Raymond Lindeman

Raymond Lindeman

Raymond Laurel Lindeman
Born 1915
near Redwood Falls, Minnesota[1]
Died June 29, 1942
New Haven, CT
Residence United States
Nationality American
Fields Limnology, paleolimnology, trophic ecology
Institutions Yale University
Alma mater University of Minnesota
Doctoral advisor Samuel Eddy
Known for Pioneering the concept of trophic dynamics in ecology

Raymond Laurel Lindeman (1915 – June 29, 1942) was an ecologist whose graduate research is often credited with being a seminal study in field of ecosystem ecology. He completed his PhD at the University of Minnesota with his thesis work being concerned with the history and ecological dynamics of Cedar Bog Lake, located in what is known today as the University of Minnesota's Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve in central Minnesota. While a postdoctoral researcher at Yale University with noted limnologist G. Evelyn Hutchinson, Lindeman submitted a chapter of his thesis for publication in the journal Ecology that outlined the Ten percent law. His manuscript was initially rejected for its generalisations but was published after Hutchinson and others were able to convince the editor of the paper's merits. This publication appeared in 1942, shortly after Lindeman's death caused by a rare form of hepatitis.

An annual award in Lindeman's honor is given by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography to the outstanding paper written that year by a young aquatic scientist. Raymond L. Lindeman is also honored today with a lecture series in his name in the Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota, as well as an informative plaque on the same University's Wall of Discovery.


  • Publications 1
  • Biographies 2
  • References 3
  • Bibliography 4


Papers published by Raymond L. Lindeman during his brief lifetime.

  • Lindeman RL (1939). Some affinities and varieties of the planktonic rotifer Brachnionus havanaensis Rouss. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 58:210-221.
  • Lindeman RL (1941). The developmental history of Cedar Creek Bog, Minnesota. American Midland Naturalist 25:101-112.
  • Lindeman RL. 1941. Ecological dynamics in a senescent lake. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.
  • Lindeman, RL (1941). "Seasonal food-cycle dynamics in a Senescent Lake". American Midland Naturalist 26: 636–673.  
  • Lindeman, RL (1942). "Experimental simulation of winter anaerobiosis in a senescent lake". Ecology 23: 1–13.  
  • Lindeman, RL (1942). "Seasonal distribution of midge larvae in a scenescent lake". American Midland Naturalist 27: 428.  
  • Lindeman, RL (1942). "The trophic-dynamic aspect of ecology". Ecology 23: 399–418.  


Biographical and historical studies on Raymond L. Lindeman.

  • Lindsay, AA (1980). "The ecological way". Naturalist 31: 1–8. 
  • Reif, CB (1986). "Memories of Raymond Laurel Lindeman". Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 67: 20–15. 
  • Sobczak, WV (2005). "Lindeman's trophic dynamic aspect of ecology: "Will you still need me when I'm 64?". Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin 14: 53–57. 
  • Sterner RW (2012) Raymond Laurel Lindeman and the Trophic Dynamic Viewpoint. The Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin 21(2): in press. Ms. online [1].


  1. ^ Tim Brady, "History: Pilgrim at Cedar Creek"


  • http://aslo.org/bulletin/05_v14_i3.pdf
  • Raymond L. Lindeman award