airport is the Cerklje ob Krki Air Base in the southwestern part of the country. There are also 12 public airports in Slovenia.
The major Slovenian port is the Port of Koper. It is the largest Northern Adriatic port in terms of container transport, with almost 590,000 TEUs annually and lines to all major world ports. It is much closer to destinations east of the Suez than the ports of Northern Europe. In addition, the maritime passenger traffic mostly takes place in Koper. Two smaller ports used for the international passenger transport as well as cargo transport are located in Izola and Piran. Passenger transport mainly takes place with Italy and Croatia. Splošna plovba, the only Slovenian shipping company, transports freight and is active only in foreign ports.
The existing Slovenian rails are out-of-date and can't compete with the motorway network. The maintenance and modernisation of the Slovenian railway network has been neglected due to the lack of financial assets. Due to the out-of-date infrastructure, the share of the railway freight transport has been in decline in Slovenia. The railway passenger transport has been recovering after a large drop in the 1990s. The Pan-European railway corridors V and X, and several other major European rail lines intersect in Slovenia. All international transit trains in Slovenia drive through the Ljubljana Railway Hub.
The road freight and passenger transport constitutes the largest part of transport in Slovenia at 80%. Personal cars are much more popular than public road passenger transport, which has significantly declined. Slovenia has a very high highway and motorway density compared to the European Union average. The highway system, the construction of which was speeded up after 1994, has slowly but steadily transformed Slovenia into a large conurbation. Other state roads have been rapidly deteriorating due to neglect and the overall increase in traffic.
The location at the junction of major geographic units and the area being traversed by major rivers have been the reasons for the intersection of the main transport routes in Slovenia. Their course was established already in the Antiquity. A particular geographic advantage in recent times has been the location of the intersection of the Pan-European transport corridors V (the fastest link between the North Adriatic, and Central and Eastern Europe) and X (linking Central Europe with the Balkans) in the country. This gives it a special position in the European social, economic and cultural integration and restructuring.
Most of foreign tourists to Slovenia come from the key European markets: Italy, Austria, Germany, Croatia, Benelux, Serbia, Russia and Ukraine, followed by UK and Ireland. European tourists create more than 90% of Slovenia's tourist income.
Important parts of tourism in Slovenia include congress and gambling tourism. Slovenia is the country with the highest percentage of casinos per 1,000 inhabitants in the European Union. Perla in Nova Gorica is the largest casino in the region.
The hills around Slovenia's second-largest town, Maribor, are renowned for their wine-making. The northeastern part of the country is rich with spas, with Rogaška Slatina, Radenci, Čatež ob Savi, Dobrna, and Moravske Toplice growing in importance in the last two decades.
The Karst Plateau in the Slovene Littoral gave its name to karst, a landscape shaped by water dissolving the carbonate bedrock, forming caves. The best-known caves are Postojna Cave, with more than 28 million visitors, and the UNESCO-listed Škocjan Caves. The region of Slovenian Istria meets the Adriatic Sea, where the most important historical monument is the Venetian Gothic Mediterranean town of Piran while the settlement of Portorož attracts crowds in summer.
At the northwestern corner of the country lie the Julian Alps with the picturesque Lake Bled and the Soča Valley, as well as the nation's highest peak, Mount Triglav in the middle of Triglav National Park. Other mountain ranges include Kamnik–Savinja Alps, Karavanke and Pohorje, popular with skiers and hikers.
Slovenia offers tourists a wide variety of natural and cultural amenities. Different forms of tourism have developed. The tourist gravitational area is considerably large, however the tourist market is small. There has been no large-scale tourism and no acute environmental pressures.
Renewable energy in Slovenia: at the end of 2011 at least 87 MWp of photovoltaic modules were installed and 22 MW of biogas powerplants. There is a plan and obligation that at least 500 MW of wind power will be installed by 2020. Solar hot water heating is gaining popularity in Slovenia.
Current investments: new 600 MW block of Šoštanj thermal power plant is in construction and will be finished by 2014. New 39.5 MW HE Krško hydro power plant was finished in 2013. By 2018, 41.5 MW HE Brežice and 30.5 MW HE Mokrice hydro power plants will be built on Sava river. Construction of ten hydropower plants on the Sava River with a cumulative capacity of 338 MW is planned to be finished by 2030. A large pumped-storage hydro power plant Kozjak on the Drava River is in the planning stage.
In 2011 electricity production was 14,144 GWh, electricity consumption was 12,602 GWh. Electricity production by source: hydro 3,361 GWh, thermal 4,883 GWh, nuclear 5,899 GWh.
There is a big difference in prosperity between the regions. The economically most prosperous statistical regions are the Central Slovenia and the Slovene Littoral, while the poorest are the Mura, the Central Sava and the Carinthia.
High level of openness makes Slovenia extremely sensitive to economic conditions in its main trading partners and changes in its international price competitiveness. The main industries are motor vehicles, electric and electronic equipment, machinery, pharmaceuticals, and fuels. An increasing burden for the Slovenian economy has been its rapidly ageing population.
The level of foreign direct investment (FDI) per capita in Slovenia is one of the lowest in the EU, and the labor productivity and the competitiveness of the Slovenian economy is still significantly below the EU average. Taxes are relatively high, the labor market is seen by business interests as being inflexible, and industries are losing sales to China, India, and elsewhere.
Almost two-thirds of people are employed in services, and over one-third in industry and construction. Slovenia benefits from a well-educated workforce, well-developed infrastructure, and its location at the crossroads of major trade routes.
Services and industry
Slovenia's total national debt at the end of September 2011 amounted to 15,884 million euros or 44.4% of GDP. In August 2012, the three main ratings agencies have all downgraded Slovenian sovereign debt. An increase in 2013 estimates about Slovenia allegedly being in need of a bailout was attributed by Finland’s Europe Minister Alexander Stubb to "financial sharks" who would like to capitalize on it by creating self-fulfilling prophecies and Die Welt ranked Slovenia among the three least vulnerable European countries topped only by Germany and Estonia.
In August 2012 the year-on-year contraction is still 0.8%, however, growth by 0.2% was recorded in the first quarter (in relation to the quarter before, after data was adjusted according to season and working days). Year-on-year contraction has been attributed to the fall in domestic consumption, and the slowdown in export growth. The decrease in domestic consumption has been attributed to the fiscal austerity, to the freeze on budget expenditure in the final months of last year, to the failure of the efforts to implement economic reforms, to inappropriate financing, and to the decrease in exports.
In 2004-2006, the economy grew on average by nearly 5% a year in Slovenia; in 2007, it expanded by almost 7%. The growth surge was fuelled by debt, particularly among firms, and especially in construction. After the financial crisis of 2007-2010 and European sovereign-debt crisis, the price for a boom that veered out of control is now being paid. The construction industry was severely hit in 2010 and 2011. Already in 2009 the Slovenian GDP per capita shrunk by 8%, which was the biggest fall in the European Union after the Baltic countries and Finland.