Safari (web browser)
Safari 8 running on OS X Yosemite
|Initial release||January 7, 2003|
|Stable release||9.0.1 (October 21, 2015)|
|Written in||C++, Objective-C|
Microsoft Windows (obsolete)
|License||Freeware; some components GNU LGPL|
|Initial release||June 29, 2007|
|Stable release||iOS 9.1 / October 21, 2015|
|Written in||C++, Objective-C|
|License||Freeware; some components GNU LGPL|
Safari is a web browser developed by Apple based on the WebKit engine. First released in 2003 with Mac OS X Panther, a mobile version has been included in iOS devices since the introduction of the iPhone in 2007. It is the default browser on Apple devices. A Windows version, now discontinued, was available from 2007 to 2012.
History and development 1
- Safari 1 1.1
- Safari 2 1.2
- Safari 3 1.3
Safari 4 1.4
- Safari 4 features 1.4.1
Safari 5 1.5
- Safari 5 features 1.5.1
Safari 6 1.6
- Safari 6 features 1.6.1
- Safari 7 1.7
Safari 8 1.8
- Safari 8 features 1.8.1
- Safari 9 1.9
Other features 2
iOS-specific features 2.1
- New in iOS 4.2 2.1.1
- New in iOS 4.3 2.1.2
- New in iOS 5 2.1.3
- New in iOS 6 2.1.4
- New in iOS 7 2.1.5
- New in iOS 8 2.1.6
- New in iOS 9 2.1.7
- iOS-specific features 2.1
- WebKit2 3
- Browser exploits 4.1
System requirements 5
- 64-bit builds 5.1
- Distribution through Apple Software Update 6.1
- Security updates for Snow Leopard and Windows platforms 6.2
- Safari Developer Program 7
- See also 8
- References 9
- External links 10
History and development
Until 1997, Apple Macintosh computers were shipped with the Netscape Navigator and Cyberdog web browsers only. Internet Explorer for Mac was later included as the default web browser for Mac OS 8.1 and onwards, as part of a five-year agreement between Apple and Microsoft. During that time, Microsoft released three major versions of Internet Explorer for Mac that were bundled with Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9, though Apple continued to include Netscape Navigator as an alternative. Microsoft ultimately released a Mac OS X edition of Internet Explorer for Mac, which was included as the default browser in all Mac OS X releases from Mac OS X DP4 up to and including Mac OS X v10.2.
On January 7, 2003, at Macworld San Francisco, Steve Jobs announced that Apple had developed their own web browser, called Safari. It was based on Apple's internal fork of the KHTML rendering engine, called WebKit. Apple released the first beta version for OS X that day. A number of official and unofficial beta versions followed, until version 1.0 was released on June 23, 2003. Initially only available as a separate download for Mac OS X v10.2, it was included with the Mac OS X v10.3 release on October 24, 2003 as the default browser, with Internet Explorer for Mac included only as an alternative browser. 1.0.3, released on August 13, 2004 was the last version to support Mac OS X v10.2, while 1.3.2, released on January 12, 2006 was the last version to support Mac OS X v10.3. However, 10.3 received security updates through 2007.
In April 2005, Dave Hyatt, one of the Safari developers at Apple, documented his study by fixing specific bugs in Safari, thereby enabling it to pass the Acid2 test developed by the Web Standards Project. On April 27, 2005, he announced that his development version of Safari now passed the test, making it the first web browser to do so.
Safari 2.0 was released on April 29, 2005, as the only web browser included with
- Official website
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- Hyatt, Dave (April 27, 2005). "Safari Passes the Acid2 Test". Surfin' Safari. MozillaZine. Retrieved April 28, 2005.
- Hyatt, Dave (October 12, 2005). "Nightly Builds". Surfin' Safari. OpenDarwin.org. Retrieved October 29, 2006.
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- Wilton-Jones, Mark. "Is Safari faster?". Retrieved June 12, 2008.
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- Rui Carmo. "Mobile Safari". Retrieved September 12, 2015.
- "About the security content of Safari 3.1.2 for Windows". Retrieved September 12, 2015.
- Keizer, Gregg. Apple does about-face, fixes Safari's 'carpet bomb' bug, ComputerWorld (June 19, 2008).
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- Garen, Geoffrey (June 2, 2008). "Announcing SquirrelFish". Retrieved June 11, 2008.
- Lipskas, Vygantas (June 11, 2008). "Apple Safari 4". Retrieved June 11, 2008.
- "Surfin' Safari". Retrieved September 12, 2015.
- "Hands on: Safari 4 beta fast, mixes polish, rough UI edges". Ars Technica. Retrieved September 12, 2015.
- Dempsey, James (June 9, 2009). "Apple Releases Safari 4". TheAppleBlog. The GigaOM Network. Retrieved June 9, 2009.
- "Apple - OS X Yosemite - Overview". Apple. Retrieved September 12, 2015.
- "Apple - Support - Downloads". Retrieved September 12, 2015.
- "Microsoft offers browser choices to Europeans". BBC. March 1, 2010. Retrieved March 1, 2010.
- Peter Bright (February 19, 2010). "Microsoft's EU browser ballot approved, arrives March 1".
- "Safari - Browse the web in smarter, more powerful ways. - Apple". Apple. Retrieved September 12, 2015.
- Rich Ziade (June 7, 2010). "Safari 5: Another Step Towards Better Reading On The Web". Retrieved June 8, 2010.
- Apple (2010). "Apple Releases Safari 5". Retrieved December 9, 2010.
- "Apple Releases Safari 5... with Extensions!". The Next Web. June 8, 2010. Retrieved October 28, 2010.
- "Safari - Browse the web in smarter, more powerful ways". Apple. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
- "Apple - Safari - Safari Extensions Gallery". Extensions.apple.com. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
- Apple (2010). "Apple Adds iCloud Tab Syncing to Safari 5.2 developer preview". Retrieved March 18, 2012.
- Macworld (2012). "Safari 6 available for Mountain Lion and Lion, but not Windows". Retrieved October 3, 2012.
- Mac Rumors (2012). "Apple Releases Safari 6 Update for OS X Lion". Retrieved July 25, 2012.
- Panzarino, Matthew (July 26, 2012). "Safari 6.0 is the best version of Apple’s browser yet".
- "What's new in Safari 6?". Retrieved July 25, 2012.
- "OS X Mavericks - Do even more with new apps and features".
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- "Apple introduces safari 7 with design tweaks, memory, social improvements and more.".
- "Apple - Safari". Apple. Retrieved October 18, 2014.
- "What's New in OS X: OS X Yosemite v10.10". Apple - Mac Developer Library. Retrieved October 18, 2014.
- "What's new in OS X: OS X Yosemite v10.10". Retrieved October 18, 2014.
- Apple Developer Connection: "What Is Cocoa?" ("Most of the applications you see on Mac OS X and iPhone OS, including Mail and Safari, are Cocoa applications."). Accessed August 19, 2009.
- "Safari's private (porn) browsing mode".
- "Apple releases iOS 4.2 with free Find My Phone for some". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. November 22, 2010. Retrieved November 29, 2010.
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- "iCloud Bookmarks". Retrieved September 12, 2015.
- "iCloud Bookmarks". Retrieved September 12, 2015.
- "Announcing WebKit2". Anders Carlsson. Retrieved April 10, 2010.
- "Source code repository for public parts of Safari 5.1". The WebKit Open Source Project. Retrieved July 20, 2011.
- "WWDC 2014 Session 206 - Introducing the Modern WebKit API - ASCIIwwdc".
- McMillan, Robert (April 22, 2008). "Mac hack contest bug had been public for a year".
- Gregg Keizer (April 17, 2008). "Update: Apple patches Safari's $10,000 bug, fixes other flaws". Computerworld. Retrieved September 12, 2015.
- Foresman, Chris. "Pwn2Own winner says Macs are more safe, though less secure". Ars Technica.
- "Charlie Miller Wins Pwn2Own Again Thanks to Safari Flaw". March 19, 2009.
- "About the security content of Safari 3.2.3".
- Apple issues patches for Mac OS X
- "About the security content of Safari 6". Apple. July 25, 2012. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- "Safari 5.1.7 for Windows". Apple Inc. May 9, 2012. Retrieved November 20, 2012.
- "Safari 5.1.7 for Snow Leopard". Apple. May 9, 2010. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- "Safari 5.0.6 for Leopard". Apple. July 20, 2011. Retrieved November 20, 2012.
- "Apple Events - Special Event September 2013 - Apple". Retrieved September 12, 2015.
- Dana Wollman. "iOS 7 will be 64-bit, just like the iPhone 5s' new A7 chip". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved September 12, 2015.
- LaMonica, Martin (March 21, 2008). "'"Mozilla CEO says Apple's Safari auto-update 'wrong.
- "Apple Distributes Safari Via Software Update". InformationWeek. Retrieved September 12, 2015.
- Keizer, Gregg (April 17, 2008). "Apple makes minor concession on pushing Safari to Windows users".
- Joshua Long (July 30, 2012). "Where are the Safari security updates for Windows and Snow Leopard? Users left exposed". Sophos Ltd. Retrieved July 30, 2012.
- "About the security content of Safari 6". Apple Inc. July 25, 2012.
- "Safari 5.1.10 for Snow Leopard". support.apple.com. 2013-09-12. Retrieved 2015-02-05.
- "Safari 5.1.7 for Windows". support.apple.com. 2012-05-09. Retrieved 2015-02-05.
- "Apple No Longer Updating Safari for Windows, Users Should Switch To A More Secure Browser". pcper.com. 2012-08-06. Retrieved 2015-02-05.
- "Apple isn't updating Snow Leopard anymore, here's what you should know". tuaw.com. 2014-02-28. Retrieved 2015-02-05.
- Cyberdog, Apple's OpenDoc-based Internet suite
- Internet Explorer for Mac, default web browser included in OS X before Safari
- Month of Bugs
- Safari version history
- WebKit, underlying engine of Safari and other web browsers
- United States v. Google Inc. in which the FTC alleged that Google misrepresented privacy assurances to Safari users.
The Safari Developer Program was a free program for writers of extensions and HTML5 websites. It allowed members to develop extensions for Apple's Safari web browser. Since WWDC 2015 it is part of the unified Apple Developer Program, which costs $99 a year.
Safari Developer Program
Software security firm Sophos detailed how Snow Leopard and Windows users were not supported by the Safari 6 release at the time, while there were over 121 vulnerabilities left unpatched on those platforms. Since then, Snow Leopard has had only three minor version releases (the most recent in September 2013), and Windows has had none. While no official word has been released by Apple, the indication is that these are the final versions available for these operating systems, and both retain significant security issues.
Security updates for Snow Leopard and Windows platforms
An earlier version of Apple Software Update (bundled with Safari, QuickTime, and iTunes for Microsoft Windows) selected Safari for installation from a list of Apple programs to download by default, even when a pre-existing installation of Safari was not detected on a user's machine. John Lilly, former CEO of Mozilla, stated that Apple's use of its updating software to promote its other products was "a bad practice and should stop." He argued that the practice "borders on malware distribution practices" and "undermines the trust that we're all trying to build with users." Apple spokesman Bill Evans sidestepped Lilly's statement, saying that Apple was only "using Software Update to make it easy and convenient for both Mac and Windows users to get the latest Safari update from Apple." Apple also released a new version of Apple Software Update that puts new software in its own section, though still selected for installation by default. By late 2008, Apple Software Update no longer selected new installation items in the new software section by default.
Distribution through Apple Software Update
On the 64-bit iPhones, iOS and its stock apps are 64-bit builds including Safari.
The version of Safari included in Mac OS X v10.6 (and later versions) is now compiled for 64-bit architecture. Apple claims that running Safari in 64-bit mode will increase rendering speeds by up to 50%.
Safari 6.0 requires a Mac running Mac OS X v10.7.4 or later. Safari 5.1.7 requires a Mac running Mac OS X v10.6.8 or any PC running Windows XP Service Pack 2 or later, Windows Vista, or Windows 7. Safari 5.0.6 requires a Mac running on Mac OS X 10.5.8.
In the 2009 PWN2OWN contest, Charlie Miller performed another successful exploit of Safari to hack into a Mac. Miller again acknowledged that he had advance knowledge of the security flaw prior to the competition, and had done considerable research and preparation work on the exploit. Apple released a patch for this exploit and others on May 12, 2009 with Safari 3.2.3.
In the PWN2OWN contest at the 2008 CanSecWest security conference in Vancouver, British Columbia, a successful exploit of Safari caused Mac OS X to be the first OS to fall in a hacking competition. Participants competed to find a way to read the contents of a file located on the user's desktop, in one of three operating systems: Mac OS X Leopard, Windows Vista SP1, and Ubuntu 7.10. On the second day of the contest, when users were allowed to physically interact with the computers (the prior day permitted only network attacks), Charlie Miller compromised Mac OS X through an unpatched vulnerability of the PCRE library used by Safari. Miller had been aware of the flaw prior to the beginning of the conference and worked to exploit it unannounced, as is the common approach in these contests. The exploited vulnerability was patched in Safari 3.1.1, among other flaws.
Apple maintains a plugin blacklist that it can remotely update to prevent potentially dangerous or vulnerable plug-ins from running on Safari. So far, Apple has blocked versions of Flash and Java.
WebKit2 is a multiprocess API for WebKit, where the web-content is handled by a separate process than the application using WebKit. Apple announced WebKit2 in April 2010. Safari for OS X switched to the new API with version 5.1. Safari for iOS switched to WebKit2 since iOS 8.
- The option to add content blocking extensions is available to block specific web content.
- Safari view controller can be used to display web content from within an app, sharing cookies and other website data with Safari.
- Improved reader view, allowing the user to choose from different fonts and themes as well as hiding the controls
New in iOS 9
- The Tab view from iPhone is now available on iPads.
- A search function to search through all open tabs has been added in Tab view on iPad and select iPhones.
- Two-finger pinch to reveal Tab view on iPads and select iPhones.
- New Sidebar that slides out to reveal bookmarks, Reading List, and Shared Links on iPads and select iPhones in landscape view.
- Address bar now hides when scrolling down on iPads.
- Spotlight Search is now available from Safari's address bar.
- Option to “Scan Credit Card” when filling out credit card info on a web form.
- WebGL support.
- APNG support.
- Private browsing per tab.
- RSS feeds in Shared Links.
- DuckDuckGo support.
- Option to Request the desktop site while entering in a web address.
- Option to add website to Favorites while entering in a web address.
- Swipe to close iCloud tabs from other devices.
- Hold the "+" (new tab button) in tab view to list recently closed tabs is now available on iPhone.
- Can delete individual items from History.
- Safari now blocks ads from automatically redirecting to the App Store without user interaction.
- Bookmark icon updated.
- Improved, iPad-like interface available on select iPhones in landscape view.
New in iOS 8
- New icon
- 64-bit build on supported devices using the A7 processor.
- iCloud Keychain: iCloud can remember passwords, account names and credit card numbers. Safari can also autofill them as well. Requires devices that run iOS 7.0.3 and later and OS X Mavericks or later.
- Password Generator: When creating a new account, Safari can suggest the user a long, more secure, hard to guess password and Safari will also automatically remember the password.
- Shared Links
- Do Not Track
- Parental controls
- Tab limit increased from 9 to 36
- New Tab view (iPhone and iPod Touch only)
- Unified smart search field
- Sync Bookmarks with Google Chrome and Firefox on Windows.
New in iOS 7
- iCloud Tabs, linking the desktop and iOS versions of Safari.
- Offline Reading Lists allow users to read pages stored previously without remaining connected to the internet.
- Full-screen landscape view for iPhone and iPod Touch users hides most of the Safari controls except back and forward buttons and the status bar when in landscape mode.
New in iOS 6
- True tabbed browsing, similar to the desktop experience, only for iPads.
- Reading List, a bookmarking feature that allows tagging of certain sites for reading later, which syncs across all Safari browsers (mobile and desktop) via Apple's iCloud service.
- Reader, a reading feature that can format text and images from a web page into a more readable format, similar to a PDF document, while stripping out web advertising and superfluous information.
- Private browsing, like in most desktop browsers a feature that does not save the user's cookies and history, or allow anything to be written into local storage or webSql databases.
New in iOS 5
New in iOS 4.3
- Find feature built into search box.
- Ability to print the current webpage using AirPrint.
New in iOS 4.2
- Bookmarking links to particular pages as "Web Clip" icons on the Home screen.
- MDI-style browsing (with up to 8 pages open concurrently, limited by cache storage).
- Opening specially designed pages in full-screen mode.
- Pressing on an image for 3 seconds to save it to the photo album.
- Support for HTML5 new input types.
iOS-specific features for Safari enable:
Until Safari 6.0, it included a built-in web feed aggregator that supported the RSS and Atom standards. Current features include Private Browsing (a mode in which no record of information about the user's web activity is retained by the browser), an "Ask websites not to track me" privacy setting, the ability to archive web content in WebArchive format, the ability to e-mail complete web pages directly from a browser menu, the ability to search bookmarks, and the ability to share tabs between all Macs and iOS devices running appropriate versions of software via an iCloud account.
- WebGL support
- IndexedDB support
- Support for Promises from ECMAScript 6
- CSS Shapes and Compositing
- Support for SPDY
- Encrypted Media Extensions
Safari 8 introduced the following features, available on OS X Yosemite:
Safari 8 features
Safari 8 was announced at WWDC 2014 and released with OS X Yosemite. It included WebGL support, stronger privacy features, increased speed and efficiency, enhanced iCloud integration, and updated design.
Additionally various features were removed, including, but not limited to, Activity Window, separate Download Window, direct support for RSS feeds in the URL field and bookmarks. The separate search field is also no longer available as a toolbar configuration option.
- Unified smart search field, which combines the web address and search fields, similar to Chrome's Omnibox and Firefox's Awesome Bar.
- Tab view (Mountain Lion only), which enables movement between tabs using multi-touch gestures.
- iCloud tabs (Mountain Lion only) synchronizes recent websites across OS X and iOS devices.
- Built-in sharing (Mountain Lion only) to email, Messages, Twitter and Facebook.
- Improved performance
- Support for -webkit-calc()
Safari 6 introduced the following features, many of which are only available on OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion:
Safari 6 features
On June 11, 2012, Apple released a developer preview of Safari 6.0 with a feature called iCloud Tabs, which allows users to 'sync' their open tabs with any iOS or other OS X device running the latest software. Safari 6 also included new privacy features, including an "Ask websites not to track me" preference, and the ability for websites to send OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion users notifications, although it removed RSS support. Safari 6 has the Share Sheets capability in OS X Mountain Lion. The Share Sheet options are: Add to Reading List, Add Bookmark, Email this Page, Message, Twitter and Facebook. Users can now see tabs with full page previews available.
Safari 6.0 was previously known as Safari 5.2 until Apple announced the change at WWDC 2012. The stable release of Safari 6 coincided with the release of OS X Mountain Lion on July 25, 2012, and is integrated into the OS. As Apple integrated it with Mountain Lion, it is no longer available for download from the Apple website or other sources. Apple released Safari 6 via Software Update for users of OS X Lion. It has not been released for OS X versions prior to Lion or for Windows. Regarding the unavailability of Safari 6 on Windows, Apple has stated "Safari 6 is available for Mountain Lion and Lion. Safari 5 continues to be available for Windows." Microsoft removed Safari from its BrowserChoice page.
- Full-text search through the browser history
- Safari Reader, which removes formatting and ads from webpages.
- Smarter address field, where the address bar autocomplete will match against titles of web page in history or bookmarks.
- Extensions, which are add-ons that customize the web browsing experience.
- Improved support for HTML5, including full screen video, closed caption, geolocation, EventSource, and a now obsolete early variant of the WebSocket protocol.
- Improved Web Inspector.
- DNS prefetching, where Safari finds links and looks up addresses on the web page ahead of time.
- Bing search.
- Improved graphics hardware acceleration on Windows.
Safari 5 includes the following new features:
Safari 5 features
Safari 5.1.7 has become the last version of Safari developed for Windows.
Apple also released Safari 4.1 concurrently with Safari 5, exclusively for Mac OS X Tiger. The update included the majority of the features and security enhancements found in Safari 5. It did not, however, include Safari Reader or Safari Extensions. Together with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, Apple released Safari 5.1 for both Windows and Mac on July 20, 2011, with the new function 'Reading List' and a faster browsing experience. Apple simultaneously released Safari 5.0.6 for Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard, excluding Leopard users from the new functions in Safari 5.1.
- Completely passes the Acid3 standards test
- Cover Flow browsing for History and Bookmarks
- Native Windows look on Windows (Aero, Luna, Classic, etc., depending on OS and settings) with standard Windows font rendering and optional Apple font rendering
- Support for CSS image retouching effects
- Support for CSS Canvas
- Speculative loading, where Safari loads the documents, scripts, and style information that are required to view a web page ahead of time
- Support for HTML5
- Top Sites, which displays up to 24 thumbnails of a user's most frequently visited pages on startup
Safari 4 also includes the following new features:
Safari on Mac OS X and Windows was made to look more similar to Safari on iPhone than previous versions.
- The blue inline progress bar is replaced with a spinning bezel and a loading indicator attached to it.
- The button to add a bookmark is now attached to the address bar by default.
- The reload/stop button is now superimposed on the right end of the address bar.
Beginning with Safari 4, the address bar has been completely revamped:
Safari 4 features
Safari was one of the twelve browsers offered to EU users of Microsoft Windows in 2010. It was one of the five browsers displayed on the first page of browser choices along with Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer and Opera.
Safari 3.2, released on November 13, 2008, introduced anti-phishing features using Google Safe Browsing and Extended Validation Certificate support. The final version of Safari 3 is 3.2.3, released on May 12, 2009.
The first stable, non-beta release of Safari for Windows, Safari 3.1, was offered as a free download on March 18, 2008. In June 2008, Apple released version 3.1.2, addressing a security vulnerability in the Windows version where visiting a malicious web site could force a download of executable files and execute them on the user's desktop.
The iPhone was formally released on June 29, 2007. It includes a version of Safari based on the same WebKit rendering engine as the desktop version, but with a modified feature set better suited for a mobile device. The version number of Safari as reported in its user agent string is 3.0, in line with the contemporary desktop versions of Safari.
The initial Safari 3 beta version for Windows, released on the same day as its announcement at WWDC 2007, had several known bugs and a zero day exploit that allowed remote execution. The addressed bugs were then corrected by Apple three days later on June 14, 2007, in version 3.0.1 for Windows. On June 22, 2007, Apple released Safari 3.0.2 to address some bugs, performance issues and other security issues. Safari 3.0.2 for Windows handles some fonts that are missing in the browser but already installed on Windows computers, such as Tahoma, Trebuchet MS, and others.
On June 11, 2007, at the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference, Jobs announced Safari 3 for Mac OS X v10.5, Windows XP, and Windows Vista. During the announcement, he ran a benchmark based on the iBench browser test suite comparing the most popular Windows browsers, hence claiming that Safari was the fastest browser. Later third-party tests of HTTP load times would support Apple's claim that Safari 3 was indeed the fastest browser on the Windows platform in terms of initial data loading over the Internet, though it was found to be only negligibly faster than Internet Explorer 7 and Mozilla Firefox when loading static content from local cache.
On January 9, 2007, at Macworld SF, Jobs announced Apple's iPhone, which would use a mobile version of the Safari browser.
The final stable version of Safari 2, Safari 2.0.4, was released on January 10, 2006 for Mac OS X. It was only available as part of Mac OS X Update 10.4.4. This version addresses layout and CPU usage issues, among others. Safari 2.0.4 was the last version to be released exclusively on Mac OS X until version 6 in 2012.
In June 2005, after some criticism from KHTML developers over lack of access to change logs, Apple moved the development source code and bug tracking of GUI elements, remains proprietary.
Apple eventually released version 2.0.2 of Safari, which included the modifications required to pass Acid2, on October 31, 2005.