Pope Eugene IV
|Papacy began||3 March 1431|
|Papacy ended||23 February 1447|
|Birth name||Gabriele Condulmer|
Venice, Republic of Venice
23 February 1447
Rome, Papal States
|Coat of arms|
|Other popes named Eugene|
Papal styles of
|Reference style||His Holiness|
|Spoken style||Your Holiness|
|Religious style||Holy Father|
Pope Eugene IV (Latin: Eugenius IV; 1383 – 25 February 1447), born Gabriele Condulmer, was Pope from 3 March 1431 to his death in 1447. He is the last pope to take the name "Eugene" upon his election.
- 1 History
- 2 Demographics
- 3 Influence on American culture
- 4 Language
- 5 Religion
- 6 Politics
- 7 Immigration
- 8 Socioeconomics
- 9 Notable Chinese Americans
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Condulmaro was born in Pope Gregory XII, as Bishop of Siena. In Siena, the political leaders objected to a bishop who was not only 24, but also a foreigner. Therefore, he resigned the appointment, becoming instead his uncle's papal treasurer, protonotary and Cardinal Priest of the Basilica of San Clemente. Pope Martin V named him Cardinal Priest of the Basilica di Santa Maria in Trastevere.
Condulmer made himself useful to Pope Martin as legate in Picenum and was quickly elected to succeed him in the papal conclave of 1431. He was crowned as Eugene IV at St. Peter's Basilica on 11 March 1431. By a written agreement made before his election he pledged to distribute to the cardinals one-half of all the revenues of the Church and promised to consult with them on all questions of importance, both spiritual and temporal. He is described as tall, thin, with a winning countenance, although many of his troubles were owing to his own want of tact, which alienated parties from him. Upon assuming the papal chair, Eugene IV took violent measures against the numerous Colonna relatives of his predecessor Martin V, who had rewarded them with castles and lands. This at once involved him in a serious contest with the powerful house of Colonna that nominally supported the local rights of Rome against the interests of the Papacy. A truce was soon arranged.
Conciliar reform and papal misfortunes
By far the most important feature of Eugene IV's pontificate was the great struggle between the Pope and the Council of Basel (1431–39), the final embodiment of the Conciliar movement. On 23 July 1431, his legate Giuliano Cesarini opened the council, which had been convoked by Martin V, but, distrustful of its purposes and emboldened by the small attendance, the pope issued a bull on 18 December 1431 that dissolved the council and called a new one to meet in eighteen months at Bologna. The council resisted this expression of papal prerogative. Eugene IV's action gave some weight to the contention that the Curia was opposed to any authentic measures of reform. The council refused to dissolve; instead they renewed the resolutions by which the Council of Constance had declared a council superior to the Pope and ordered Eugene IV to appear at Basel. A compromise was arranged by the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, who had been crowned emperor at Rome on 31 May 1433. By its terms, the Pope recalled his bull of dissolution, and, reserving all the rights of the Holy See, acknowledged the council as ecumenical on 15 December 1433 except for the initial unapproved sessions that contained canons which exalted conciliar authority above that of the pope.
These concessions also were due to the invasion of the Papal States by the former Papal condottiero Niccolò Fortebraccio and the troops of Filippo Maria Visconti led by Niccolò Piccinino in retaliation for Eugene's support of Florence and Venice against Milan (see also Wars in Lombardy). This situation led also to establishment of an insurrectionary republic at Rome controlled by the Colonna family. In early June 1434, disguised in the robes of a Benedictine monk, Eugene was rowed down the center of the Tiber, pelted by stones from either bank, to a Florentine vessel waiting to pick him up at Ostia. The city was restored to obedience by Giovanni Vitelleschi, the militant Bishop of Recanati, in the following October. In August 1435 a peace treaty was signed at Ferrara by the various belligerents. The Pope moved to Bologna in April 1436. His condottieri Francesco Sforza and Vitelleschi in the meantime reconquered much of the Papal States. Traditional papal enemies such as the Prefetti di Vico were destroyed, while the Colonna were reduced to obedience after the destruction of their stronghold in Palestrina in August 1436.
Meanwhile the struggle with the council sitting at Basel broke out anew. Eugene IV at length convened a rival council at Ferrara on 8 January 1438 and excommunicated the prelates assembled at Basel. King Charles VII of France had forbidden members of the clergy in his kingdom from attending the counsel in Ferrara, and introduced the decrees of the Council of Basel, with slight changes, into France through the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (7 July 1438). The King of England and the Duke of Burgundy, who felt that the council was partial to France, decided not to recognize the council at Basel. Castile, Aragon, Milan, and Bavaria withdrew support. 
The Council of Basel suspended Eugene on 24 January 1438, then formally deposed him as a heretic on 25 June 1439. In the following November the council elected the ambitious Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy, as antipope under the name of Felix V. The Diet of Mainz had deprived the Pope of most of his rights in the Empire (26 March 1439).
At Florence, where the council of Ferrara had been transferred as a result of an outbreak of the plague, a union with the Eastern Orthodox Church was effected in July 1439, which, as the result of political necessities, proved but a temporary bolster to the papacy's prestige. This union was followed by others of even less stability. Eugene IV signed an agreement with the Armenians on 22 November 1439, and with a part of the Jacobites of Syria in 1443, and in 1445 he received the Nestorians and the Maronites. He did his best to stem the Turkish advance, pledging one-fifth of the papal income to a crusade which set out in 1443, but which met with overwhelming defeat at the Battle of Varna. Cardinal Cesarini, the papal legate, perished in the rout.
Eugene's rival Felix V in the meantime obtained scant recognition, even in the Empire. Eventually Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III moved toward acceptance of Eugene. One of the king's ablest advisers, the humanist Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini, who was later to be Pope Pius II, made peace with Eugene in 1442. The Pope's recognition of the claim to Naples of King Alfonso V of Aragon (in the treaty of Terracina, approved by Eugenius at Siena somewhat later) withdrew the last important support in Italy from the Council of Basel. In 1442 Eugene, Alfonso and Visconti sent Niccolò Piccinino to reconquer the March of Ancona from Francesco Sforza; but the defeat of the allied army at the Battle of Montolmo pushed the Pope to reconcile with Sforza.
So enabled, Eugene IV made a victorious entry into Rome on 28 September 1443 after an exile of nearly ten years.
His protests against the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges were ineffectual, but by means of the Concordat of the Princes, negotiated by Piccolomini with the electors in February 1447, the whole of Germany declared against the antipope. This agreement was completed only after Eugene's death.
Eugenius on slavery
Christianity had gained many converts in the Canary Islands by the early 1430s. However, the ownership of the lands had been the subject of dispute between Portugal and the Kingdom of Castille. The lack of effective control had resulted in periodic raids on the islands to procure slaves. As early as the Council of Koblenz in 922, the capture of Christians as slaves by other Christians had been condemned.
Acting on a complaint by Fernando Calvetos, bishop of the islands, Pope Eugene IV issued a Papal bull, "Creator Omnium", on 17 December 1434, annulling previous permission granted to Portugal to conquer those islands still pagan. Eugene excommunicated anyone who enslaved newly converted Christians, the penalty to stand until the captive was restored to their liberty and possessions.
Portuguese soldiers continued to raid the islands during 1435, and Eugene issued a further edict Sicut Dudum that prohibited wars being waged against the islands and affirming the ban on enslavement. Eugene condemned the enslavement of the peoples of the newly colonized Canary Islands and, under pain of excommunication, ordered all such slaves to be immediately set free.
Eugene tempered Sicut Dudum in September 1436 with the issuance of a papal bull in response to complaints made by King Edward of Portugal that allowed the Portuguese to conquer any unconverted parts of the Canary Islands. According to Raiswell (1997), any Christian would be protected by the earlier edict but the un-baptized were implicitly allowed to be enslaved.
Following the arrival of the first African slaves in Lisbon during the year 1441, Prince Henry asked Eugene to designate Portugal's raids along the West African coast as a crusade, a consequence of which would be the legitimization of enslavement for captives taken during the crusade. On 19 December 1442, Eugene replied by issuing the bull Illius qui, in which he granted full remission of sins to those who took part in any expeditions against the Saracens. Davidson (1961) asserts that "In Christianity as in Islam...the heathen was expendable".
Richard Raiswell argues that the bulls of Eugene helped in some way the development of thought which perceived the enslavement of Africans by the Portuguese and later Europeans "as dealing a blow for Christendom". Joel S Panzer views Sicut Dudum as a significant condemnation of slavery, issued sixty years before the Europeans found the New World.
Death and legacy
Although his pontificate had been so stormy and unhappy that he is said to have regretted on his deathbed that he ever left his monastery, Eugene IV's victory over the Council of Basel and his efforts on behalf of church unity nevertheless contributed greatly to the breakdown of the conciliar movement and restored the papacy to a semblance of the dominant position it had held before the Western Schism (1378–1417). This victory had been gained, however, by making concessions to the princes of Europe. Thereafter, the papacy had to depend more for its revenues on the Papal States.
Eugene IV was dignified in demeanour, but inexperienced and vacillating in action and excitable in temper. Bitter in his hatred of heresy, he nevertheless displayed great kindness to the poor. He laboured to reform the monastic orders, especially the Franciscans, and was never guilty of nepotism. Although austere in his private life, he was a sincere friend of art and learning, and in 1431 he re-established the university at Rome. He also consecrated Florence Cathedral on 25 March 1436. Eugene was buried at Saint Peter's by the tomb of Pope Eugene III. Later his tomb was transferred to San Salvatore in Lauro, a parish church on the other bank of the Tiber River.
- "Race Reporting for the Asian Population by Selected Categories: 2010". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
- "Ethnologue report for language code: cdo". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- "Ethnologue report for language code: wuu". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
"Asian Americans: A Mosaic of Faiths". The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Pew Research Center. 19 July 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
Unaffiliated 52%, Protestant 22%, Buddhist 15%, Catholic 8%
- Pew Forum - Chinese Americans' Religions.
- Note that while the English term is ambiguous between "Chinese" (Han) culture and "Chinese" (PRC) nationality, the Chinese terms listed here refer specifically to those of Han Chinese descent.
- Ng, Franklin (1998). The Taiwanese Americans. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 2, 118, 126.
- "Race groups". United States Census Bureau. 9 August 2002. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
- "About OCAC". Overseas Compatriot Affairs Commission, R.O.C. (Taiwan). Retrieved 21 March 2007.
- "The Ranking of Overseas Chinese". Overseas Compatriot Affairs Commission, R.O.C. (Taiwan). Retrieved 21 March 2007.
- "Chinese Immigrants in the United States". Migration Policy Institute. January 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
- Bill Bryson, Made In America,page 154
- Peter Kwong and Dusanka Miscevic (2005). Chinese America.
- International World History Project. Asian Americans. Accessed 2014-03-14.
- Takaki, Ronald (1998). Strangers From A Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans. New York: Back Bay Books.
- US Census: Race and Hispanic or Latino: 2000 ; US Census: 1990 ; US Census: Population 1790-1990 ; Comparison of Asian Populations during the Exclusion Years ; Estimation of the US-Census for the year 2004 
- Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States
- "ACS DEMOGRAPHIC AND HOUSING ESTIMATES 2012 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA, U.S. Census Bureau, retrieved 27 June 2012
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2011 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2010 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
- John Marzulli (9 May 2011). "Malaysian man smuggled illegal Chinese immigrants into Brooklyn using Queen Mary 2: authorities". New York: © Copyright 2012 NY Daily News.com. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. 2010. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- United Parcel Service Community Site
- Hayoun, Massoud (7 March 2012). "What China's Talking About Today: Is American Citizenship Still Desirable?". The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2013 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 2014-06-19.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2012 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2011 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2010 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- John Marzulli (9 May 2011). "Malaysian man smuggled illegal Chinese immigrants into Brooklyn using Queen Mary 2: authorities". New York: NY Daily News.com. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- "Chinese New Year 2012 in Flushing". QueensBuzz.com. 25 January 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- Haiming Liu (2005) "Asian-American Ideas (Cultural Migration)" In Horowitz, Maryanne Cline (editor) (2005) New Dictionary of the History of Ideas Charles Scribner's Sons, Detroit, Michigan, volume 1, pp. 158-160, ISBN 0-684-31377-4
- Semple, Kirk (21 August 2008) "Among Chinese-Americans, a Split on Sports" The New York Times page B-2
- Berson, Misha. "A 'Drum' with a Difference". American Theatre magazine, Theatre Communications Group, 2002. Retrieved 9 November 2010.
- by David Henry Hwang, directed by Leigh Silverman. "Chinglish". Broadway's Best Shows, Longacre Theatre. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- Committee of 100 (25 April 2001). "Committee of 100 Announces Results of Landmark National Survey on American Attitudes towards Chinese Americans and Asian Americans". Retrieved 14 June 2007.
- Matthew Yi, et al. (27 April 2001). "Asian Americans seen negatively". The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 14 June 2007.
- Lai, H. Mark (2004). Becoming Chinese American: A History of Communities and Institutions. AltaMira Press.
- García, Ofelia; Fishman, Joshua A. (2002). The Multilingual Apple: Languages in New York City. Walter de Gruyter.
- Lai, H. Mark (2004). Becoming Chinese American: A History of Communities and Institutions. AltaMira Press. need page number(s)
Matthew Hilburn (17 January 2013). "Asian-American Vote Reveals Nuances". Voice of America. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
Chinese-Americans were the least likely to affiliate with a party. Magpantay suggested that only one third of Chinese-Americans belong to a party, compared with 71% among all Asian-Americans, because of the negative association of the word party with the Communist Party in China.
- "Asian-Americans lean toward Kerry". Asia Times. 16 September 2004. Retrieved 22 September 2007.
- "As China's rich grow in numbers, so do their mobile aspirations - CNN.com". CNN. 21 November 2011.
- Chinese millionaires seek for overseas activities-China Invests Overseas - China Business Network
- "Plan B for China's Wealthy: Moving to the U.S., Europe - WSJ.com". The Wall Street Journal.
- "Report: Half of Chinaâs millionaires want to leave". CNN. 1 November 2011.
- Chinese rich are keen to emigrate, China Daily, 3 November 2011
- The Mass Migration of the Super-Rich - U.S. Business News - CNBC
- "Rich Chinese seeking overseas residency". BBC News. 22 August 2012.
- 美国投资移民中国人占四分三 - 3/4 of Investment Immigrants to the USA are Chinese (bilingual), Thinking Chinese, November 2011
- "U.S., Canada favored by China's third wave of emigrants - Headlines, features, photo and videos from". ecns.cn. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
- China’s capital flight: to US real estate |beyondbrics
- Choi, Daniel. "The Other Side of the Model Minority Myth". Yisei Magazine. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- Charles C. Johnson (29 July 2011). "The New Chinese Exclusion Act".
- "Asian-Americans blast UC admissions policy".
- "Diversity: Annual Accountability Sub-Report".
- Brown, Michael K. (2003). Whitewashing race: the myth of a color-blind society. University of California Press. p. 338.
- Dharma, Tiffany (2011). The Model Minority: Asian-American Youth and the Harmful Perpetuation of a Cultural Myth. StudentPulse. p. 2.
- "Traditional Chinese parenting". Parenting Science. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- "Awards". Arthurhu.com. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
Scott Jaschik (22 August 2011). "Who Applies (and Gets in)". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
Then there is the question of who applies to competitive colleges: the NELS data show that 30 percent of Asian American applicants do, compared to 18 percent of white students and 10 percent of black and Latino students.
- "Awards". Arthurhu.com. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- Stoops, Niacole. "Educational Attainment in the United States, 2003." U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports publication P20-550, June 2004. Accessed 16 February 2007.
- "Proceed with caution | The Chronicle". Dukechronicle.com. 27 February 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
- JESSE WASHINGTON (3 December 2011). "Some Asians' college strategy: Don't check 'Asian' - Yahoo! News". News.yahoo.com. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
- TAMAR LEWIN (4 February 2012). "Taking More Seats on Campus, Foreigners Also Pay the Freight". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- Peter Murray (16 November 2010). "China becomes No. 1 source for international students in U.S.". Xinhua. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- The number of students studying in the US is rising even faster than China's GDP. During the 2010-11 academic year, 157,588 Chinese students were studying in the US – an increase of 23% from the previous year, according to the Institute of International Education.
- "Chinese students enrolling in U.S. colleges in record numbers". Chicago Sun Times. 4 August 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- Jenna Johnson (14 November 2011). "Chinese students enroll in record numbers at U.S. colleges". Post Local. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- Adrienne Mong (17 February 2013). "Chinese applications to U.S. schools skyrocket". Retrieved 30 May 2012.
- Megan Gates (11 January 2012). "China’s growing middle class means influx of students for U.S. colleges". USA TODAY College. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- Daniel de Vise (4 January 2012). "Pitching U.S. liberal arts in China". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- Joe Vaccarello (19 January 2011). "Chinese student loving life in U.S. college". CNN. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
- DEBANINA SEATON (4 March 2012). "American universities see an influx of students from China". The South End. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- Chinese American Voices: From the Gold Rush to the Present - Judy Yung, Gordon H. Chang, H. Mark Lai - Google Books. Books.google.ca. 20 March 2006. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- The Wall Street Journal http://blogs.wsj.com/chinarealtime/2013/03/27/chinese-students-struggle-for-returns-on-education-in-u-s/ .
- "Foreign-Born Entrepreneurs: An Underestimated American Resource". Kauffman.org. 30 September 2006. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- "Doctors and Nurses: A Demographic Profile". Cis.org. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- "Chinese American Contributions to Silicon Valley". Modelminority.com. 31 March 2003. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- "100 Most Successful Asian American Entrepreneurs".
- "Chinese American Contributions to Silicon Valley".
- "Immigrant Entrepreneurs". Careerbright. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- 12 January 2007 (12 January 2007). "Asia Times Online :: South Asia news - More foreign cogs in the US engine". Atimes.com. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- "A Valley Asset: Chinese, Indians Creating Businesses, Jobs, Wealth As Successful Entrepreneurs (PPIC Commentary)". Ppic.org. 21 June 1998. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- Chinese Entrepreneurship in a Global Era - Raymond Sin-Kwok Wong - Google Books. Books.google.ca. 14 August 2008. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- Doing Business in the New China: A Handbook and Guide - Birgit Zinzius - Google Books. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- The Expanding Roles of Chinese Americans in U.S.-China Relations ... - Peter H. Koehn, Xiao-Huang Yin - Google Books. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- Contemporary Asian American Communities: Intersections And Divergences - Linda Trinh Vő, Rick Bonus - Google Books. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- Steven J. Gold (October 2006). "The Second Generation and Self-Employment". Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- "Survey of Business Owners". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- "Chinese-Owned Firms". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- "Number of Firms by Receipts Size of Firm: 2007". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- "Obama's Tax Plan and Small Businesses". FOX News. 21 April 2011. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- "Facts About Small Business Taxpayers". Small Business Trends. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- "Romney Rejects Buffett’s Call To Tax The Rich, Falsely Claims It Would Hurt Small Businesses". Think Progress. 15 August 2011. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- U.S. Government. "U.S. economics" (PDF). Retrieved 25 March 2012.
- "ASIAN AMERICAN CHARACTERISTICS.doc". ASIAN AMERICAN CHARACTERISTICS.doc. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
- Bureau, U.S. Census (2000). Chinese American Demographics. Améredia Incorporated.
- Dooley, Tom (January 2003). "| -A A +A Industry Watch: Chinese Lead Immigrant Groups in Homeownership". National Association of Realtors. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
- Bryan, Chiu; Melany Dela Cruz-Viesca (2008). "Following the Path to Asian American Home-ownership". Asian Real Estate Association of America (AREAA) via American Community Survey: 9–11. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
- Long-term Unemployment Hits Asian-Americans Hardest - Voice of America
- , October 2005First Things MagazineDulles, S.J., Avery. "Development or Reversal?",
- Maxwell, John Francis. Slavery and the Catholic Church, Barry Rose Publishers, 1975
- Panzer, Joel S. "The Popes and Slavery", The Church In History Centre, 22 April 2008
- Rendina, Claudio (1994). I capitani di ventura. Rome: Newton Compton. p. 355.
- The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery, Contributor Richard Raiswell, Editor Junius P. Rodriguez, ABC-CLIO, 1997, ISBN 0-87436-885-5
- Christopher Columbus and the enslavement of the Amerindians in the Caribbean. (Columbus and the New World Order 1492–1992)., Sued-Badillo, Jalil, Monthly Review. Monthly Review Foundation, Inc. 1992. HighBeam Research. 10 August 2009
- A Violent Evangelism, Luis N. Rivera, Luis Rivera Pagán , Westminster John Knox Press, 1992, ISBN 0-664-25367-9
- The African Slave Trade, Basil Davidson, James Currey Publishers, 1961, ISBN 0-85255-798-1
- A Successful Defeat. Eugenius IV's Struggle with the Council of Basel for Ultimate Authority in the Church, 1431/1449, M. Decaluwe, Brepols Publishers, 2010, ISBN 978-90-74461-73-3
- Joseph Gill, Eugenius IV, Pope of Christian Union (Westminster, Md., Newman Press, 1961).
- Vol. 23, No. 8 (September 2005)CrisisCurp, T. David. "A Necessary Bondage? When the Church Endorsed Slavery",
|Catholic Church titles|
3 March 1431 – 23 February 1447