Peoples of the Caucasus
By Language Group 1
- Peoples speaking Caucasic languages 1.1
- Peoples speaking Turkic languages 1.2
- Peoples speaking Indo-European languages 1.3
- Peoples speaking Semitic languages 1.4
- Kalmyk people 1.5
- By Location 2
- Gallery 3
- See also 4
- References 5
By Language Group
Peoples speaking Caucasic languages
Caucasians who speak languages which have long been indigenous to the region are generally classified into three groups: Kartvelian peoples, Northeast Caucasian peoples and Northwest Caucasian peoples.
- Avar–Andic peoples:
- Tsezic (Didoic) peoples:
- Lezgic peoples:
- Nakh peoples:
The largest peoples speaking languages which belong to the Caucasian language families and who are currently resident in the Caucasus are the Georgians (7,000,000), the Chechens (1,500,000 (according to Abkhazia's status is disputed. Other Caucasian peoples have republics within the Russian Federation: Adyghe (Adygea), Cherkess (Karachay–Cherkessia), Kabardins (Kabardino-Balkaria), Ingush (Ingushetia), Chechens (Chechnya), while other Northeast Caucasian peoples mostly live in Dagestan.
Peoples speaking Turkic languages
Caucasians that speak languages that belong to the Turkic language family:
The largest of the Turkic-speaking peoples in the Caucasus are Azerbaijanis who number 8,700,000 in the Republic of Russia (Dagestan), Turkey and previously in Armenia (before 1990). The total number of Azerbaijanis is around 35 million (25 million in Iran). Other Turkic speakers live in their administrative republics within Russian Federation: Karachays (Karachay–Cherkessia), Balkars (Kabardino-Balkaria), while Kumyks and Nogais live in Dagestan.
Peoples speaking Indo-European languages
Caucasians that speak languages that belong to the Indo-European language family:
- Pontic Greeks
- Iranian group:
- Slavic group:
Armenians number 3,215,800 in their native Kvemo Kartli, Adjara, the Tsalka, and Abkhazia). Pontic Greeks had also made up a significant component of the southern Caucasus region acquired from the Ottoman Turkish Empire (following the 1878 Treaty of San Stefano) that centred on the town of Kars (ceded back to Turkey in 1916). Russians mostly live in the Russian North Caucasus and their largest concentration is in Stavropol Krai, Krasnodar Krai, and in Adygea. Georgia and the former south Russian Caucasus province of Kars Oblast was also home to a significant minority of ethnic (Swabian) Germans, although their numbers have become depleted as a result of deportations (to Kazakhstan following WWII), immigration to Germany, and assimilation into indigenous Christian Orthodox communities.
Peoples speaking Semitic languages
Caucasians that speak languages that belong to the Semitic language family
 3500 in Armenia, up to 15,000 in southern Russia and 1400 in Azerbaijan. They are an ancient Semitic people, descendant from the ancient Mesopotamians. They are Eastern Rite Christians, mainly followers of the Assyrian Church of the East, and speak and write Mesopotamian Eastern Aramaic dialects.
There are about 15,000–30,000 Caucasus Jews (as 140,000 immigrated to Israel, and 40,000 to the US). As well as descendants of Sayyid and Siddiqui – the people with Arabian origin, but mostly assimilated by other Caucasian peoples. However, some people identify not just as Sayyid or Siddiqui with non-Arabian ethnicity, but as Arabs.
The Kalmyk people — or Kalmyks — is the name given to the Oirats, western Mongols in Russia, whose ancestors migrated from Dzhungaria in 1607. Today they form a majority in the administrative Republic of Kalmykia on the western shore of the Caspian Sea. Kalmykia has Europe's only Buddhist government.
This gives ethnic locations about 1775 before the Russians came.  All of these peoples were Sunni Muslims unless otherwise noted. In the mountains there were some pre-Islamic customs. NWCLS means Northwest Caucasian Language speakers and NECLS means Northeast Caucasian Language speakers. It should be noted that the linguistic nationalities that we now recognize are somewhat artificial. Two hundred years ago a man’s loyalty was to his friends, kin, village and chief and not primarily to his language group. The difference between steppe, mountain and plain was far more important than difference of language. Only the southern half had organized states, usually Persian or Turkish vassals and few, if any, of these states corresponded well to language groups.
Northern Lowlands: The Turkic-speaking Nogai nomads occupied almost all of the steppe north of the Caucasus. In the nineteenth century they were pushed far southeast to their present location. Formerly part of the eastern steppe was occupied by Kalmyks – Buddhist Mongols who migrated from Dzungaria about 1618. In 1771 many returned to their original homeland and they contracted to their present location in the far northeast, Nogais temporarily taking their place. In the southeast were the isolated Terek Cossacks. Their settlements later grew into the North Caucasus Line. There were a few Turkmens in the center of the steppe.
North Slope: The western two thirds was occupied by Ingush – NECLS similar to the Chechens. The numerous Chechens to the east were later to wage the long Murid War against the Russians. For the small groups south of the Ingush-Chechens see South Slope below. To the east along the coast were the Turkic Kumyks.
Mountain Dagestan: All the peoples of mountain Dagestan were NECLS except the Tats. In the northwest were a number of small language groups (Tsez people (Dido) and Andi people), similar to the Avars. To their southeast were the numerous Avars with a khanate at Khunzakh who fought in the Murid War. Southeast were the Dargwa people and west of them the Laks who held the Kumukh Khanate. Southeast along the Samur River were the Lezgian people with many subgroups and then the Iranian-speaking Tats down to Baku.
Caspian Coast: From Astrakhan to the Terek River there were the Buddhist Kalmykh nomads. Along the Terek were the isolated Terek Cossacks. From the Terek to Derbent were the Turkic-speaking Kumyks with a state at Tarki. On the coastal plain south of Derbent was a mixed population, mostly Azeri, and further south to Baku were the Iranian-speaking Tats. When Baku became a boom town the Tats retained a majority only in the mountains. The Mountain Jews, who had a number of villages inland from the coast, spoke a form of Tat. The lowlands south of Baku was held by Azeris, Turkic speaking Shiites. On both sides of the current Iranian border were the Iranian-speaking Talysh.
South Slope: Black Sea coast: In the northwest the mountains came down to the sea and the population was Circassian. Southward the coastal plain broadened and the population was Abkhazian – similar to the Circassians but under Georgian influence.
South Slope proper: On the south side of the Caucasus the mountains fall quickly to the plains and there is only a small transition zone. The inhabitants were either Georgians with mountain customs or northern mountaineers who had moved south. The Udins or southern Lezgians and Lakhij or southern Tats.
Southern Lowlands: The western two thirds were occupied by Azeri – a group of Turkic-speaking Shiites under Persian influence. On the fringe of the Georgian area were Georgian speakers who had either adopted Islam or mountain customs.
Further South the land becomes higher. In the west were the Armenians were somewhat concentrated in modern Armenia but were mostly spread out as a minority all over Asia Minor. There were groups of Azeris west of their main area who tended to blend with the Turks. The Kurds were semi-nomadic shepherds with small groups in various places and concentratiosn in Kars province and Nakhchivan. In the far southeast were the Iranian Talysh.
Pontic Greek militia fighters from the Transcaucasus region
Mountain Jews, c. 1898
Azerbaijani female from Baku (1897)
Richard Cosway's Portrait of an Armenian
Khevsur clansmen in Georgia, c. 1910
Group of Lezgi men, 1880
Mullahs at the Mosque near Batumi, c. 1910
A raid by Kurds
Groom wearing a chokha at a Tushetian wedding
- Afro Abkhazian
- North Caucasian peoples
- Languages of the Caucasus
- Peoples of the Caucasus in Turkey
- Peoples of the Caucasus in Iran
- Peoples of the Caucasus in Iraq
- Y-DNA haplogroups by populations of the Caucasus
- Homo georgicus
- European ethnic groups
- Caucasian cuisine
- Caucasian peoples, Encyclopædia Britannica
- Seferbekov, Ruslan. Characters Персонажи традиционных религиозных представлений азербайджанцев Табасарана.
- Stephen Adolphe Wurm et al. Atlas of languages of intercultural communication. Walter de Gruyter, 1996; p. 966
- The Buddhist Channel: "Peace and Harmony in Kalmykia"
- Arthur Tsutsiev and Nora Seligman Favorov (translator) Atlas of the Ethno-Political History of the Caucasus, 2014, Map 4 supplemented by Maps 12,18 and 31.