In lysosomes in their maturation process, forming phagolysosomes.

Some bacterial pathogens that enter cells inside phagosomes either reproduce inside of the formed phagolysosome (e.g. Coxiella spp.)[1] or escape into the cytoplasm before the phagosome fuses with the lysosome (e.g. Rickettsia spp.).[2] Many mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis [3] [4] and Mycobacteria avium paratuberculosis ,[5] manipulate the host macrophage to prevent nitrous acid-containing lysosomes from fusing with phagosomes and creating mature phagolysosomes. Such incomplete maturation of the phagosome maintains an environment favorable to the pathogens inside it. [6]

See also


  1. ^ Hackstadt T and Williams J C "Biochemical stratagem for obligate parasitism of eukaryotic cells by Coxiella burnetii." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1981 May; 78(5) 3240–3244.
  2. ^ Winkler H H "Rickettsia Species (As Organisms)" Annual Review of Microbiology Vol. 44: 131-153
  3. ^ MacMicking, JD; Taylor, GA; McKinney, JD (2003). "Immune control of tuberculosis by IFN-γ –inducible LRG-47". Science 302 (5645): 654–659.  
  4. ^ Vandal, OH; Pierini, LM; Schnappinger, D; Nathan, CF; Ehrt, S (August 2008). "A membrane protein preserves intrabacterial pH in intraphagosomal Mycobacterium tuberculosis". Nat Med. 14 (8): 849–854.  
  5. ^ Kuehnel, MP; Goethe R; Habermann A; Mueller E; Rohde M; Griffiths G; Valentin-Weigand P. (August 2001). "Characterization of the intracellular survival of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis: phagosomal pH and fusogenicity in J774 macrophages compared with other mycobacteria". Cell Microbiol. 3 (8): 551–566.  
  6. ^ Tessema, MZ; Koets AP; Rutten VP; Gruys E. (November 2001). "How does Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis resist intracellular degradation?". Vet Q. 23 (4): 153–162.  

External links

  • MeSH A11.