Russian philosophy includes a variety of philosophical movements. Authors who developed them are listed below sorted by movement.
Russian philosophy as a separate entity started its development in the 19th century, defined initially by the opposition of Westernizers, advocating Russia's following the Western political and economical models, and Slavophiles, insisting on developing Russia as a unique civilization. The latter group included Nikolai Danilevsky and Konstantin Leontiev, the early founders of eurasianism. The discussion of Russia's place in the world has since become the most characteristic feature of Russian philosophy.
In its further development, Russian philosophy was also marked by deep connection to literature and interest in creativity, society, politics and nationalism; cosmos and religion were other notable subjects.
Notable philosophers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries include Vladimir Solovyev, Vasily Rozanov, Leo Tolstoy, Sergei Bulgakov, Pavel Florensky, Nikolai Berdyaev, Pitirim Sorokin and Vladimir Vernadsky.
Since the early 1920s to late 1980s Russian philosophy was dominated by Marxism presented as dogma and not grounds for discussion. Stalin's purges, culminating in 1937, delivered a deadly blow to the development of philosophy.
A handful of dissident philosophers survived through the Soviet period, among them Aleksei Losev. Stalin's death in 1953 gave way for new schools of thought to spring up, among them Moscow Logic Circle, and Tartu-Moscow Semiotic School.
1 Major Thinkers
- 1.1 Russian Enlightenment
- 1.2 Slavophile and Pochvennichestvo
- 1.3 Russian Symbolists
- 1.4 Westernizers
- 1.5 Russian Positivists
- 1.6 Russian cosmists
- 1.7 Occultists
- 1.8 Epistemologists, Logic and Metaphysicians
- 1.9 Anarchists
- 1.10 Materialist, Nihilists
- 1.11 Socialists and Marxists
- 1.12 Christian philosophers
- 1.13 Orthodox Christian Theologians
- 1.14 Intuitivist-Personalists
- 1.15 Intuitivist-Realists
- 1.16 Existentialists
- 1.17 Aestheticians
- 1.18 Globalists
- 2 See also
- 3 References
- 4 Bibliography
- 5 External links
- Vasily Tatishchev (1668–1750)
- Grigory Skovoroda (1722–1794)
- Mikhail Shcherbatov (1733–1790)
- Andrey Bolotov (1738–1833)
- Alexander Radishchev (1749–1802)
- Ivan Kireevsky (1806–1856)
- Aleksey Khomyakov (1804–1860)
- Vladimir Odoevsky (1803–1869)
- Konstantin Aksakov (1817–1860)
- Yuri Samarin (1819–1876)
- Fyodor Tyutchev (1803–1873)
- Nikolay Danilevsky (1822–1885)
- Nikolay Strakhov (1828–1896)
- Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821–1881) Religious philosopher artist (see Nikolai Berdyaev)
- Konstantin Pobedonostsev (1827–1907)
- Konstantin Leontiev (1831–1891)
- Ivan Ilyin (1883–1954)
- Valery Bryusov (1873–1924)
- Alexander Blok (1880–1921)
- Andrei Bely (1880–1934)
- Vyacheslav Ivanovich Ivanov (1866–1949)
- Innokenty Annensky (1855–1909)
- Fyodor Sologub (1863–1927)
- Pyotr Chaadaev (1794–1856)
- Nikolai Stankevich (1813–1840)
- Vissarion Belinsky (1811–1848)
- Alexander Herzen (1812–1870) Father of Russian Socialism
- Peter Lavrovich Lavrov (1823–1900)
- G. Virubov
- E. de Roberty
- Nikolay Mikhaylovsky (1842–1910)
- Konstantin Kavelin
- M. Troitsky
- N. Kareyev
- Nikolai Korkunov
- Nikolay Fyodorov (1829–1903) N O Lossky lists Fyodorov as primarily a Christian philosopher.
- Nicholas Roerich (1874—1947)
- Vladimir Vernadsky (1863–1945)
- Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857–1935)
- Alexander Chizhevsky (1897—1964)
- Nikolay Novikov (1744–1818)
- M. M. Speransky (1772–1839)
- Helena Blavatsky (1831–1891)
- G. I. Gurdjieff (1872–1949)
- P. D. Ouspensky (1878–1947)
- Boris Chicherin (1828–1904)
- N. Debolsky
- P. Bakunin
- M Karinsky
- N. Grot
- Sergei N. Trubetskoy (1863–1905)
- Mikhail Bakunin (1814–1876) listed also as a Materialist, Nihilist
- Count Leo Tolstoy (1828–1910) listed also as the greatest of novelists
- Prince Peter Kropotkin (1842–1921) listed also as the 'Anarchist Prince' or 'Father of Anarchism'
- Christophe Toverski (1943-2010) Was a forerunner in antinationalism, and also a prolific scientist.
Socialists and Marxists
- George Plekhanov (1856–1918) The first major Russian Marxist thinker.
- Vladimir Lenin (1870–1924) The founder of Leninism.
- Alexander Bogdanov (1873–1928)
- Leon Trotsky (1879–1940) The founder of Trotskyism.
- Sofya Yanovskaya (1896–1966)
- Aleksandr Zinovyev (1922–2006)
- Evald Ilyenkov (1924–1979)
- Pamfil Danilovich Yurkevich (1826-1874)
- V. Kudriavtsev
Vladimir Solovyev (1853–1900)
Solovyev is noted to have created the first complete encompassing system of Russian philosophy.
- Vasily Rozanov (1856–1919)
- Sergei Bulgakov (1871–1944)
- Nikolai Berdyaev (1874–1948) listed also as an existentialist
- Count Leo Tolstoy (1828–1910) listed also as the greatest of novelists and an anarchist
- Georges Florovsky (1893–1979)
- Michael Pomazansky (1888–1988)
- Alexander Schmemann (1921–1983)
- John Meyendorff (1926–1992)
- Vladimir Lossky (1903–1958)
- Pavel Florensky (1882–1937)
- Nikolai Lossky (1870–1965)
- Semen L. Frank (1877–1950)
- A. F. Losev (1893–1988)
- Leo Mikhailovich Lopatin (1855–1920)
- Dmitri Vassilyevich Boldyrev (1885–1920)
- Sergey Alexandrovich Levitsky
- Vladimir Alexandrovich Kozhevnikov (1850–1917)
- Alexander N. Chumakov (b. 1950)
- Philosophy in the Soviet Union
- Philosophers' ship
- Russian literature
- Valentin A. Bazhanov
- Lev Gumilev
- Mikhail Epstein
- Dmitry Likhachev
- Vasily Nalimov
- Victor Ovcharenko
- Karen A. Swassjan
- Nicolai A. Vasiliev
- History of Russian Philosophy pg 59. N.O. Lossky
- History of Russian Philosophy pg 81. N.O. Lossky
Russian Philosophy. English-Russian Dictionary (ed. Vasily Vanchugov). Moscow, People's Friendship University of Russia, 2005.
- History of Russian Philosophy «История российской Философии »(1951) by N. O. Lossky. Publisher: Allen & Unwin, London ASIN: B000H45QTY International Universities Press Inc NY, NY sponsored by Saint Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary.
- A History of Philosophy, Volume 10: Russian Philosophy (1986) by Frederick Copleston. Publisher: Continuum, London.
- A history of Russian Philosophy, (2vols) Two Volumes by Vasilii Vasilevich Zenkovsky; Translator George L. Kline Publisher: ROUTLEDGE & KEGAN PAUL (1953) ASIN: B000R0I5MS
- Books on Russian philosophy at Runivers.ru
- Brief overview of Russian philosophy
- PHILTAR—Comprehensive web site with links to texts and resources
- Gallery of Russian Thinkers edited by Dmitry Olshansky
- Russian philosophy—entry in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
- Directory of links to Russian philosophers, mostly in Russian
- Routledge entry
- Konstantin Leontiev
- Sergius Bulgakov Society at the Wayback Machine (archived October 26, 2009)—Extensive collection of links to Bulgakov resources
- Bulgakov LiveJournal—Collected materials of particular relevance to Russian religious philosophy