San Bruno Mountain
|San Bruno Mountain|
View from San Bruno Mountain State Park
|Elevation||1,319 ft (402 m) NAVD 88|
|Prominence||1,114 ft (340 m)|
|Location||San Mateo County, California, U.S.|
|Range||Santa Cruz Mountains|
|Topo map||USGS San Francisco South|
|Easiest route||Trail hike|
San Bruno Mountain is located in northern San Mateo County, California, with some slopes of the mountain crossing over into southern San Francisco. Most of the mountain lies within the 2,326-acre (941 ha) San Bruno Mountain State Park, a unique open-space island in the midst of the San Francisco Peninsula's urbanization. Next to the state park is the 83-acre (34 ha) state San Bruno Mountain Ecological Reserve on the north slope. It is near the southern boundary of San Francisco, surrounded by the cities of South San Francisco, Daly City, Colma, and Brisbane.
San Bruno Mountain is topped by a four mile long ridge. Trails to the summit afford expansive views of the San Francisco Bay Area. Radio Peak (elevation 1,319 feet or 402 metres) is the highest point, hosting several radio broadcast towers, KTSF television, ION's KKPX television and NBC's KNTV Television, serving a huge area that would otherwise have poor service in the hilly Bay Area region.
The mountain provides habitat for several species of rare and endangered plants and butterflies. The endangered San Bruno elfin butterfly inhabits this mountain and a few other locations. The distinct Franciscan fog zone plants of San Bruno Mountain set it apart from other California coastal areas.
Recorded history 1
- Westbay Controversy 1.1
- Topography, geology and climate 2
- Vegetation 3
- See also 4
- References 5
- External links 6
The Portola expedition visited San Francisco Bay in 1769. The expedition is usually considered the first European presence in the area. Five years later Fernando Rivera and four soldiers climbed the mountain and watched sunrise across the bay. The mountain was named by Bruno de Heceta for his patron saint.
San Bruno Mountain consists of portions of five Mexican land grants; the southernmost being Rancho Buri Buri. Jose Antonio Sanchez, who rode by mule as a child from Sonora, Mexico was given Rancho Buri Buri in 1827, with confirmation in 1835. Rancho Buri Buri extended from the bay salt flats to San Andreas Valley and from Colma to Burlingame. Rancho Canada de Guadalupe la Visitacion y Rodeo Viejo contained most of the present day San Bruno Mountain; this rancho contains the city of Brisbane, Guadalupe Valley, Crocker Industrial Park, Visitacion Valley and the old rodeo grounds by Islais Creek. In 1835 this rancho was granted to Jacob P. Leese. In 1884 banker Charles Crocker acquired core holdings of this rancho amounting to 3,997 acres (1,618 ha) from Leese's successors, and that land devolved to the Crocker Estate Company, who are the present day owners of San Bruno Mountain. Three other ranchos held minor portions of the northern flank of San Bruno Mountain.
KRON (Channel 4) was the first television station to place a transmitter tower on Radio Peak, in 1949, followed by KQED and KTVU, though these tenants moved their transmitters to Sutro Tower in the 1970s. A number of FM stations built transmitter towers on the mountain, and in 2005, KNTV moved its transmitter to the mountain, on the former KCSM-TV tower. KTSF occupies the former KRON site.
In 1965, Westbay Community Associates announced a plan to level a portion of the mountain to fill 27 square miles (70 km2) of San Francisco Bay north of Sierra Point with landfill. The proposal intended to create housing developments in the "Saddle" just north of Guadalupe Canyon Road and in the landfill zone.
In order to remove 250 million cubic yards (190,000,000 m3) of earth from the ridge, Westbay proposed using a conveyor belt system to transport the fill across Bayshore Boulevard and Bayshore Freeway to offshore barges, which would then deposit the material along the shores of the Bay. 
Opposition by organizations such as Save The Bay and the residents of Brisbane led to the defeat of Westbay's conveyor plan in June 1967 and the ceasing of all landfill operations at Sierra Point by December 1972. 
Topography, geology and climate
The name "San Bruno Mountains" was first affixed by the Geological Survey of California in 1865, describing the place as a short range extending from Sierra Point nearly to the Pacific Ocean. The mountain itself actually consists of two parallel northwest trending ranges separated by the Guadalupe Valley. These two ranges are united by a saddle at the northern end of Colma Canyon. The northernmost range attains a peak of 850 feet (259 m), while the southern range rises abruptly from Merced Valley at the south to reach Radio peak in a horizontal distance of only 0.8 miles (1.3 km). This southern range is often referred to as San Bruno Mountain., while the northern range is called the Crocker Hills.
The region is drained by two major streams: Guadalupe Valley Creek flowing through Guadalupe Valley, and Colma Creek from a source in the Flower Garden into the deep cleft of Colma Canyon and thence into Merced Valley.
These two mountains are underlain primarily with late Cretaceous dark greenish-gray graywacke, a poorly sorted sandstone containing angular rock fragments, about ten percent feldspar and detrital chert. The angular unsorted content implies a rapid erosion and burial in a depositional basin, with an outcome of few fossils. Exposed graywacke can be observed on high ridges and on the steep canyon walls. Radiolarian chert is exposed on certain south facing slopes of San Bruno Mountain and at Point San Bruno.
The most important rock type is serpentine, a greenish soft material that is the California State Rock. Outcrops of this rock are found near Serbian Ravine and at Point San Bruno. Serpentine's importance is its unusual and diverse mineral composition which imparts to associate soils the ability to host rare plants, not usually supported on common soils. Therefore, San Bruno Mountain is a habitat for a variety of uncommon plants, which in turn host even rarer animal life.
Since the climate is dominated by marine air flow, temperatures are milder in the winter and summer on these mountains. Furthermore, summer temperatures are further reduced by the annual appearance of marine fog enshrouding the mountains most mornings between late June and late August; this fog is particularly pronounced on the western slopes. Minimum credible temperature might extend as low as 20 °F (−7 °C) in the sheltered valleys. Winds are higher than on reference locations at surrounding points; in fact, on ridges it is not uncommon for the most fierce winter storms to produce gusts from 50 to 80 miles per hour (80 to 129 km/h). Precipitation is similar to surrounding cities, or about 22 inches (560 mm) per-annum, with approximately 66 days-per-annum realizing perceptible rain. On several occasions the mountain has been temporarily covered by snow, including December 1932, January 1952, January 1957, January 1962, and February 1976.
- Coast rock cress (Arabis blepharophylla)
- Franciscan Wallflower (Erysimum franciscanum)
- Montara Manzanita (Arctostaphylos montaraensis)
- Pacifica Manzanita (Arctostaphylos pacifica)
- San Bruno Mountain Manzanita (Arctostaphylos imbricata)
- San Francisco Campion (Silene verecunda)
- San Francisco Owl's Clover (Orthocarpus floribundus)
- San Bruno Mountain State Park
- Mission blue butterfly
- Mission blue butterfly habitat conservation
- San Bruno elfin butterfly
- List of summits of the San Francisco Bay Area
- List of California state parks
- "San Bruno Mountain Reset". NGS data sheet.
- "San Bruno Mountain, California". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 2009-08-24.
- "San Bruno Mountain Summit Loop". Trailspotting. Retrieved 2009-08-24.
- California Department of Fish and Game's website, San Bruno Ecological Reserve.
- "Birsbane: City of Stars, The First Twenty-Five Years (1961-1986)" (PDF).
- Taugher, Mike (2011-11-05). "A pioneer remembers how she and friends saved the bay".
- Climate Survey of San Bruno Mountain, prepared for Crocker Land Company by Metronics Associates, Palo Alto, Ca., October 20, 1967
- Elizabeth McClintock and Walter Knight, A Flora of the San Bruno Mountains, San Mateo County, California, Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Fourth Series, Volume XXXII, no. 20, pp. 587–677, November 29, 1968
- J.D. Whitney, Geological Survey of California (1865)
- John Hunter Thomas, A Flora of the Santa Cruz Mountains (1960)
- "San Bruno Mountain".
- Environmental Services Agency of San Mateo County, information on history, trails, park map, activities, park hours.
- San Bruno Mountain State Park
- San Bruno Mountain Watch, whose mission is to preserve San Bruno Mountain's native American village sites and endangered habitats.
- Trailspotting: Hiking the San Bruno Mountain Summit Loop Trail Description, Photos and GPS/mapping data