In Chinese philosophy, qing (情) is a concept translated variously as "reality", "feelings,"[1] "genuine", "essence", "disposition", or "emotion". Neo-Confucians understand qing as products of environmental circumstances affecting xing, or innate human nature.[2] This interpretation of qing as an emotional or dispositional concept, especially as connected to xing, arose after the Warring States period. A broader, or at least earlier, Confucian interpretation would be the behavioral quality of a person given their context. For Confucians, who emphasized cultivation of ren (humaneness), li (ritual propriety), and yi (rightesouness) to build de, or virtuous moral character.[3]

See also

  • Xin, a related concept


  1. ^ Hansen, C. Daoist-oriented interpretations: Concept Articles. URL=
  2. ^ Theobald, U. (2010). Chinese thought and philosophy: Neo-Confucianism. URL=
  3. ^ Ivanhoe, P.J., & Van Norden, B.W. (Eds.) (2001). Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy, 2nd Ed. Hackett Publishing Co.: Indianapolis, p. 389-393