The A48 road near the centre of Port Talbot
Port Talbot shown within Neath Port Talbot
|OS grid reference|
|Principal area||Neath Port Talbot|
|Ceremonial county||West Glamorgan|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Post town||PORT TALBOT|
|Postcode district||SA12, SA13|
|Fire||Mid and West Wales|
- History 1
- Governance 2
- Physical Geography 3
- Human Geography 4
- Bedrock Geology 5.1
- Drift Geology 5.2
- Economic Geology 5.3
- Structural Geology 5.4
- Bio-Stratigraphy/Palaeontology 5.5
- Engineering Geology 5.6
- Hydro-Geology 5.7
- Marine Geo-science and Oceanography 6
- Sport 7
- South Wales Miners' Museum 8.1
- Margam Stones Museum 8.2
- Port Talbot Historical Society 8.3
- The Passion in Port Talbot 9.1
- Transport 10
- Socio-economic factors 11.1
- Blue Flag beach 11.2
Youth Organisations 12
- Council Youth Groups 12.1
- Cadet Organisations 12.2
- Future major developments 13
- Notable people 14
- Sea rescue 15
- See also 16
- References 17
- External links 18
The earliest evidence of humans in Port Talbot has been found on the side of Mynydd Margam where farming ditches can be found at an age of 4,000 BC during the Bronze Age. There were Iron Age hill forts on Mynydd Dinas, Mynydd Margam, Mynydd Emroch and other mountains. Mynydd Hawdef contains remains of an ancient Iron Age village. The Margam deer herd was first introduced by the Romans.
Aberavon was first established by Caradoc ap Iestyn (son of Iestyn ap Gwrgant), on the instructions of Robert Fitzhamon, after the Normans' conquest of south Wales by the end of the eleventh century. The town grew up with and around the castle which Fitzhamon ordered to be built (where Castle, Norman and Bailey streets are situated near to Saint Mary's Church in modern-day Port Talbot). The first recorded name of Aberavon was the French Norman 'Avene' which is likely to be an interpretation of the Welsh 'a-bhan' meaning 'from the heights' meaning the hills of the Afan Valley, from whence flowed the River Afan. 'Afan' is always pronounced 'Avan'. Margam Abbey was founded in 1147 as a daughter house of Clairvaux, a Cistercian foundation, by Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester. Local landowner John Talbot, fought at the Battle of Crécy, and bred the Talbot dog, a breed of small white dog, an ancestor of the modern Beagle.
The English antiquarian John Leland made an extensive journey through Wales c.1536-39 of which he recorded an itinerary. He passed through Aberafan, which he describes as a "poor village" surrounded by barren ground, though he also describes the area as heavily wooded, not much of which remains today. He mentions the use of the river mouth as a port, a "haven for ships" as he puts it. His portrayal of Aberafan as a small, struggling village however suggests that the port was not in great use, especially as traffic to and from Margam Abbey would have ceased following its dissolution in 1536.
The area of the parish of ironworks, which opened in early 1831.
CRM Talbot's daughter Emily Charlotte Talbot (1840–1918) inherited her father's fortune and became just as notable in the development of ports and railways. With assistance from engineers Charles Meik and Patrick Meik, she set about creating a port and railway system to attract business away from Cardiff and Swansea. The Port Talbot Railway and Docks Company opened a dock at Port Talbot and the Llyfni Railway in 1897, followed by the Ogmore Valley Extension and the South Wales Mineral Junction Railway (almost all these lines were closed as part of the Beeching Axe cuts in the mid-1960s, but some bridges and viaducts remain and many of these railway routes have re-emerged as recreational cycle tracks). By 1900, the dock was exporting over 500,000 tons of coal; it reached a peak of over three million tons in 1923.
In 1952 the completion of the Abbey Works by the Steel Company of Wales made Port Talbot the home of one of Europe's largest integrated steelworks and (with 18,000 employees) the largest employer in Wales. This was followed by the establishment of a chemical plant at Baglan Bay by British Petroleum (now BP) in the 1960s. In 1970 a new deep-water harbour was opened by Queen Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh. This harbour was capable of discharging iron ore vessels of 100,000 deadweight, a tenfold improvement on the old dock. By the early 21st century, due to further modification and dredging, the harbour is capable of harbouring vessels of over 170,000 deadweight. 
Around 400 years ago the Welsh and English border ran through Kenfig. Wales was on the West and the English side was East of Kenfig castle which was on the border between the two nations, the castle was attacked and eventually defeated by the Welsh. Incoming sand caused the residents of Kenfig to move and build a new town now called Pyle.
In November 1921, the borough of Port Talbot was created, incorporating Margam,
- Port Talbot Historical Society. A collection of historical photos, videos and documents of Aberavon / Port Talbot and districts
- Large online collection of historical photos of Aberavon / Port Talbot
- BBC South West Wales: Port Talbot slide show tour
- Aerial photograph of Port Talbot town and docks
- www.geograph.co.uk : photos of Port Talbot and surrounding area
- Port Talbot 2006 (photographs of Port Talbot)
- Neath Port Talbot Council Web Site
- "2011 Census". Nomisweb.co.uk. 27 March 2011. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- (1999) Collins Concise Dictionary, HarperCollins, Glasgow, ISBN 0-00-472257-4
- Margam Deer Herd (accessed: 18 June 2013)
- Ordnance Survey Map, Swansea and Neath Port Talbot Area, 2012
- """Full text of "The itinerary of John Leland in or about the years 1535-1543. parts I to [XI]. Archive.org. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- John Davies, Nigel Jenkins, Menna Baines and Peredur I. Lynch, ed. (2008). The Welsh Academy Encyclopedia of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. p. 697.
- www.oceannavigator.com article link not accessible.
- "AB Ports web page for Port Talbot". Abports.co.uk. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- "Archive Network Wales: West Glamorgan Archive Service - Context". Anws.llgc.org.uk. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- "Local Government (Wales) Act 1994, County Boroughs". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- "council details for Neath Port Talbot". www.southwalesguardian.co.uk. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- Port Talbot tops pollution chart. BBC News Monday, 28 February 2005 "Across the UK, only Marylebone Road and Camden in London had higher levels, with readings of 43 and 35. The national average was 23.3." http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/4303811.stm
- Information on air quality in Port Talbot can be found on the air quality section of the www.npt.gov.uk/airquality NPT council website]
- The BGS Lexicon of Named Rock Units — Result Details (Retrieved: 18 June 2013)
- National Minerals Map of Wales (Retrieved: 18 June 2013)
- "Information about fossils: Glossary". Fossiel.net. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- British Geological Society Map, Swansea and Port Talbot region
- Ordnance Survey Map, Port Talbot Region,2011
- Mountain Biking in Afan Forest Park (Retrieved: 3 May 2014)
- Sign boards at the Margam Stones Museum, undated, viewed in the Museum in June 2012
- "The Motorway Archive. M4 in Wales - Coryton to Baglan". Iht.org. 22 July 1966. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- "‘End road chaos by closing M4 slip road’ - icWales". Icwales.icnetwork.co.uk. 22 November 2007. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- "Top award for new Port Talbot road (2008)". walesonline.co.uk. 10 July 2008. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- www.coastguard.ukf.net: Port Talbot Coastguard Search and Rescue Emergency Team History
- www.neath-porttalbot.gov.uk: complete_lowquality.pdf
- "Associated British Ports News: Port Talbot Docks Handles First Steel Cargo For Nearly Four Decades". Abports.co.uk. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- "Associated British Ports: Port Facilities". Abport.co.uk. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- "£400M Wood Chip Plant Approved". BBC News. 21 November 2007. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- "NPT CBC - Port Talbot Consultation". Npt.gov.uk. 15 August 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- www.neath-porttalbot.gov.uk: Blue Flag beach Press Releases - 22 May 2008
- "www.porttalbot.co.uk". www.porttalbot.co.uk. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- Neath Port Talbot Youth Service (Retrieved: 3 May 2014)
- Neath Port Talbot Local Development Plan (Retrieved: 18 June 2013)
- "(Di Botcher at the IMDB database)".
- "(Peg Entwistle)". www.thehollywoodsigngirl.com. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- Steve England (July 2004). "Carve Greatest British Surfer poll". Surfers Village. Retrieved 15 February 2010.
- "(Richard Winpenny)". www.manchester.ac.uk. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- "(Richard Winpenny)". www.psi.manchester.ac.uk. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- "Port Talbot Lifeboat Station". Rnli.org. 28 August 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
Both sea rescue organisations, are opposite each other, and are used to working in partnership for effective beach and sea safety. 
Port Talbot also has an Inshore Lifeboat, which is part of the RNLI (Royal National Lifeboat Institution). Set about making sure the Inwater docks, Aberavon Beach and rivers along the route are safe.
Port Talbot coastguard celebrated its centenary in 2008 with a history of rescues in the last 100 years. The crew are now the mud rescue team for the Swansea Bay area. Port Talbot Coastguard are one of the seven rescue teams that make up the Gower Sector.
- William Abraham (1842–1922, b. Cwmafan), trade unionist and politician
- Martyn Ashton, British mountain bike trials former world champion and multiple British champion, lives in Port Talbot.
- Keith Barnes, Australian rugby league great was born in Port Talbot before emigrating aged 13. As of 2014 Barnes still has his Welsh accent
- Captain Beany, celebrity charity fundraiser, and celebrity lookalike.
- Robert Blythe, Welsh actor, was brought up in Tan y Groes Street. Played Fagin Hepplewhite in the BBC comedy High Hopes.
- Di Botcher, Welsh comedy actress.
- Rob Brydon, actor and comedian was brought up in Baglan, Port Talbot.
- Richard Burton was born in Pontrhydyfen, Port Talbot as Richard Jenkins and had his early education in Port Talbot where he met his mentor, Philip H. Burton.
- Leondre Devries, part of the singing duo Bars and Melody who came third on Britain's Got Talent in 2014.
- Peg Entwistle, successful Broadway theatre actress whose 1932 suicide from atop the Hollywood sign in Los Angeles forever tagged her as "The Hollywood Sign Girl" was born at 5 Broad Street, Port Talbot on 5 February 1908.
- Professor Sir Christopher Evans, businessman, originally from Port Talbot
- William Evans (1883–1968), writer
- Bernard Fox, actor, born Bernard Lawson
- Rhod Gilbert, comedian, lives in Port Talbot
- Lateysha Grace, cast member on reality show The Valleys
- Allan Martin, rugby union player (Wales and Lions international)
- Richard Hibbard, rugby union player (Wales and Lions international)
- James Hook, rugby union player, current Perpignan and Wales fly-half
- Sir Anthony Hopkins, actor, was born and raised in Margam, Port Talbot.
- Geoffrey Howe was born in Port Talbot and spent his early years there. When he was made a life peer in 1992 he chose the title Baron Howe of Aberavon
- Clive Jenkins (1926–1999), trade unionist
- Martyn Lloyd-Jones (1899–1981, b. Cardiff), Calvinistic Methodist minister who ministered Bethlehem Calvinistic Methodist Chapel, Sandfields, Aberafan from 1926 to 1938 prior to teaching at Westminster Chapel in London
- Michael Locke, aka 'Pancho' of TV series Dirty Sanchez, was born and brought up in Baglan, Port Talbot
- Colin Pascoe, former Swansea City, Sunderland and Wales international. Currently assistant manager at Liverpool FC
- Dic Penderyn, was born as Richard Lewis in Aberavon in 1803, in the centre of what is now Port Talbot but before the town was named as such in 1840. He is buried at St. Mary's Church in the centre of the town. He was convicted of assault on an army soldier and executed
- Paul Potts, an opera singer and the winner of Britain's Got Talent in 2007, lives in Port Talbot
- Linda Sharp, champion surfer from Aberavon, won the European surfing championships twice, the British surfing championships ten times and the Welsh surfing championships 19 times
- Michael Sheen, Welsh actor was born in Newport but he was brought up in Port Talbot
- Rhys Taylor, footballer born in Neath on 7 April 1990 who plays for Chelsea
- House of Commons.
- Andrew Vicari, painter was born in Port Talbot.
- Freddie Williams, from Margam, was the 1950 and 1953 Speedway World Champion. As of 2013, Williams is the only Welshman to win the championship.
- Richard Winpenny, Professor of Inorganic Chemistry, The University of Manchester and director of The Photon Science Institute at the University of Manchester
- A deep coal mine is planned to be built in the Margam area to sustain a supply of coal to the steelworks for 15 years.
- The world's first tidal lagoon is planned with the aim to complete by 2017 in Baglan Bay area.
- A 'super school' equivalent to 4-5 comprehensive schools is planned for the Baglan Moors area.
Future major developments
Port Talbot Detachment, Dyfed and Glamorgan Army Cadet Force
Sea Cadets (Port Talbot)
499 (Port Talbot) Squadron Air Training Corps
Neath Port Talbot County Borough Council operates youth clubs in Blaengwynfi, Bryn, Bryncoch, Cimla, Croeserw, Crynant, Cwmafan, Cwmllynfell, Cymmer, Glyncorrwg, Glynneath, Hengwrt, Neath, Sandfields, Seven Sisters, Taibach and Ystalyfera.
Council Youth Groups
The beach area of the town has been improved and the council announced in 2008 that it had been awarded the Blue Flag beach status for water quality and beach facilities. The beach retained this award each year until it was lost in 2012. The beach area is also home to the largest sculpture in Wales; titled "Kite tail," it is 12 metres high and weighs 11 tonnes.
Blue Flag beach
A recent local council research project into industry revealed that 37.4% of Port Talbot's workforce belong in the public sector, notably Health and Social Care. Port Talbot is also the site for Neath Port Talbot General Hospital, which houses a psychiatric ward and drug rehabilitation centre, including a Juvenile wing which provides temporary emergency care for 15-18 year olds lasting up to seven days before being placed in a secure psychiatric unit.
Potential future development currently centres around the peripheral distributor road to the south (the dual carriageway road in the Margam and Tiabach areas was finished in 2013), Baglan Industrial Park and Baglan Energy Park to the west, Port Talbot Docks to the southwest, Margam Country Park to the east and the Afan Valley to the north. In March 2009 Neath Port Talbot County Borough Council announced a regeneration project for Port Talbot town centre and docks, with a masterplan for new homes, offices, light industry, retail developments and improvements to the railway station.
On 20 November 2007, the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (BERR) granted consent for the world's largest biomass power station to be built at Port Talbot. This is expected to provide enough electricity (from wood from environmentally-managed forests, mostly in North America) to supply half the homes in Wales with electricity.
Heavy industry is a visible feature of Port Talbot's economy. The coastal strip of the town features Port Talbot Steelworks, a large BOC Industrial Gases plant, a biomass power station and a gas-fired power station. Further power plants are being planned or commissioned: at Margam adjacent to the BOC plant, at Aberavon Beach sea front and a recently announced £60m project within Corus to utilise by-product gases.
The Port Talbot Docks complex consist of an inner set of floating docks and an outer tidal basin. Construction of the tidal basin began in 1964 and the whole basin covers about 500 acres (2.0 km2). The tidal basin is capable of handling ships of up to 170,000 dwt and is used mostly for the import of iron ore and coal for use by nearby Port Talbot Steelworks. The inner floating docks were constructed in 1898 and were closed in 1959. They were re-opened in 1998 for commercial shipping and in March 2007 for the import of some steel products and are capable of handling ships of up to 8,000 dwt. There have been proposals for the development of an intermodal freight terminal at the port.
The M4 motorway cuts through the town from southeast to northwest, crossing a central area on a concrete viaduct, junctions 38 to 41 serve Port Talbot, with junctions 40 and 41 being in the commercial heart of the town. This busy urban stretch of the M4, with tight bends, 2-lane carriageways, short narrow slip roads and concrete walls on both sides, was the first length of motorway in Wales when it opened to traffic in 1966. The road has a speed limit of 50 mph (80 km/h) enforced with a speed camera in the eastbound direction. The stretch through Port Talbot town centre is a particular traffic congestion blackspot and there have been calls to close the slip roads at junctions 40 and 41 to improve traffic flow. However some commuters oppose this plan since it would add more time to their journey. A new dual carriageway relief road, the Port Talbot Peripheral Distribution Road (PDR), is planned for completion in 2012. The new carriageway will serve as a distributor road to the southwest of Port Talbot, beginning at M4 Junction 38 ending near Junction 41.
Port Talbot is served by the South Wales Main Line at Port Talbot Parkway railway station. There are local as well as direct intercity trains to Swansea, Cardiff, London and Manchester. Port Talbot bus station, located adjacent to the Aberafan Centre in the centre of the town is the main bus transport hub, it is a National Express stop. Local bus services are provided by First Cymru, South Wales Transport & Veolia Transport Cymru. The bus station's layout is very distinctive for the fact that buses always have to perform a 270° clockwise turn to exit the station. A Sustrans cycle route has recently been constructed at this bus station as part of the connect2 scheme connecting the Afan Valley with Aberavon beach.
In April 2012, Michael Sheen returned to attend the world premiere of a two-hour feature-length film The Gospel of Us based on The Passion. The premiere was held at the Apollo Cinema (now the Reel Cinema) on the Aberavon seafront close to where The Passion took place. Tickets for the premiere sold out weeks before the showing; all six screens showed the film simultaneously. The film was also shown daily from Easter Sunday to the following Thursday prior to its UK-wide release the next day, 13 April 2012.
On Easter Sunday, the production returned to Aberavon Beach as part of the finale. A trial was performed on Civic Square before a procession from Station Road, with the final scene, "the cross", at Aberavon seafront. By the time the procession had reached the seafront close to where it had begun 72 hours earlier, organisers estimate over 13,000 people had come to watch on the small roundabout.
On Saturday, there were sequences in Llewellyn Street, the Castle Street underpass, Aberafan Shopping Centre, the Seaside Social and Labour Club Seaside Social and labour Club in Sandfields and nearby Abbeyville Court.
By the time the first main part of the play was performed on Aberavon Beach at 1500 BST, organisers estimated up to 6,000 people had gathered to watch.
In April 2011, actor Michael Sheen led a 72-hour National Theatre Wales production of a modern retelling of The Passion. The play began at 0530 BST on Good Friday with a seafront scene, inspired by John the Baptist's baptism of Jesus, which was watched by hundreds who had heard about it by word of mouth.
The Passion in Port Talbot
The Port Talbot Magnet is a hyperlocal online website that publishes local news and events from the Neath and Port Talbot area. Port Talbot Magnet started as a free printed issue in September 2013 distributed to Port Talbot postcodes SA12 and SA13.
The town is served by several newspapers. The Port Talbot Guardian was a weekly paper published by Media Wales, part of the Trinity Mirror group, but ceased publication in October 2009. The Swansea-based daily South Wales Evening Post and the weekly Courier and Tribune are also distributed in the town and are published by South West Wales Publications, part of the Northcliffe Media group.
In 2005 the area was granted its first radio station when Afan FM, the inspiration of a group of local young people headed by 19-year-old Craig Williams, was awarded a five-year licence by Ofcom to serve Port Talbot and neighbouring Neath. Afan FM transmitted on 107.9FM and online via its website, broadcasting from the AquaDome leisure complex on Aberavon Seafront. Following a December 2009 fire at the AquaDome, Afan FM moved to Aberafan House, adjacent to the town's shopping centre. In late 2011 Afan FM was shut down after an unexpected tax bill; it ceased live broadcasting at 2pm on 13 December 2011.
The area is served by several radio stations: The Wave (96.4FM), Swansea Sound (1170MW), Nation Hits (102.1FM), Real Radio (106.0FM) and Nation Radio (107.3FM), all of which are available on DAB. Radio Phoenix also operates a 24 hour hospital radio service for the patients & staff of Neath Port Talbot Hospital in Baglan Moors.
Port Talbot Historical Society was founded in 1954 and is based in Carmel Chapel, in the town centre. The group is dedicated to the research and recording of local history and has published a number of books over the years. Their website is www.historicalporttalbot.com
Port Talbot Historical Society
The nearby Margam Stones Museum has early Christian inscribed stones and Celtic crosses, including four from the area now under the Steelworks. A Roman milestone, an 8th-century pillar, and two Celtic crosses from the 10th century were all rescued from the steelworks site by the Talbot family and taken to Margam, where they are now in the museum, in the care of Cadw.
Margam Stones Museum
South Wales Miners' Museum
A campus of Neath Port Talbot College is located in the Margam area. The Margam campus was previously called Afan College.
- Cymmer Afan
- Dyffryn Comprehensive Lower (Taibach) and Upper (Margam)
- Glan Afan Comprehensive School
- Sandfields Comprehensive School
- St Joseph's Roman Catholic
There are five comprehensive schools situated within the Port Talbot area:
Port Talbot has an array of higher level football. With two historically dominant football teams in the town (Port Talbot Town F.C. and Afan Lido F.C.), also Welsh Football League First Division high-flyers Goytre United F.C. are based just outside of Port Talbot. The town's nearest Welsh Premier League team Port Talbot and Afan Lido A.F.C, who are located in Port Talbot. Swansea City A.F.C. and Cardiff City F.C. are also premier league clubs which are in close vicinity of Port Talbot.
- Aberavon Rugby Club, (founded in 1876) who play in the Rugby Union Welsh Premier Division
- Tata Steel Multi Sport Club, who organise swim, bike, run and triathlon events for employees and the local community in the Neath Port Talbot area.
- Aberavon Quins RFC, (founded in 1891) who play in the WRU Division 2 West
- Aberavon Green Stars RFC
- Corus (Port Talbot) RFC
- Taibach RFC
- Neath Port Talbot Steelers, club who play in the Rugby League Conference
- Afan Lido F.C.
- Port Talbot Town F.C., compete in the League of Wales, and also the First Division Welsh Champions
- Goytre United F.C.
- Margam United F.C, based at the Saltings football field in Knights Road, Margam.
- Corus F.C., who play at home at the SCOW fields in Abbots Close
- Port Talbot Wheelers cycling club
Sporting teams in Port Talbot include:
Port Talbot sea floor topography ranges from 0m to 15m within Swansea Bay. There are many patches within the bay including the North Kenfig patches, green grounds, outer green grounds, madjoe and stalheim. These patches are created from faults, hollows, general topography and other factors. Sea depth around Port Talbot is 10m-50m with increasing depth with increasing distance from the coast. There are two beaches within Port Talbot: Aberavon and Morfa. Sand at both beaches are yellow and semi-shell rich. Tide in the area has a harmonic prediction which means it can be predicted easy and has repeatable tide heights every year. The outer bay area and sea area near Port Talbot Pier has a tidal stream with no harmonic prediction. A tidal stream (or tidal current) is an alternating horizontal movement of water associated with the rise and fall of the tide caused by tide-producing forces. This means that the tide can not be accurately predicted due to additional factors like currents, rip current, river mouths and precipitation. There are also two major dumping grounds within the bay. These are areas were sand is collected for construction industry. Port Talbot docks is a deep water harbour which allows large cargo shape to dock into the area.
Marine Geo-science and Oceanography
Rivers in the region are fault guided meaning that they flow is highly influenced by a structural weakness called a fault. Several natural springs occur in the highland regions with a neutral to slightly acidic ph values. Natural ground water levels varies from 10 metres below the Tiabach area of Port Talbot to over 20 metres. Rivers in the region including the River Afan (Aberavon), River Neath (Baglan Bay), Ffrwd wyllt (Tibach), Arnallt Brook (Tiabach), Baglan Brook (Baglan) and other rivers are fast flowing and are highly influenced by their mouths (end of the rivers, tidal region). A spout can be found in Baglan Park in the Baglan region of Port Talbot. Many open and uncovered reservoirs exist in the region. Water has been channelled into ditches in industrial areas of Port Talbot.
Drift geology average thickness is between 3 metres to 20 metres. Several landslips occur in the highlands including many bole holes historically made for the construction of the M4 motorway, steelworks and coal mines.
Marine fossils found in Port Talbot region include species of bivalves, gastropods and brachiopods. Terrestrial fossils include fern tree branches, trunks, leafs and roots. Traces of organism footprints can also be found.
Faults have an orientation of North West-South East, Eas-West and North-South. All are normal faults which form extension processes. There are also many marine fossils bands.
Coal seams within the Pennant sandstone run North West-South East and East-West. The coal seams arise from the South Wales Middle Coal Measures Formation, South Wales Upper Coal Measures Formation, South Wales Lower Coal Measures Formation, Rhondda Member and Brithdir Member. Pennant sandstone is an excellent construction rock and road stone.
There is a variety of drift deposits in Port Talbot. Sandfields area of Port Talbot is built upon blown sand and tidal flat deposits. These were deposited by alluvial processes (wind) and fluvial processes (water). Velindre area of Port Talbot is built upon an alluvial fan deposit. This deposit formed during the last glacial period 14,000 years ago. Baglan Road in Port Talbot is built upon glacial till from the Devensian period. Till, also known as boulder clay, is a mix of unconsolidated sediment with a range of grain sizes (clay-boulder). This forms as the fronts of glaciers rapidly deposit material due to melting. Cwmavon in Port Talbot is built upon alluvial and glaciofluvial deposits, formed from glacial melt water. Baglan Moors, Fairfield and Port Talbot town centre are built upon tidal flat deposits (tides were higher 12,000 years ago allowing sandy deposits to accumulate).
Lower land areas are predominantly Pennant sandstone within the South Wales Middle Coal Measures Formation, South Wales Upper Coal Measures Formation and South Wales Lower Coal Measures Formation.
South East of Port Talbot is dominated by Pennant sandstone which forms this high relief area including Mynydd Margam, Mynydd Dinas and the other mountains. The pennant sandstone is made up of two formations which are the Rhondda Member and Brithdir Member. The sandstone formed in Carboniferous swamps 300 million years ago. Pennant sandstone is a micacous sandstone which has a brown colouration with areas of red staining where iron from pyrite in coal has weathered creating a rust colouration.
Port Talbot has a variety of bedrock and drift types.
63% of Port Talbot population in 2000 was between the ages of 15-64. Male unemployment in 2000 was around 9%, with female unemployment around 45% in 2000.
The town is still said to be the most polluted place in Wales and the most polluted in the United Kingdom outside of London. However, air quality in the Port Talbot area has improved.
The town is built along the eastern rim of Swansea Bay in a narrow strip of coastal plain surrounding the River Afan estuary. Swansea is visible on the opposite side of Swansea Bay. The local beach is known as Aberavon Sands and is situated along the edge of the bay between the River Afan and the River Neath. The other beach in Port Talbot is Margam Sands, popularly known as Morfa Beach. The north-eastern edge of the town is marked by the River Neath. A significant landmark in the town is the Port Talbot Steelworks.
Following the demise of the Neath and part of Lliw Valley Districts to create the new unitary authority of Neath Port Talbot County Borough in 1996. The Civic Centre is located in Port Talbot, and the town is represented by three of the 64 councillors that make up the county council.