Operation Peter Pan
Operation Peter Pan (Operación Peter Pan or Operación Pedro Pan) was an exodus of children during the 1960s from Cuba when Cuban parents feared indoctrination and that the Cuban government would take away their parental authority. What is now known as Operation Pedro Pan was the largest recorded exodus of unaccompanied minors in the Western Hemisphere. It was supposedly through the works of Operation Pedro Pan Group, Inc. that the name Operation Pedro Pan became known throughout the US and the world. Approximately half of the minors were reunited with relatives or friends at the airport.
- History 1
- Aftermath 2
- In culture 3
- See also 4
- References 5
- External links 6
From December 1960 to October 1962, more than fourteen thousand Cuban youths arrived alone in the United States. More than half were cared for by the Catholic Welfare Bureau, directed by a 30-year-old Irish priest, Bryan O. Walsh. The children from the Cuban Refugee Children's Program were placed in temporary shelters in Miami, and relocated throughout 100 cities and 35 states in the United States. Each home the minors were relocated into As the numbers of children who arrived in the US increased, concern for the availability of shelters grew. Special homes, authorized state officials and operated by Cuban refugees, were formed in many major cities including Albuquerque, New Mexico, Lincoln, Nebraska, Wilmington, Delaware, Fort Wayne, Indiana, Jacksonville, and Orlando, Florida. Laws prevented any relocated children from being housed in any reform schools or centers for juvenile delinquents. As Operation Pedro Pan was originally established in order to protect the rights of Cuban parents and guardians, none of minors were adopted in the United States. 
In 1962, the US government commissioned a documentary film created for the children who came to Miami, called The Lost Apple. The film named Cuban premier Fidel Castro as being responsible for the parents' non-appearance. According to Torres, then-Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy approved making the documentary as part of the US government’s campaign against Communism.
On March 12, 1999, the United States District Court, Northern District of Illinois, Eastern Division, ruled in a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) suit filed by Prof. Maria de los Angeles Torres in 1998 that “evacuation of Cuban children turned out not to be a CIA operation at all.” This ruling was based in part on the court’s review of 733 pages of documentation provided to the Court by the C.I.A. and employed by the Court in reaching an earlier decision on December 15, 1998 that “nothing in this Court's review suggests any inappropriateness in the redactive process that has been followed by CIA.” 
All the unaccompanied Cuban minors who were part of the exodus, now popularly known as Operation Pedro Pan, call themselves "Pedro Pans" or "Peter Pans".
Amongst several famous "Peter Pans" is Miami-Dade County Circuit Judge Margarita Esquiroz came to Miami in 1962 as part of Pedro Pan. Original drummer for the heavy metal music band Slayer, Dave Lombardo, discussed how his two older brothers were Pedro Pans (and the effect it had on his family) in a 2014 interview. 
Yvonne M. Conde, also a Pedro Pan, conducted research and interviews and wrote a book titled "Operation Pedro Pan: The Untold Exodus of 14,048 Cuban Children".
Other Pedro Pans have attempted to weave their memoirs into a broader understanding of not only U.S.-Cuba relations but also Cuban Diaspora-Cuba relations. Román de la Campa's Cuba on My Mind: Journeys to a Severed Nation does this by exploring Cuba's two capitals, Havana and Miami, and the hybrid position of the "one-and-half-generation" as well as by using the Elián González affair as a cipher for understanding how adults in both countries used children to achieve the broader ideological goals of the Cold War and how those goals are faring at the so-called "end of history".
Ana Mendieta is another famous Pedro Pan refugee. She was placed in several institutions and foster homes in Iowa and returned to Cuba several times over the course of her short life to "rediscover" her cultural origins. During her visits, she established contacts with the "Volumen Uno" artists, created works in natural settings, and exhibited at the National Museum in Havana. Her work has also been showcased at the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York and at the Hirshhorn, a Smithsonian Museum, in Washington DC amongst many other International museums. Some of this information was taken from an article titled "A Tree from Many Shores" published by Art Journal.
Christina Diaz Gonzalez wrote The Red Umbrella (Knopf Young Readers, 2010), a young-adult novel fictionalizing her mother's exile from Cuba as a teenager during Pedro Pan.
- Cuban American
- Cuban diaspora
- Cuba-United States relations
- Mariel boatlift
- Opposition to Fidel Castro
- Operation Baby Lift
- Polita Grau
- List of Operation Peter Pan alumni
- Boxing For Cuba
- Pedro Pan : NPR
- Cuba on My MindFlores, Juan. "Latinos, Cubanos and the New Americanism." Foreword to
- Cuba on My Mind: Journeys to a Severed Nation
- Cuban Refugee Children by Monsignor Bryan O. Walsh
- Operation Pedro Pan - Official Site
- Operation Pedro Pan by the Miami Herald
- Operation Pedro Pan social networking site by the Miami Herald
- "Pedro Pan" from NPR's All Things Considered
- Cuban Kids in Exile: Pawns of Cold War Politics by the Chicago Sun-Times
- My Friend, the Cuban Peter Pan by Simon Kuper, The Financial Times