|slovenčina, slovenský jazyk|
|Native to||Slovakia, Serbia / Vojvodina; minority language in Czech Republic, Hungary|
|c. 5 million (2001)|
Latin (Slovak alphabet)
Official language in
Serbia (in Vojvodina)
|Regulated by||Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Republic|
Slovak ( , slovenčina; not to be confused with slovenski jezik or slovenščina, the native name of the Slovene language) is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, Silesian, Kashubian, and Sorbian).
Slovak is the official language of Slovakia where it is spoken by approximately 5.51 million people (2014). Slovak speakers are also found in the United States, the Czech Republic, Serbia, Ireland, Romania, Poland, Canada, Hungary, Croatia, the United Kingdom, Australia, Austria, and Ukraine.
- 1 Phonology
- 2 Orthography
- 3 Syntax
- 4 Morphology
- 5 History
- 6 Relationships to other languages
- 7 Dialects
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Bibliography
- 11 External links
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Slovak has the five short vowels /a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ (plus /æ/, orthographic ⟨ä⟩, though rare), the five long vowels /aː/ /eː/ /iː/ /oː/ /uː/, and four rising diphthongs: /ie/ /ia/ /iu/ /uo/. /e/ /eː/ /o/ /oː/ are phonetically mid. /a/ and /aː/ are central.
Pronunciation of ä as [æ] is already archaic (or dialectical) but still considered correct by some authorities; the standard pronunciation today is [ɛ].
The graphic group -ou (at the end of words) is pronounced [ɔu̯] but is not considered a separate diphthong. Its phonemic interpretation is /ov/.
|Plosive||p b||t d||c ɟ||k ɡ|
|Affricate||t͡s d͡z||t͡ʃ d͡ʒ|
|Fricative||f v||s z||ʃ ʒ||x||ɦ|
|Approximant||l lː||j ʎ|
The postalveolar consonants are often pronounced with retroflexion, similar to Russian and Polish. /v/ is frequently pronounced as a labiodental approximant, particularly in the syllable onset before a vowel or sonorant. /c/, /ɟ/, /ɲ/ and often /ʎ/ are phonetically palatalized alveolar [t̻ʲ d̻ʲ n̻ʲ l̻ʲ]. /l/ is slightly velarized [lˠ].
Some additional notes includes the following (transcriptions in IPA unless otherwise stated):
- r and l can be syllabic: /r̩/ and /l̩/. When they are long (indicated in the spelling with the acute accent: ŕ and ĺ), they are always syllabic. E.g., vlk (wolf), prst (finger), štvrť (quarter), krk (neck), bisyllabic vĺča—vĺ-ča (wolfling), vŕba—vŕ-ba (willow-tree), etc.
- m has the allophone [ɱ] in front of the labiodental fricatives /f/ and /v/.
- n in front of (post)alveolar fricatives has an allophone written as [n̠] in a phonemic transcription of Slovak.
- n can be [ŋ] in front of the velar plosives /k/ and /ɡ/.
In the standard language, the stress is always on the first syllable of a word (or on the preceding preposition, see below). This is not the case in certain dialects. Eastern dialects have penultimate stresses which at times makes them difficult to understand for speakers of standard Slovak. Some of the north-central dialects have a weak stress on the first syllable, which becomes stronger and "moves" to the penultimate in certain cases. Monosyllabic conjunctions, monosyllabic short personal pronouns and auxiliary verb forms of the verb byť (to be) are, as a rule, not stressed.
Slovak linguists do not usually use IPA for phonetic transcription of their own language or others, but have their own system based on the Slovak alphabet. Many English language textbooks make use of this alternative system of 'phonetic' transcription, a factor which probably contributes to some Slovaks developing a particular ('incorrect') pronunciation of certain English phonemes. In the following table, pronunciation of each grapheme is given in this system as well as in the IPA.
|ä||ɛ, æ||e, ä|
|ĺ||l̩ː||ĺ||mĺkvy (adj. prone to silence)|
|ľ||ʎ||ľ||moľa (clothes moth)|
|ŕ||r̩ː||ŕ||vŕba (willow tree)|
/ˈras sa ˈsɛvɛraːk a ˈsl̩nkɔ ˈɦaːdali | ˈktɔ z ɲix jɛ ˈsilɲɛjʃiː || ˈf tɔm ˈzbadali ˈpɔt͡sɛstnɛːɦɔ | ˈktɔriː ˈkraːt͡ʃal ˈzakritiː ˈplaːʃcɔm || ˈdɔɦɔdli sa | ʒɛ ˈsilɲɛjʃiː jɛ ˈtɛn | ktɔ ˈakɔ ˈpr̩viː ˈdɔkaːʒɛ | ˈabi si ˈpɔt͡sɛstniː ˈvizlɪ̯ɛkɔl ˈplaːʃc || ˈa tak ˈzat͡ʃal ˈsɛvɛraːk ˈfuːkac zɔ ˈfʃɛtkix ˈsiːl | ˈale t͡ʃiːm vɪ̯at͡s ˈfuːkal | ˈtiːm vɪ̯at͡s sa ˈpɔt͡sɛstniː ˈzakriːval ˈplaːʃcɔm || ˈnakɔɲɪ̯ɛt͡s sa ˈsɛvɛraːk ˈvzdal ˈzbitɔt͡ʃnɛj ˈnaːmaɦi || ˈpɔtɔm ˈsl̩nkɔ ˈzat͡ʃalɔ ˈsʋɪ̯ɛcic a ˈɦrɪ̯ac || ˈza maluː ˈxʋiːʎku ˈbɔlɔ ˈpɔt͡sɛstnɛːmu ˈcɛplɔ | a ˈvizlɪ̯ɛkɔl si ˈplaːʃc || ˈsɛvɛraːk ˈmusɛl ˈnakɔɲɪ̯ɛt͡s ˈuznac | ʒɛ ˈsl̩nkɔ jɛ ˈsilɲɛjʃɪ̯ɛ ˈakɔ ɔn/
[ˈras sa ˈsɛʋɛraːk a ˈsl̩ŋkɔ ˈɦaːdali | ˈktɔ z ɲix jɛ ˈsilɲɛjʃiː || ˈf tɔm ˈzbadali ˈpɔt͡sɛstnɛːɦɔ | ˈktɔriː ˈkraːt͡ʃal ˈzakritiː ˈplaːʃcɔm || ˈdɔhɔdli sa | ʒɛ ˈsilɲɛjʃiː jɛ ˈtɛn | ktɔ ˈakɔ ˈpr̩ʋiː ˈdɔkaːʒɛ | ˈabi si ˈpɔt͡sɛstniː ˈʋizlɪ̯ɛkɔl ˈplaːʃc || ˈa tag ˈzat͡ʃal ˈsɛʋɛraːk ˈfuːkaɟ zɔ ˈfʃɛtkix ˈsiːl | ˈale t͡ʃiːm ʋɪ̯at͡s ˈfuːkal | ˈtiːm ʋɪ̯at͡s sa ˈpɔt͡sɛstniː ˈzakriːʋal ˈplaːʃcɔm || ˈnakɔɲɪ̯ɛt͡s sa ˈsɛvɛraːg ˈvzdal ˈzbitɔt͡ʃnɛj ˈnaːmaɦi || ˈpɔtɔm ˈsl̩ŋkɔ ˈzat͡ʃalɔ ˈsʋɪ̯ɛcic a ˈɦrɪ̯ac || ˈza maluː ˈxʋiːʎku ˈbɔlɔ ˈpɔt͡sɛstnɛːmu ˈcɛplɔ | a ˈʋizlɪ̯ɛkɔl si ˈplaːʃc || ˈsɛvɛraːk ˈmusɛl ˈnakɔɲɪ̯ɛt͡s ˈuznac | ʒɛ ˈsl̩ŋkɔ jɛ ˈsilɲɛjʃɪ̯ɛ ˈakɔ ɔn]
Raz sa severák a slnko hádali, kto z nich je silnejší. V tom zbadali pocestného, ktorý kráčal zakrytý plášťom. Dohodli sa, že silnejší je ten, kto ako prvý dokáže, aby si pocestný vyzliekol plášť. A tak začal severák fúkať zo všetkých síl, ale čím viac fúkal, tým viac sa pocestný zakrýval plášťom. Nakoniec sa severák vzdal zbytočnej námahy. Potom slnko začalo svietiť a hriať. Za malú chvíľku bolo pocestnému teplo a vyzliekol si plášť. Severák musel nakoniec uznať, že slnko je silnejšie ako on.
The primary principle of Slovak spelling is the phonemic principle. The secondary principle is the morphological principle: forms derived from the same stem are written in the same way even if they are pronounced differently. An example of this principle is the assimilation rule (see below). The tertiary principle is the etymological principle, which can be seen in the use of i after certain consonants and of y after other consonants, although both i and y are pronounced the same way.
Finally, the rarely applied grammatical principle is present when, for example, the basic singular form and plural form of masculine adjectives are written differently with no difference in pronunciation (e.g. pekný = nice – singular versus pekní = nice – plural).
In addition, the following rules are present:
- When a voiced consonant having a voiceless counterpart (b, d, ď, dz, dž, g, h, z, ž) stands at the end of the word before a pause, it is pronounced as a voiceless consonant (p, t, ť, c, č, k, ch, s, š, respectively). For example, pohyb is pronounced /poɦip/ and prípad is pronounced /priːpat/.
- The assimilation rule: Consonant clusters containing both voiced and voiceless elements are entirely voiced if the last consonant is a voiced one, or voiceless if the last consonant is voiceless. For example, otázka is pronounced /otaːska/ and vzchopiť sa is pronounced /fsxopitsːa/. This rule applies also over the word boundary. One example is as follows: prísť domov /priːzɟ domou̯/ (to come home) and viac jahôd /vi̯adzjaɦu̯ot/ (more strawberries). The voiced counterpart of "ch" /x/ is /ɣ/, and the unvoiced counterpart of "h" /ɦ/ is /x/.
Most foreign words receive Slovak spelling immediately or after some time. For example, "weekend" is spelled víkend, "software" - softvér, "gay" - gej (both not exclusively), and "quality" is spelled kvalita (possibly from Italian qualità). Personal and geographical names from other languages using Latin alphabets keep their original spelling unless a fully Slovak form of the name exists (e.g. Londýn for "London").
Slovak features some heterophonic homographs (words with identical spelling but different pronunciation and meaning), the most common examples being krásne /ˈkraːsne/ (beautiful) versus krásne /ˈkraːsɲe/ (beautifully).
The main features of Slovak syntax are as follows:
Some examples include the following:
- Speváčka spieva. (The+female+singer is+singing.)
- (Speváčk-a spieva-0, where -0 is a third person singular ending)
- Speváčky spievajú. (Female+singers are+singing.)
- (Speváčk-y spieva-j-ú; -ú is a third person plural ending, and /j/ is a hiatus sound)
- My speváčky spievame. (We the+female+singers are+singing.)
- (My speváčk-y spieva-me, where -me is the first person plural ending)
- and so forth.
- Adjectives, pronouns and numerals agree in person, gender and case with the noun to which they refer.
- Adjectives precede their noun. Botanic or zoological terms are exceptions (e.g. mačka divá, literally "cat wild", Felis silvestris) as is the naming of Holy Spirit (Duch Svätý) in a majority of churches.
Word order in Slovak is relatively free, since strong inflection enables the identification of grammatical roles (subject, object, predicate, etc.) regardless of word placement. This relatively free word order allows the use of word order to convey topic and emphasis.
Some examples are as follows:
- Ten veľký muž tam dnes otvára obchod. = That big man opens a store there today. (ten = that; veľký = big; muž = man; tam = there; dnes = today; otvára = opens; obchod = store) - The word order does not emphasize any specific detail, just general information.
- Ten veľký muž dnes otvára obchod tam. = That big man is today opening a store there. - This word order emphasizes the place (tam = there).
- Dnes tam otvára obchod ten veľký muž. = Today over there a store is being opened by that big man. - This word order focuses on the person who is opening the store (ten = that; veľký = big; muž = man).
- Obchod tam dnes otvára ten veľký muž. = The store over there is today being opened by that big man. - Depending on the pronunciation the focus can be either on the store itself or on the person.
- Ten otvára veľký muž tam dnes obchod.
- Obchod muž tam ten veľký dnes otvára. ...
And the following are not correct:
- Otvára ten veľký muž tam dnes obchod? (Correct is Ten veľký muž tam dnes otvára obchod? or Ten veľký muž dnes otvára obchod tam? or Tam dnes otvára obchod ten veľký muž?)
- Obchod ten veľký muž dnes tam otvára. (Only possible in a poem or a similar style.)
The Slovak language contains no articles. The demonstrative pronoun ten (fem: tá, neuter: to) may be used in front of the noun in situations where definiteness must be indicated.
Nouns, adjectives, pronouns
The numerals 0-10 have unique forms. 11-19 are formed by the numeral plus "násť." Compound numerals (21, 1054) are combinations of these words formed in the same order as their mathematical symbol is written (e.g. 21 = dvadsaťjeden, literally "twenty one").
The numerals are as follows: (1) jeden (jedno (neuter), jedna (feminine)), (2) dva (dve (neuter, feminine)), (3) tri, (4) štyri, (5) päť, (6) šesť, (7) sedem, (8) osem, (9) deväť, (10) desať, (11) jedenásť, (12) dvanásť, (13) trinásť, (14) štrnásť, (15) pätnásť, (16) šestnásť, (17) sedemnásť, (18) osemnásť, (19) devätnásť, (20) dvadsať, (21) dvadsaťjeden,... (30) tridsať, (31) tridsaťjeden,... (40) štyridsať,... (50) päťdesiat,... (60) šesťdesiat,... (70) sedemdesiat,... (80) osemdesiat,... (90) deväťdesiat,... (100) sto, (101) stojeden,... (200) dvesto,... (300) tristo,... (900)deväťsto,... (1,000) tisíc,... (1,100) tisícsto,... (2,000) dvetisíc,... (100,000) stotisíc,... (200,000) dvestotisíc,... (1,000,000) milión,... (1,000,000,000) miliarda,...
Counted nouns have two forms. The most common form is the plural genitive (e.g. päť domov = five houses or stodva žien = one hundred two women), while the plural form of the noun when counting the amounts of 2, 3, 4, etc., is the nominative form without counting (e.g. dva domy = two houses or dve ženy = two women).
Verbs have three major conjugations. Three persons and two numbers (singular and plural) are distinguished. Several conjugation paradigms exist as follows:
- á-type verbs
|volať, to call||Singular||Plural||Past Participle (masculine - feminine - neuter)|
|1st Person||volám||voláme||volal - volala - volalo|
- á-type verbs (rhythmic law)
|bývať, to live||Singular||Plural||Past Participle|
|1st Person||bývam||bývame||býval - bývala - bývalo|
- á-type verbs (soft stem)
|vracať, to return or (mostly in slang) to vomit||Singular||Plural||Past Participle|
|1st Person||vraciam||vraciame||vracal - vracala - vracalo|
- í-type verbs
|robiť, to do, work||Singular||Plural||Past Participle|
|1st Person||robím||robíme||robil - robila - robilo|
- í-Type Verbs - rhythmic law
|vrátiť, to return||Singular||Plural||Past Participle|
|1st Person||vrátim||vrátime||vrátil - vrátila - vrátilo|
- ie-type verbs
|vidieť, to see||Singular||Plural||Past Participle|
|1st Person||vidím||vidíme||videl - videla - videlo|
- e-type verbs (ovať)
|kupovať, to buy||Singular||Plural||Past Participle|
|1st Person||kupujem||kupujeme||kupoval - kupovala - kupovalo|
- e-type verbs (typically -cnuť)
|zabudnúť, to forget||Singular||Plural||Past Participle|
|1st Person||zabudnem||zabudneme||zabudol - zabudla - zabudlo|
- ie-type verbs (typically -vnuť)
|minúť, to spend, miss||Singular||Plural||Past Participle|
|1st Person||miniem||minieme||minul - minula - minulo|
- ie-type verbs (-cť, -sť, -zť)
|niesť, to carry||Singular||Plural||Past Participle|
|1st Person||nesiem||nesieme||niesol - niesla - nieslo|
- ie-type verbs (-nieť)
|stučnieť, to carry (be fat)||Singular||Plural||Past Participle|
|1st Person||stučniem||stučnieme||stučnel - stučnela - stučnelo|
- Irregular Verbs
|byť, to be||jesť, to eat||vedieť, to know|
|Past Participle||bol, bola, bolo||jedol, jedla, jedlo||vedel, vedela, vedelo|
- Subject personal pronouns are omitted unless they are emphatic.
- Some imperfective verbs are created from the stems of perfective verbs to denote repeated or habitual actions. These are considered separate lexemes. One example is as follows: to hide (perfective) = skryť, to hide (habitual) = skrývať.
- Historically, two past tense forms were utilized. Both are formed analytically. The second of these, equivalent to the pluperfect, is not used in the modern language, being considered archaic and/or grammatically incorrect. Examples for two related verbs are as follows:
- skryť: skryl som (I hid / I have hidden); bol som skryl (I had hidden)
- skrývať: skrýval som; bol som skrýval.
- One future tense exists. For imperfective verbs, it is formed analytically, for perfective verbs it is identical with the present tense. Some examples are as follows:
- skryť: skryjem
- skrývať: budem skrývať
- Two conditional forms exist. Both are formed analytically from the past tense:
- skryť: skryl by som (I would hide), bol by som skryl (I would have hidden)
- skrývať: skrýval by som; bol by som skrýval
- The passive voice is formed either as in English (to be + past participle) or using the reflexive pronoun 'sa':
- skryť: je skrytý; sa skryje
- skrývať: je skrývaný; sa skrýva
- The active present participle (= ~ing (one)) is formed using the suffixes –úci/ -iaci / - aci
- skryť: skryjúci
- skrývať: skrývajúci
- The transgressive (=(while/by) ...ing) is formed using the suffixes –úc / -uc / –iac/-ac.
- skryť: skryjúc (by hiding (perfective))
- skrývať: skrývajúc ((while/during) hiding)
- The active past participle (= ~ing (in the past)) was formerly formed using the suffix –vší, but is no longer used.
- The passive participle (= ~ed (one), the "third form") is formed using the suffixes -ný / -tý / -ený:
- skryť: skrytý
- skrývať: skrývaný
- The gerund (= the (process of) ...ing) is formed using the suffix –ie:
- skryť: skrytie
- skrývať: skrývanie
Adverbs are formed by replacing the adjectival ending with the ending –o or –e/-y. Sometimes both –o and -e are possible. Examples includes the following:
- vysoký (high) – vysoko (highly)
- pekný (nice) – pekne (nicely)
- priateľský (friendly) – priateľsky (in a friendly manner)
- rýchly (fast) – rýchlo (quickly)
The comparative/superlative of adverbs is formed by replacing the adjectival ending with a comparative/superlative ending -(ej)ší or –(ej)šie. Examples include the following:
- rýchly (fast) – rýchlejší (faster) – najrýchlejší (fastest): rýchlo (quickly) – rýchlejšie (more quickly) – najrýchlejšie (most quickly)
Each preposition is associated with one or more grammatical cases. The noun governed by a preposition must appear in the case required by the preposition in the given context (e.g. from friends = od priateľov). Priateľov is the genitive case of priatelia. It must appear in this case because the preposition od (=from) always calls for its objects to be in the genitive.
- around the square = po námestí (locative case)
- past the square = po námestie (accusative case)
Po has a different meaning depending on the case of its governed noun.
Relationships to other languages
The Slovak language is a descendant of Proto-Slavic, itself a descendant of Proto-Indo-European. It is closely related to the other West Slavic languages, primarily to Czech. It has been also influenced by German, English, Latin and Hungarian.
While most dialects of Czech and Slovak are mutually intelligible (see Comparison of Slovak and Czech), eastern Slovak dialects are less intelligible to speakers of Czech; they differ from Czech and from other Slovak dialects, and mutual contact between speakers of Czech and speakers of the eastern dialects is limited.
Since the dissolution of Czechoslovakia it has been allowed to use Czech in TV broadcasting and - like any other language of the world - during court proceedings (Administration Procedure Act 99/1963 Zb.). From 1999 to August 2009, the Minority Language Act 184/1999 Z.z., in its section (§) 6, contained the variously interpreted unclear provision saying that "When applying this act, it holds that the use of the Czech language fulfills the requirement of fundamental intelligibility with the state language" ; the state language is Slovak and the Minority Language Act basically refers to municipalities with more than 20% ethnic minority population (no such Czech municipalities are found in Slovakia). Since 1 September 2009 (due to an amendment to the State Language Act 270/1995 Z.z.) a language "fundamentally intelligible with the state language" (i.e., the Czech language) may be used in contact with state offices and bodies by its native speakers, and documents written in it and issued by bodies in the Czech Republic are officially accepted. Regardless of its official status, Czech is used commonly both in Slovak mass media and in daily communication by Czech natives as an equal language.
Czech and Slovak have a long history of interaction and mutual influence well before the creation of Czechoslovakia in 1918. Literary Slovak shares significant orthographic features with Czech, as well as technical and professional terminology dating from the Czechoslovak period, but phonetic, grammatical, and vocabulary differences do exist.
Other Slavic languages
Slavic language varieties tend to be closely related, and have had a large degree of mutual influence, due to the complicated ethnopolitical history of their historic ranges. This is reflected in the many features Slovak shares with neighboring language varieties. Standard Slovak shares high degrees of mutual intelligibility with many Slavic varieties. Despite this closeness to other Slavic varieties, significant variation exists among Slovak dialects. In particular, eastern varieties differ significantly from the standard language, which is based on central and western varieties.
Eastern Slovak dialects have the greatest degree of mutual intelligibility with Rusyn of all the Slovak dialects, but both lack technical terminology and upper register expressions. Polish and Sorbian also differ quite considerably from Czech and Slovak in upper registers, but non-technical and lower register speech is readily intelligible. Some mutual intelligibility occurs with spoken Rusyn, Ukrainian, and even Russian (in this order), although their orthographies are based on the Cyrillic script.
Slovak also exhibits numerous linguistic traits that set it apart from the other West Slavic languages. The Central Slovak dialect, upon which the Standard Slovak language is based, shares various features with South Slavic languages, most notably with the Kajkavian dialect of Serbo-Croatian and with Slovene language.
|to buy||kupovať||kupovat||куповати (kupovati)||купувати (kupuvaty)||купляць (kupliać)||kupować||куповати (kupovati)||kupovati||купува (kupuva)||kupovati|
|Welcome!||Vitajte!||Vítejte||Вітайте! (vitajte!)||Вітаю! (vitaju!)||Вітаю! (vitaju!)||Witajcie||Добродошли! (dobrodošli!)||Dobrodošli!||добре дошли (dobre došli)||Dobrodošli!|
|morning||ráno||ráno||рано (rano)||рано/ранок (rano/ranok)||рана/ранак (rana/ranak)||rano/ranek||јутро (jutro)||jutro||утро (utro)||jutro|
|Thank you||Ďakujem||Děkuji||Дякую (diakuju)||Дякую (diakuju)||Дзякуй (dziakuj)||Dziękuję||Хвала (hvala)||Hvala||благодаря (blagodarja)||Hvala|
|How are you?||Ako sa máš?||Jak se máš?||
Як ся маєш/маш?
(jak śa maješ/maš?)
|Як справи? (jak spravy?)||Як справы? (jak spravy?)||Jak się masz?||Како си? (Kako si?)||Kako si?||Как си? (Kak si?)||Kako si? (sing.)|
Як ся маєш?
(jak śa maješ?)
|Kako sta? (dual)|
|Kako ste? (plural)|
weekend - víkend, football - futbal, ham & eggs - hemendex, offside - ofsajd, out (football) - aut, body check (hockey) - bodyček, couch - gauč
German loanwords include "coins," Slovak mince, German Münze; "to wish", Slovak vinšovať (colloquially, the standard term is želať), German wünschen; "funfair," Slovak jarmok , German Jahrmarkt and "color," Slovak farba, German Farbe.
Hungarians and Slovaks have had a language interaction ever since the settlement of Hungarians in the Carpathian area. Hungarians adopted many words from various Slavic languages related to agriculture and administration, and a number of Hungarian loanwords are found in Slovak. Some examples are as follows:
- "wicker whip": Slovak korbáč (the standard name for "whip" is bič and korbáč, itself originating from Turkish kırbaç, usually means only 1 particular type of it—the "wicker whip") – Hungarian korbács;
- "dragon/kite": Slovak šarkan (rather rare, drak is far more common in this meaning; šarkan often means only "kite", esp. a small one that is flown for fun and this term is far more common than drak in this meaning; for the "dragon kite", the term drak is still used almost exclusively) – Hungarian sárkány.
- "rumour": Slovak chýr – Hungarian hír;
- "camel": Slovak ťava – Hungarian teve;
- "ditch": Slovak jarok – Hungarian árok;
Romanian words entered the Slovak language in the course of the so-called "Wallachian colonization" in the 14th-16th century when sheep breeding became common in Slovak mountains. Many of today's Slovak rustic-pastoral words like bača ("shepherd"; Rmn. baci), valach ("young shepherd"; cf. the dated exonym for Romanians, "Valach"), magura ("hill"; Rmn. măgura), koliba("chalet"; Rmn. coliba), bryndza (a variety of sheep cheese; Rmn. brânză), striga ("witch", "demon"; Rmn. "strigă/strigoi"), etc. were introduced into the Slovak language by Romanian shepherds during the Late Middle Ages and the Early Modern Times. The Romanian influence is most strongly felt in the dialects of the Moravian Wallachia region.
Many Slovak dialects exist which are divided into the following four basic groups:
- Eastern Slovak dialects (in Spiš, Šariš, Zemplín and Abov)
- Central Slovak dialects (in Liptov, Orava, Turiec, Tekov, Hont, Novohrad, Gemer and the historic Zvolen county)
- Western Slovak dialects (in remaining Slovakia: Kysuce, Trenčín, Trnava, Nitra, Záhorie)
- Lowland (dolnozemské) Slovak dialects (outside Slovakia in the Pannonian Plain in Serbian Vojvodina, and in southeastern Hungary, western Romania, and the Croatian part of Syrmia)
The fourth group of dialects is often not considered a separate group, but a subgroup of Central and Western Slovak dialects (see e.g. Štolc, 1968), but it is currently undergoing changes due to contact with surrounding languages (Serbian, Romanian and Hungarian) and long-time geographical separation from Slovakia (see the studies in Zborník Spolku vojvodinských slovakistov, e.g. Dudok, 1993).
For an external map of the three groups in Slovakia see here.
The dialect groups differ mostly in phonology, vocabulary, and tonal inflection. Syntactic differences are minor. Central Slovak forms the basis of the present-day standard language. Not all dialects are fully mutually intelligible. It may be difficult for an inhabitant of the Slovak capital Bratislava (in western Slovakia) to understand a dialect from eastern Slovakia.
The dialects are fragmented geographically, separated by numerous mountain ranges. The first three groups already existed in the 10th century. All of them are spoken by the Slovaks outside Slovakia (USA, Canada, Croatian Slavonia, and elsewhere), and central and western dialects form the basis of the lowland dialects (see above).
The western dialects contain features common with the Moravian dialects in the Czech Republic, the southern central dialects contain a few features common with South Slavic languages, and the eastern dialects a few features common with Polish and the East Slavonic languages (cf. Štolc, 1994). Lowland dialects share some words and areal features with the languages surrounding them (Serbian, Hungarian, and Romanian).
- Slovak orthography
- Slovak declension
- List of language regulators for a list of languages with a regulated official form of the language
- Slovak at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
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- Ľ. Štúr Institute of Linguistics - Slovak Academy of Sciences
- Slovak National Corpus
- Slovak Monolingual Dictionaries
- Slovake.eu - Online Language Course
- Online Translation Dictionaries
- Slovak Phrasebook with Audio
- E-Slovak - Online Language Course
- Slovak Language Lessons for Beginners