Rabies vaccine

Rabies vaccine

Rabies vaccine
Vaccine description
Target disease Rabies
Type Killed/Inactivated
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com
MedlinePlus
Identifiers
CAS Registry Number  YesY
ATC code J07
 N   

A rabies vaccine is a health system.[2]

Contents

  • Modern vaccines 1
    • Duration of immunity 1.1
  • History 2
  • Other animals 3
    • Recombinant rabies vaccine 3.1
  • References 4

Modern vaccines

The human diploid cell rabies vaccine (H.D.C.V.) was started in 1967. Human diploid cell rabies vaccines are inactivated vaccines made using the attenuated Pitman-Moore L503 strain of the virus.[3] Human diploid cell rabies vaccines have been given to more than 1.5 million people as of 2006.

Aside from vaccinating humans, another approach was also developed by vaccinating dogs to prevent the spread of the virus. In 1979 the Van Houweling Research Laboratory of the

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ "Dr. George W. Beran's Biography". World Rabies Day. Retrieved 2010-04-23.
  5. ^ "One World, One Health Rabies".OneHealthInitiative.com. Retrieved 2010-04-23.
  6. ^
  7. ^ STATEMENT ON TRAVELLERS AND RABIES VACCINE
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^ Merial
  11. ^ Aspen Skunk Rabies Research, Inc.
  12. ^ http://www.rabies-vaccination.com/oral-vaccination.asp
  13. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15742629
  14. ^
  15. ^ Raboral
  16. ^
  17. ^

References

V-RG has been successfully used to prevent outbreaks of rabies in wildlife. The vaccine is stable under relatively high temperatures and can be delivered orally, making mass vaccination of wildlife possible by putting it in baits. The plan for immunization of normal populations involves dropping bait containing food wrapped around a small dose of the live virus. The bait would be dropped by helicopter concentrating on areas that have not been infected yet. In November 2008, Germany had been free of new cases for two years and is therefore currently believed to be rabies-free, together with a few other countries. A strategy of vaccinating “neighborhood dogs” in Jaipur, India, combined with a sterilization program, has also resulted in a large reduction in the number of human cases.[17]

In 1984 researchers at the Wistar Institute developed a recombinant vaccine called V-RG by inserting the glycoprotein gene from rabies into a vaccinia virus.[14] The V-RG vaccine has since been commercialised by Merial.[15] It is harmless to humans and has been shown to be safe for various species of animals that might accidentally encounter it in the wild, including birds (gulls, hawks, and owls).[16]

Oral rabies vaccine baits
Aerially distributed wildlife rabies vaccine in a bait from Estonia.

Recombinant rabies vaccine

Baits are distributed by airplanes in rural areas and by hand in urban and suburban areas. The idea of wildlife vaccination was conceived during the 1960s, and modified-live rabies viruses were used for the experimental oral vaccination of carnivores by the 1970s. The development of safe and effective rabies virus vaccines applied in attractive baits resulted in the first field trials in Switzerland in 1978.[13]

Machine for distribution of baits from airplane

Oral vaccination against rabies is a preventive measure to eradicate rabies in wild animals, vectors of disease, mainly foxes, raccoons, raccoon dogs, coyotes and jackals, but also can be used for dogs in developing countries.[12]

Imrab is an example of a veterinary rabies vaccine containing the Pasteur strain of killed rabies virus. Several different types of Imrab exist, including Imrab, Imrab 3, and Imrab Large Animal. Imrab 3 has been approved for ferrets and, in some areas, pet skunks.[10][11]

Pre-exposure immunization has been used on domesticated and wild populations. In many jurisdictions, domestic dogs, cats, ferrets, and rabbits are required to be vaccinated.

Baits with vaccine for oral vaccination

Other animals

Their vaccine consisted of a sample of the virus harvested from infected (and necessarily dead) rabbits, which was weakened by allowing it to dry for 5 to 10 days. Similar nerve tissue-derived vaccines are still used now in some countries, and while they are much cheaper than modern cell culture vaccines, they are not as effective. Neural tissue vaccines also carry a certain risk of neurological complications.[9]

Virtually every infection with rabies resulted in death until two French scientists, Louis Pasteur and Émile Roux, developed the first rabies vaccination in 1885. This vaccine was first used on a human on July 6, 1885, on nine-year-old Joseph Meister (1876–1940), who had been mauled by a rabid dog.[8]

History

Immunity following a course of doses is typically long lasting.[1] Following administration of a booster dose (recommended at one year), one study found 97% of immuno-competent individuals demonstrate protective levels of neutralizing antibodies at 10 years.[7]

Duration of immunity

In Tunisia a rabies control program was initiated to give dog owners free vaccination to promote mass vaccination which was sponsored by their government. The vaccine is known as Rabisin (Mérial) , which is a cell based rabies vaccine only used countrywide. Vaccinations are often administered when owners take in their dogs for check-ups and visits at the vet.[6]

In addition to these developments, newer and less expensive purified chicken embryo cell vaccine, and purified Vero cell rabies vaccine are now available. The purified Vero cell rabies vaccine uses the attenuated Wistar strain of the rabies virus, and uses the Vero cell line as its host.

[5]