Siege of Constantinople
There were several sieges of Constantinople during the history of the Byzantine Empire. Two of them resulted in the capture of Constantinople from Byzantine rule: in 1204 by Crusaders, and in 1453 by the Ottoman Empire under Mehmed II.
Persian and Arab Sieges of Constantinople
- The First Siege of Constantinople by Avars, Slavs and Sassanid Persians in 626.
- The First Arab Siege in 674-678
- The Second Arab Siege in 717-718
Sieges by Bulgaria and the Rus'
- The Bulgarian siege by Krum in 813
- The siege by the Rus' in 860
- The siege by the Rus' in 907 (some sources 904)
- The siege by the Rus' in 941
Sieges and attacks during civil wars
- The siege by Thomas the Slav in 821–822
- The siege during the revolt of Leo Tornikios in 1047
- A thirty-two day siege by Andronikos IV Palaiologos with the support of the Ottoman Turks in 1376.
- The first siege by the Fourth Crusade in 1203, in which Alexius IV was able to usurp the throne after Alexius III fled to Thrace.
- The successful second siege by the Fourth Crusade in 1204, in which the Byzantines were overwhelmed and the Capital thoroughly sacked.
- An unsuccessful attempt in 1235, by Bulgarian and Nicaean forces, to retake the city.
- An attack on Constantinople is implied by George Akropolites's account for 1248, but no details are known.
- A second unsuccessful siege of Constantinople and Galata, in January-April 1260.
- In 1261, a small force of Nicaean troops under Alexios Strategopoulos gained entry into the poorly defended Latin capital, ending the Latin Empire and restoring Byzantine rule to the City. Most Latin troops defending the city were absent on campaign, and the Emperor fled without putting up any resistance; there was no siege.
- An Ottoman blockade between 1390–1402, first interrupted by the Crusade of Nicopolis, then lifted due to the Battle of Ankara.
- The First Ottoman Siege of Constantinople (1422), which ended in a Byzantine victory.
- The second Ottoman siege and Fall of Constantinople in 1453.