Percy Williams Bridgman
|Percy Williams Bridgman|
21 April 1882|
Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
20 August 1961
Randolph, New Hampshire, USA
|Alma mater||Harvard University|
|Doctoral advisor||Wallace Clement Sabine|
John C. Slater
John Hasbrouck Van Vleck
|Known for||High Pressure Physics|
Rumford Prize (1917)
Elliott Cresson Medal (1932)
Comstock Prize in Physics (1933)
Nobel Prize in Physics (1946)
Fellow of the Royal Society (1949)
Bingham Medal (1951)
Percy Williams Bridgman (21 April 1882 – 20 August 1961) was an American physicist who won the 1946 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the physics of high pressures. He also wrote extensively on the scientific method and on other aspects of the philosophy of science.
- Death 1.1
- Honors and awards 2
- Bibliography 3
- See also 4
- References 5
- Further reading 6
- External links 7
Bridgman entered Harvard University in 1900, and studied physics through to his Ph.D.. From 1910 until his retirement, he taught at Harvard, becoming a full professor in 1919. In 1905, he began investigating the properties of matter under high pressure. A machinery malfunction led him to modify his pressure apparatus; the result was a new device enabling him to create pressures eventually exceeding 100,000 kgf/cm2 (10 GPa; 100,000 atmospheres). This was a huge improvement over previous machinery, which could achieve pressures of only 3,000 kgf/cm2 (0.3 GPa). This new apparatus led to an abundance of new findings, including a study of the compressibility, electric and thermal conductivity, tensile strength and viscosity of more than 100 different compounds. Bridgman is also known for his studies of electrical conduction in metals and properties of crystals. He developed the Bridgman seal and is the eponym for Bridgman's thermodynamic equations.
Bridgman made many improvements to his high pressure apparatus over the years, and unsuccessfully attempted the synthesis of diamond many times.
Hollis Chair of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy
John Hasbrouck Van Vleck
- Bridgman's Nobel Prize website
- National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir
- Percy Williams Bridgman at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
- Walter, Maila L., 1991. Science and Cultural Crisis: An Intellectual Biography of Percy Williams Bridgman (1882–1961). Stanford Univ. Press.
- Nuland, Sherwin. How We Die: Reflections on Life's Final Chapter. Vintage Press, 1995. ISBN 0-679-74244-1.
- Ayn Rand Institute discussion on assisted suicide. Aynrand.org. Retrieved on 2012-01-28.
- Euthanasia Research and Guidance Organization. Assistedsuicide.org (2003-06-13). Retrieved on 2012-01-28.
- and PDF (519 KB)
- mindat.org page on bridgmanite. mindat.org. Retrieved on 2014-06-03.
- 1922. Dimensional Analysis. Yale University Press
- 1925. A Condensed Collection of Thermodynamics Formulas. Harvard University Press
- 1927. The Logic of Modern Physics. Beaufort Books. Online excerpt.
- 1934. Thermodynamics of Electrical Phenomena in Metals and a Condensed Collection of Thermodynamic Formulas. MacMillan.
- 1936. The Nature of Physical Theory. John Wiley & Sons.
- 1938. The Intelligent Individual and Society. MacMillan.
- 1941. The Nature of Thermodynamics. Harper & Row, Publishers.
- 1952. The Physics of High Pressure. G. Bell.
- 1952. Studies in large plastic flow and fracture: with special emphasis on the effects of hydrostatic pressure, McGraw-Hill
- 1959. The Way Things Are. Harvard Univ. Press.
- 1962. A Sophisticate's Primer of Relativity. Routledge & Kegan Paul.
- 1964. Collected experimental papers. Harvard University Press.
- 1980. Reflections of a Physicist. Arno Press; ISBN 0-405-12595-X
In 2014, the Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification (CNMNC) of the International Mineralogical Association (IMA) approved the name bridgmanite for perovskite-structured (Mg,Fe)SiO3, the Earth's most abundant mineral, in honor of his high-pressure research.
Bridgman received Doctors, honoris causa from Stevens Institute (1934), Harvard (1939), Brooklyn Polytechnic (1941), Princeton (1950), Paris (1950), and Yale (1951). He received the Bingham Medal (1951) from the Society of Rheology, the Rumford Prize from the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1919), the Elliott Cresson Medal (1932) from the Franklin Institute, the Gold Medal from Bakhuys Roozeboom Fund (founder Hendrik Willem Bakhuis Roozeboom) (1933) from the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Comstock Prize (1933) of the National Academy of Sciences. He was a member of the American Physical Society and was its President in 1942. He was also a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, and the National Academy of Sciences. He was a Foreign Member of the Royal Society and Honorary Fellow of the Physical Society of London.
Honors and awards
Bridgman committed suicide by gunshot after living with metastatic cancer for some time. His suicide note read in part, "It isn't decent for society to make a man do this thing himself. Probably this is the last day I will be able to do it myself." Bridgman's words have been quoted by many on both sides of the assisted suicide debate.
. Russell–Einstein Manifesto He was also one of the 11 signatories to the