New York City
|New York City|
|City of New York|
|Nickname(s): See Nicknames of New York City|
Location in the State of New York
|Country||United States of America|
Province of New York
|• Body||New York City Council|
|• Mayor||Bill de Blasio (D)|
|• Total||468.9 sq mi (1,214 km2)|
|• Land||304.8 sq mi (789 km2)|
|• Water||164.1 sq mi (425 km2)|
|• Metro||13,318 sq mi (34,490 km2)|
|Elevation||33 ft (10 m)|
|• Rank||1st, U.S.|
|• Density||27,857.9/sq mi (10,756.0/km2)|
|• MSA||20,092,883 (1st)|
|• CSA||23,632,722 (1st)|
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|ZIP code(s)||100xx–104xx, 11004–05, 111xx–114xx, 116xx|
|Area code(s)||212, 347, 646, 718, 917, 929|
|GNIS feature ID||975772|
|Largest borough by area||Queens (109 sq mi/280 km2, land area)|
|Largest borough by population||Brooklyn (2,621,793 – 2014 est)|
|Website||New York City|
|Part of a series on|
|Regions of New York|
New York – often called New York City or the City of New York to distinguish it from the State of New York, of which it is a part – is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York metropolitan area, the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States and one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. A global power city, New York exerts a significant impact upon commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and entertainment, its fast pace spawning the common expression New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has been described as the cultural and financial capital of the world.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of which is a separate county of New York State. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, the Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. With a census-estimated 2014 population of 8,491,079 distributed over a land area of just 305 square miles (790 km2), New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. By 2014 census estimates, the New York City metropolitan region remains by a significant margin the most populous in the United States, as defined by both the Metropolitan Statistical Area (20.1 million residents) and the Combined Statistical Area (23.6 million residents). In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of nearly US$1.39 trillion, while in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion, both ranking first nationally by a wide margin and behind the GDP of only twelve and eleven countries, respectively.
New York City traces its roots to its 1624 founding as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626. The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a globally recognized symbol of the United States and its democracy.
Many districts and landmarks in New York City have become well known, and the city received a record 56 million tourists in 2014, hosting three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. The names of many of the city's bridges, skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, and the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 469 stations in operation. New York City's higher education network comprises over 120 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 35 in the world.
- Etymology and early history 1.1
- Modern history 1.2
- Cityscape 2.1
- Architecture 2.2
- Boroughs 2.3
- Climate 2.4
- National parks 2.5.1
- State parks 2.5.2
- City parks 2.5.3
- Military installations 2.6
- Population density 3.1
- Race and ethnicity 3.2
- Religion 3.3
- Income 3.4
- Wall Street 4.1
- Silicon Alley 4.2
- Tourism 4.3
- Media and entertainment 4.4
Human resources 5
Education and scholarly activity 5.1
- Primary education 5.1.1
- Higher education and research 5.1.2
- Public library system 5.1.3
- Public health 5.2
Public safety 5.3
- Police and law enforcement 5.3.1
- Firefighting 5.3.2
- Education and scholarly activity 5.1
Culture and contemporary life 6
- Performing arts 6.1.1
- Visual arts 6.1.2
- Cuisine 6.2
- Accent and dialect 6.3
- Sports 6.4
- Arts 6.1
Rapid transit 7.1.1
- Rail 188.8.131.52
- Buses 184.108.40.206
- Aviation 7.1.2
- Ferries 7.1.3
- Taxis, transport startups, and trams 7.1.4
Streets and highways 7.1.5
- River crossings 220.127.116.11
- Rapid transit 7.1.1
Environmental perspectives 7.2
- Environmental impact reduction 7.2.1
- Water purity and availability 7.2.2
- Environmental revitalization 7.2.3
- Transportation 7.1
Government and politics 8
- Government 8.1
- Politics 8.2
- Notable people 9
Global outreach 10
- New York City Global Partners network 10.1
- See also 11
- Notes 12
- References 13
- Further reading 14
- External links 15
Etymology and early history
During the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the geologic foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, the ice sheet would help split apart what are now Long Island and Staten Island.
In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by various bands of Algonquian tribes of Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the western portion of Long Island, including the area that would become Brooklyn and Queens; Manhattan; the Bronx; and the Lower Hudson Valley.
The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown, who sailed his ship La Dauphine into New York Harbor. He claimed the area for France and named it "Nouvelle Angoulême" (New Angoulême).
A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 aboard the purpose-built caravel "La Anunciada" and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Rio de San Antonio. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August. The first scientific map to show the North American East coast continuously, the 1527 world map known as the Padrón Real, was informed by Gomes' expedition, and labeled the Northeast as Tierra de Esteban Gómez in his honor.
In 1609, English explorer Henry Hudson re-discovered the region when he sailed his ship the Halve Maen ("Half Moon" in Dutch) into New York Harbor while searching for the Northwest Passage to the Orient for his employer the Dutch East India Company. He proceeded to sail up what he named the North River, also called the Mauritis River, and now known as the Hudson River, to the site of the present-day New York State capital of Albany in the belief that it might represent an oceanic tributary. When the river narrowed and was no longer saline, he realized it wasn't a sea passage and sailed back downriver. He made a ten-day exploration of the area and claimed the region for his employer. In 1614, the area between Cape Cod and Delaware Bay would be claimed by the Netherlands and called Nieuw-Nederland (New Netherland).
The first non-Native American inhabitant of what would eventually become New York City was Dominican trader Juan Rodriguez (transliterated to Dutch as Jan Rodrigues). Born in Santo Domingo of Portuguese and African descent, he arrived in Manhattan during the winter of 1613–1614, trapping for pelts and trading with the local population as a representative of the Dutch. Broadway, from 159th Street to 218th Street, is named Juan Rodriguez Way in his honor.
A permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 – making New York the 12th oldest continuously occupied European-established settlement in the continental United States  – with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625 construction was started on a citadel and a Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, later called New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam). The colony of New Amsterdam was centered at the site which would eventually become Lower Manhattan. The Dutch colonial Director-General Peter Minuit purchased the island of Manhattan from the Canarsie, a small band of the Lenape, in 1626 for a value of 60 guilders (about $1000 in 2006); a disproved legend says that Manhattan was purchased for $24 worth of glass beads.
In 1664, Peter Stuyvesant, the Director-General of the colony of New Netherland, surrendered New Amsterdam to the English without bloodshed. The English promptly renamed the fledgling city "New York" after the Duke of York (later King James II).
On August 24, 1673, Dutch captain Anthonio Colve took over the colony of New York from England and rechristened it "New Orange" to honor the Prince of Orange, King William III. However, facing defeat from the British and French, who had teamed up to destroy Dutch trading routes, the Dutch returned the island to England in 1674.
At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War, the English gained New Amsterdam (New York) in North America in exchange for Dutch control of Run, an Indonesian island. Several intertribal wars among the Native Americans and some epidemics brought on by contact with the Europeans caused sizable population losses for the Lenape between the years 1660 and 1670. By 1700, the Lenape population had diminished to 200.
New York experienced several yellow fever epidemics in the 18th century, losing ten percent of its population to the disease in 1702.
New York grew in importance as a trading port while under British rule in the early 1700s. It also became a center of slavery, with 42% of households holding slaves by 1730, more than any other city other than Charleston, South Carolina. Most slaveholders held a few or several domestic slaves, but others hired them out to work at labor. Slavery became integrally tied to New York's economy through the labor of slaves throughout the port, and the banks and shipping tied to the South. Discovery of the African Burying Ground in the 1990s, during construction of a new federal courthouse near Foley Square, revealed that tens of thousands of Africans had been buried in the area in the colonial years.
The trial in Manhattan of
.gov (official website)
- nycgo.com – official tourism website of New York City
- New York City at DMOZ
- Geographic data related to New York City at OpenStreetMap.
- Museum of the City of New York – online collection of 145,000 photographs of New York City
- Belden, E. Porter (1849). New York, Past, Present, and Future: Comprising a History of the City of New York, a Description of its Present Condition, and an Estimate of its Future Increase. New York: G.P. Putnam. From Google Books.
- Jackson, Kenneth T.; Dunbar, David S., eds. (2005). Empire City: New York Through the Centuries. Columbia University Press.
- Lankevich, George L. (1998). American Metropolis: A History of New York City. NYU Press.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990".
- the Mayor, New York City Office of (January 8, 2010). "Biography". New York, City of. Retrieved January 8, 2010.
- "US Board on Geographic Names".
- "American FactFinder".
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2,010 to July 1, 2,014 – Combined Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico – 2,014 Population Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 26, 2,015.
- "State & County QuickFacts – Kings County (Brooklyn Borough), New York". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places of 50,000 or More, Ranked by July 1, 2014 Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014 – United States – Places of 50,000+ Population – 2014 Population Estimates".
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2013 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2012 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2011 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
- "World's Largest Urban Areas [Ranked by Urban Area Population]". Rhett Butler. 2003–2006. Retrieved April 26, 2011.
- "Largest Cities of the World – (by metro population)". Woolwine-Moen Group d/b/a Graphic Maps. Retrieved April 26, 2011.
- "Global Power City Index 2009" (PDF). The Mori Memorial Foundation. Retrieved June 1, 2012.
Shira Poliak. "Adjusting To New York City". Sun Sentinel. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
Additionally, the fast-paced lifestyle of New York City demands adjusting.
- "Dictionary - Full Definition of NEW YORK MINUTE". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
- "United Nations Visitors Centre". United Nations. 2011. Retrieved April 26, 2011.
- "NYC Mayor's Office for International Affairs". The City of New York. Retrieved June 24, 2015.
- "Consulate General of Iceland New York Culture". Consulate General of Iceland New York. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
- "Consulate of Latvia in New York". Consulate of Latvia. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
- "Introduction to Chapter 14: New York City (NYC) Culture". The Weissman Center for International Business Baruch College/CUNY 2011. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
- "New York, Culture Capital of the World, 1940–1965 / edited by Leonard Wallock ; essays by Dore Ashton ... [et al.]". NATIONAL LIBRARY OF AUSTRALIA. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
"Top 8 Cities by GDP: China vs. The U.S.". Business Insider, Inc. July 31, 2011. Retrieved October 28, 2015.
For instance, Shanghai, the largest Chinese city with the highest economic production, and a fast-growing global financial hub, is far from matching or surpassing New York, the largest city in the U.S. and the economic and financial super center of the world.
- "PAL sets introductory fares to New York". Philippine Airlines. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
- "New York City". A&E Television Networks, LLC.
- "Port in a Storm: The Port of New York in World War II". New York State Museum. Archived from the original on April 29, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- "Boroughs of New York City". Ben Cahoon. 2002. Retrieved October 5, 2015.
- "A 5-Borough Centennial Preface for Katharine Bement Davis Mini-History". The New York City Department of Correction. 1997. Retrieved October 26, 2011.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014 – 2014 Population Estimates – New York". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 26, 2015.
- "New York City Land Use". The City of New York. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
- (U.S. Census Bureau), Table B-1, Area and PopulationCounty and City Data Book:2007US-25S&-_lang=en , Retrieved July 12, 2008.
- "Endangered Language Alliance". 2012. Retrieved September 7, 2013.
- "Linguistics- Say what?". The Economist. September 10, 2011. Retrieved May 2, 2015.
- Roberts, Sam (April 28, 2010). "Listening to (and Saving) the World's Languages". The New York Times. Retrieved April 29, 2010.
- Mark Turin (August 9, 2013). "The World's Most Linguistically Diverse Location? New York City". PopAnth. Retrieved May 2, 2015.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014 – Metropolitan Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico – 2014 Population Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 26, 2015.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014 – Combined Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico – 2014 Population Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 26, 2015.
- "Gross Metropolitan Product (GMP) of the United States in 2013, by metropolitan area (in billion current U.S. dollars)". Statista. Retrieved September 12, 2014.
- "Revised Delineations of Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Micropolitan Statistical Areas, and Combined Statistical Areas, and Guidance on Uses of the Delineations of These Areas" (PDF). Executive Office of the President – Office of Management and Budget. p. 106. Retrieved June 27, 2014.
- "U.S. Metro Economies (note CSA 2012 GMP total includes sum of New York, Bridgeport, New Haven, Allentown, Trenton, Poughkeepsie, and Kingston MSA 2012 GMP values cited)" (PDF). IHS Global Insight, The United States Conference of Mayors, and The Council on Metro Economies and the New American City. November 2013. pp. 9 through 18 in Appendix Tables. Retrieved June 27, 2014.
- "United States History – History of New York City, New York". Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York.
- "KINGSTON Discover 300 Years of New York History DUTCH COLONIES". National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "The Nine Capitals of the United States".
- "Rank by Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places, Listed Alphabetically by State: 1790–1990". U.S. Census Bureau. June 15, 1998. Retrieved February 8, 2009.
- "Statue of Liberty". A&E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
- "Statue of Liberty". World Heritage. UNESCO World Heritage Centre 1992–2011. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
- Ellen Wulfhorst, editing by Eric Beech (February 2, 2015). "New York City tourism hit record high in 2014, officials say". Thomson Reuters. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
Ann Shields (November 10, 2014). "The World's 50 Most Visited Tourist Attractions – No. 3: Times Square, New York City – Annual Visitors: 50,000,000". Travel+Leisure. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
No. 3 Times Square,...No. 4 (tie) Central Park,...No. 10 Grand Central Terminal, New York City
- DL Cade (December 27, 2013). "Google Maps Out the Most Photographed Places in the World". PetaPixel. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
- DL Cade (December 13, 2013). "Most Instagrammed Locations and Cities of 2013 Revealed, as Well as Most-Liked Photo". PetaPixel. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
- Sean O'Neill (June 12, 2011). "The 25 most photographed places on Earth". NBCNews.com. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
- Noah Remnick and Tatiana Schlossberg (August 24, 2015). "New York Today:Transforming Times Square". The New York Times. Retrieved August 25, 2015.
- "Times Square – The Official Site of Times Square". Times Square District Management Association, Inc. Retrieved August 25, 2015.
- "Times Square". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- Joshua Pramis (October 2011). "World's Most-Visited Tourist Attractions No. 1: Times Square, New York City". American Express Publishing Corporation. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
- "The Most Jivin' Streetscapes in the World". Luigi Di Serio. 2010. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "New York Architecture Images- Midtown Times Square". 2011 nyc-architecture. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "Buildings in New York City". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved June 8, 2011.
Richard Florida (March 3, 2015). "Sorry, London: New York Is the World's Most Economically Powerful City". The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
Our new ranking puts the Big Apple firmly on top.
- John Glover (November 23, 2014). "New York Boosts Lead on London as Leading Finance Center". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
- "UBS may move US investment bank to NYC". e-Eighteen.com Ltd. June 10, 2011. Retrieved February 4, 2013.
- "The Global Financial Centres Index 17" (PDF). Long Finance. March 23, 2015. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "NYSE Listings Directory". Retrieved June 23, 2014.
- "2013 WFE Market Highlights" (PDF). World Federation of Exchanges. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- "Manhattan, New York – Some of the Most Expensive Real Estate in the World Overlooks Central Park". The Pinnacle List. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
- Morgan Brennan (March 22, 2013). "The World's Most Expensive Billionaire Cities". Forbes. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
- Sarah Waxman. "The History of New York's Chinatown". Mediabridge Infosystems, Inc. Retrieved March 5, 2011.
- "Chinatown New York City Fact Sheet" (PDF). explorechinatown.com. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- Hesser, Amanda (May 2, 2001). "A Hungry Explorer in New York's 3 Chinatowns". New York Times (New York). Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- Kadet, Anne (April 18, 2014). "Metro Money: Comparing Three of New York City's Chinatowns". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- Baker, Al; Pérez-Peña, Richard (December 20, 2005). "With Terrorism Concerns in Mind, Police Prepare to Guard a Shuttered System". The New York Times. Retrieved February 17, 2012.
- "How to Ride the Subway". mta.info. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- "25 Most Extensive Metro Systems in the World". list25.com. Archived from the original on March 20, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- "NYC Subway 101". Walks of New York. Archived from the original on March 31, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- "World's best Metro Rail Systems". Aarnav. Archived from the original on January 1, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2015". ShanghaiRanking Consultancy. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- "CWUR 2015 – World University Rankings". Center for World University Rankings. Retrieved July 25, 2015.
- "Remnants of an Ice Age, The Wisconsin Ice Sheet Continues Its Journey". The City of New York. Retrieved August 8, 2015.
- Evan T. Pritchard: Native New Yorkers: the legacy of the Algonquin people of New York, p.27 (2002); ISBN 1-57178-107-2
- Rankin, Rebecca B., Cleveland Rodgers (1948). New York: The World's Capital City, Its Development and Contributions to Progress. Harper.
- Wpa Writer's Project:A Maritime History of New York, p.246;Going Coastal Productions (2004) ISBN 0-9729803-1-8
- Roberts, Sam (October 2, 2012). "Honoring a Very Early New Yorker". New York Times.
- Juan Rodriguez monograph. Ccny.cuny.edu. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
- Amanda Briney. "15 Oldest Cities in the United States". About.com. Retrieved January 3, 2015.
- Dutch Colonies, National Park Service. Accessed May 19, 2007. "Sponsored by the West India Company, 30 families arrived in North America in 1624, establishing a settlement on present-day Manhattan."
- Tolerance Park Historic New Amsterdam on Governors Island, Tolerance Park. Accessed May 12, 2007. See Legislative Resolutions Senate No. 5476 and Assembly No. 2708.
- Frederick M. Binder, David M. Reimers: All the Nations Under Heaven: An Ethnic and Racial History of New York City, p. 4;(1996)ISBN 0-231-07879-X
- 1626Pieter Schaghen Letter: "... hebben t'eylant Manhattes van de wilde gekocht, voor de waerde van 60 gulden: is groot 11000 morgen. ... "("... They have purchased the Island Manhattes from the Indians for the value of 60 guilders. It is 11,000 morgens in size ...)
- "Value of the Guilder / Euro". International Institute of Social History. Retrieved August 19, 2008.
- "Letter describing purchase by Pieter Schaghen from Dutch National Archive, The Hague, with transcription". Nnp.org. Retrieved October 28, 2010.
- Miller, Christopher L; Hamell, George R (September 1986). "A New Perspective on Indian-White Contact: Cultural Symbols and Colonial Trade". The Journal of American History (Organization of American Historians) 73 (2): 311–328.
- Homberger, Eric (2005). The Historical Atlas of New York City: A Visual Celebration of 400 Years of New York City's History. Owl Books. p. 34.
- Van Luling, Todd (April 17, 2014). "8 Things Even New Yorkers Don't Know About New York City". The Huffington Post. Retrieved September 13, 2014.
- "Native Americans". Penn Treaty Museum.
- "Gotham Center for New York City History" Timeline 1700–1800
- "The Early History of Yellow Fever" (PDF). Pedro Nogueira, Thomas Jefferson University. 2009.
- "Timeline of Yellow Fever in America". Public Broadcasting Service (PBS).
- Adele Oltman (October 24, 2005). "The Hidden History of Slavery in New York". The Nation. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- Moore, Nathaniel Fish (1876). An Historical Sketch of Columbia College, in the City of New York, 1754–1876. Columbia College. p. 8.
- Trinity Church bicentennial celebration, May 5, 1897 By Trinity Church (New York, N.Y.) p. 37
- "The People's Vote: President George Washington's First Inaugural Speech (1789)". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- Shorto, Russell (February 9, 2004). "The Streets Where History Lives".
- "An Act for the Gradual Aboliton of Negro Slavery in New York" (L. 1799, Ch. 62)
- Douglas Harper (2003). "Slavery in the North – Emancipation in New York". Retrieved February 6, 2013.
- online exhibitNew York Divided: Slavery and the Civil War, New-York Historical Society, (November 17, 2006 to September 3, 2007, physical exhibit), accessed May 10, 2012
- Leslie M. Harris, "African Americans in New York City, 1626–1863", Department of History, Emory University
- Ira Rosenwaike (1972). Population History of New York City, p.55.
- Bridges, William (1811). Map Of The City Of New York And Island Of Manhattan With Explanatory Remarks And References.; Lankevich (1998), pp. 67–68.
- Mushkat, Jerome Mushkat (1990). Fernando Wood: A Political Biography. Kent State University Press. p. 36.
- "Cholera in Nineteenth Century New York". VNY, City University of New York.
- Leslie M. Harris, "The New York City Draft Riots", excerpt from In the Shadow of Slavery: African Americans in New York City, 1626–1863, University of Chicago Press, 2003
- "The Draft in the Civil War", u-s-history.com.
- William Bryk, "The Draft Riots, Part II", New York Press blogpost, August 2, 2002.
- McPherson, James M. (2001). Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction. McGraw-Hill Education. p. 399.
- Cook, Adrian (1974). The Armies of the Streets: The New York City Draft Riots of 1863. pp. 193–195.
- The 100 Year Anniversary of the Consolidation of the 5 Boroughs into New York City at the Wayback Machine (archived October 11, 2007), New York City. Retrieved June 29, 2007
- "Cornell University Library: Triangle Factory Fire". Cornell University. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- Ira Rosenwaike (1972).Population History of New York City, p.78.
- "New York Urbanized Area: Population & Density from 1800 (Provisional)". Demographia.com. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
- Allen, Oliver E. (1993). "Chapter 9: The Decline". The Tiger – The Rise and Fall of Tammany Hall. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
- Burns, Ric (August 22, 2003). "The Center of the World – New York: A Documentary Film (Transcript)". PBS. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "Workforce Diversity The Stonewall Inn, National Historic Landmark National Register Number: 99000562". National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
- National Park Service (2008). "Workforce Diversity: The Stonewall Inn, National Historic Landmark National Register Number: 99000562". US Department of Interior. Retrieved June 23, 2014.
- "Obama inaugural speech references Stonewall gay-rights riots". North Jersey Media Group. January 21, 2013. Retrieved June 23, 2014.
- Allan Tannenbaum. "New York in the 70s: A Remembrance". The Digital Journalist. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- Christopher Effgen (September 11, 2001). "New York Crime Rates 1960–2009". Disastercenter.com. Retrieved October 28, 2010.
- "Missing Doctor Added to List of 9/11 Victims". TWO SL LLC, New York, NY. Associated Press. July 2008. Retrieved February 21, 2013.
- "Project Updates: World Trade Center Transportation Hub". Lower Manhattan Construction Command Center. Retrieved June 1, 2012.
- Katia Hetter (November 12, 2013). "It's official: One World Trade Center to be tallest U.S. skyscraper". CNN. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
- "New York City Skyscraper Diagram". Skyscraper Source Media. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
- "World Skyscraper Construction 2013". Skyscraper Source Media. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
- Laura Matthews (April 30, 2012). "One World Trade Center On Top As Tallest Building In New York City". The International Business Times. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
- Benjamin Lesser (April 30, 2012). "It's official: 1 World Trade Center is now New York's tallest skyscraper". Daily News. New York. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
- "OccupyWallStreet – About". The Occupy Solidarity Network, Inc. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- Washington, D.C. is 228 miles (367 km) driving distance from New York, and Boston is 217 miles (349 km) driving distance from New York. – Google Maps
- "Information About the Hudson River Estuary". Life.bio.sunysb.edu. Retrieved August 20, 2011.
- Berger, Joseph (July 19, 2010). "Reclaimed Jewel Whose Attraction Can Be Perilous". New York Times. Retrieved July 21, 2010.
- Gillespie, Angus K. (1999). Twin Towers: The Life of New York City's World Trade Center. Rutgers University Press. p. 71.
- Lopate, Phillip (2004). Waterfront: A Walk Around Manhattan. Anchor Press.
- "NYC Profile" (PDF). New York City Department of City Planning. Retrieved May 22, 2008.
- Roberts, Sam (May 22, 2008). "It's Still a Big City, Just Not Quite So Big". The New York Times. Retrieved May 22, 2008.
- Lundrigan, Margaret (2004). Staten Island: Isle of the Bay, NY. Arcadia Publishing. p. 10.
- Howard, David (2002). Outside Magazine's Urban Adventure New York City. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 35.
- "As One World Trade Center soars, so do its costs". msnbc.com. Retrieved February 1, 2012.
- "Emporis Skyline Ranking". Emporis Corporation. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
- "Emporis Skyline Ranking". Emporis Corporation. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
- Fischler, Raphael (1998). "The Metropolitan Dimension of Early Zoning: Revisiting the 1916 New York City Ordinance".
- "Favorites! 100 Experts Pick Their top 10 New York Towers". The Skyscraper Museum. January 22, 2006. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- Pogrebin, Robin (April 16, 2006). "7 World Trade Center and Hearst Building: New York's Test Cases for Environmentally Aware Office Towers". The New York Times. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- Plunz, Richard A. (1990). "Chapters 3 [Rich and Poor] & 4 [Beyond the Tenement]". History of Housing in New York City: Dwelling Type and Change in the American Metropolis. Columbia University Press.
- "If You're Thinking of Living In/Riverdale, the Bronx; A Community Jealous of Its Open Space". The New York Times. March 1, 1998. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
- "New York Metro: 6 Affordable Neighborhoods". Nymag.com. September 17, 2001. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
- "If You're Thinking of Living In/Douglaston, Queens; Timeless City Area, With a Country Feel". The New York Times. February 8, 2004. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
- Lankevich (1998), pp. 82–83; Wilson, Rufus Rockwell (1902). New York: Old & New: Its Story, Streets, and Landmarks. J.B. Lippincott. p. 354.
- Elliot, Debbie (December 2, 2006). "Wondering About Water Towers". National Public Radio. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- Hood, Clifton (2004). 722 Miles: The Building of the Subways and How They Transformed New York. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 175–177.
- Jessica Robertson and Mark Petersen (July 17, 2014). "New Insight on the Nation's Earthquake Hazards". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
- Benjamin, Gerald, Richard P. Nathan (1990). Regionalism and realism: A Study of Government in the New York Metropolitan Area.
- Frazier, Ian (June 26, 2006). "Utopia, the Bronx". The New Yorker. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "Bronx Zoo Animals & Exhibits". Wildlife Conservation Society. Retrieved June 2, 2013.
- Ward, Candace (2000). New York City Museum Guide. Dover Publications. p. 72.
- Toop, David (1992). Rap Attack 2: African Rap to Global Hip Hop. Serpents Tail.
- Immerso, Michael (2002). Coney Island: The People's Playground. Rutgers University Press. p. 3.
- O'Donnell, Michelle (July 4, 2006). "In Queens, It's the Glorious 4th, and 6th, and 16th, and 25th ...". New York Times. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- Christine Kim, Demand Media. "Queens, New York, Sightseeing". USA TODAY. Retrieved July 18, 2014.
- Andrew Weber (April 30, 2013). "Queens". NewYork.com. Retrieved July 18, 2014.
- "Staten Island Greenbelt | New York-New Jersey Trail Conference". Nynjtc.org. Retrieved October 28, 2010.
- Mary Johnson (October 29, 2012). "VIDEO: Dramatic Explosion at East Village Con Ed Plant". DNAinfo.com. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
- Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L.; McMahon, T. A. "World Map of Köppen-Geiger climate classification". The University of Melbourne. Retrieved April 26, 2013.
- "New York Polonia Polish Portal in New York". NewYorkPolonia.com. Retrieved April 26, 2013.
- "New York Central Park, NY Climate Normals 1961−1990". NOAA.
- "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". Agricultural Research Center, PRISM Climate Group Oregon State University. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
- "Station Name: NY NEW YORK CNTRL PK TWR". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-13.
- "The Climate of New York". New York State Climate Office. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
- "Weatherbase New York, New York". Canty and Associates LLC. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data".
- "Monthly Weather Averages and Records for New York, NY". Weather.com. January 14, 2013. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
- Sam Dolnick (August 28, 2011). "Damage From Irene Largely Spares New York – Recovery Is Slower in New York Suburbs". The New York Times. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
- "Superstorm Sandy blamed for at least 11 U.S. deaths as it slams East Coast". CNN. October 29, 2012. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
- Jeff Stone and Maria Gallucci (October 29, 2014). "Hurricane Sandy Anniversary 2014: Fortifying New York – How Well Armored Are We For The Next Superstorm?". International Business Times. Retrieved July 23, 2015.
- Robert S. Eshelman (November 15, 2012). "ADAPTATION: Political support for a sea wall in New York Harbor begins to form". E&E Publishing, LLC. Retrieved July 23, 2015.
-  Belvedere Castle at NYC Parks
- Foderado, Lisa W. (June 5, 2013). "New York Parks Rank No. 2 in a Survey of 50 U.S. cities". The New York Times. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
- "Statue of Liberty". World Heritage. UNESCO. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
- "Discover the truly wild side of New York's metropolitan area". nps.gov. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
- "Workforce Diversity The Stonewall Inn, National Historic Landmark National Register Number: 99000562". National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved April 30, 2011.
- "Obama inaugural speech references Stonewall gay-rights riots". North Jersey Media Group Inc. January 21, 2013. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
- "New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation, New York City Region". Nysparks.state.ny.us. Retrieved October 28, 2010.
- ) Mark"2"Mayor Giuliani Announces Amount of Parkland in New York City has Passed 28,000-acre (110 km. New York City Mayor's Office. February 3, 1999. Retrieved September 1, 2008.; "Beaches". New York City Department of Parks & Recreation. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "Pelham Bay Park Virtual Tour". NYC gov http://www.nycgovparks.org. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
- "City Park Facts". The Trust for Public Land, Center for City Park Excellence. June 2006. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- Lisa W. Foderaro (October 23, 2012). "A $100 Million Thank-You for a Lifetime's Central Park Memories". The New York Times. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
- "General Information". Prospect Park Alliance. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, page 46" (PDF). Neighborhood Open Space Coalition. Retrieved April 14, 2012.
- Ladies and gentlemen, the Bronx is blooming! by Beth J. Harpaz, Travel Editor of The Associated Press (AP), June 30, 2008, Retrieved July 11, 2008
- "Map of Military Installations in the Contiguous US" (PDF). NPS.gov. Retrieved February 20, 2012.
- Jackson, Kenneth T., ed. (2010). The History of New York City, 2nd Edition. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 30.
- "The Current Population of NYC (2005)" (PDF). New York City Department of City Planning. Retrieved March 13, 2007. These figures were adopted by the U.S. Census Bureau in September 2006.
- "New York (city), New York". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau.
- "Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau.
- From 15% sample
- Rosenwaike, Ira (1972). Population History of New York City. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. p. 8.
- The Encyclopedia of New York City, ed. Kenneth T. Jackson (Yale 1995, ISBN 0-300-05536-6), page 923, citing "U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census of Population 1960 (vol.1, part A, table 28), 1970, 1980, 1990". After annexing part of the Bronx in 1874, the population of the then-New York City was 1,206,299 in 1880 and 1,515,301 in 1890.
- U.S. Census, from The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 1929 (reprinted in 1971 by American Heritage Press and Workman Publishing, ISBN 0-07-071881-4), page 503.
- Gibson, Campbell. Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States:1790 to 1990, United States Census Bureau, June 1998. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
- U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division, "Table 5. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Minor Civil Divisions in New York, Listed Alphabetically Within County: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009 (SUB-EST2009-05-36)" and "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2009 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009 (SUB-EST2009-01)", Release date: June 2010, Retrieved July 31, 2010.
- Roberts, Sam (March 24, 2011). "City Population Barely Grew in the '00s, Census Finds". The New York Times. Retrieved March 24, 2011.
- Virginia N. Sherry (March 27, 2014). "Staten Island population at all-time high of 473,000; NYC's soars to record 8.4 million". Staten Island Advance. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
- Roberts, Sam (March 14, 2013). "Fewer People Are Abandoning the Bronx, Census Data Show". New York Times. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
- "New Jersey – Place and County Subdivision GCT-PH1. Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2000". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
- "New York – County GCT-PH1. Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2000". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved October 1, 2011.
- "Population Density", Geographic Information Systems – GIS of Interest. Accessed May 17, 2007. "What I discovered is that out of the 3140 counties listed in the Census population data only 178 counties were calculated to have a population density over one person per acre. Not surprisingly, New York County (which contains Manhattan) had the highest population density with a calculated 104.218 persons per acre."
- Camille Mann and Stephanie Valera. "World's Most Crowded Islands". The Weather Channel. Retrieved June 27, 2013.
- Michael Howard Saul (March 27, 2014). "New York City Population Hits Record High". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
- Sam Roberts (March 24, 2011). "New York City's Population Barely Rose in the Last Decade, the Census Finds". The New York Times. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
- Jones, Charisse (September 24, 2008). "Ellis Island strives to tell more complete immigration story". USA Today. Retrieved July 4, 2014.
- Vivian Yee (February 22, 2015). "Indictment of New York Officer Divides Chinese-Americans". The New York Times. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
- "Chinese New Year 2012 in Flushing". QueensBuzz.com. January 25, 2012. Retrieved July 18, 2014.
- Kirk Semple (June 8, 2013). "City's Newest Immigrant Enclaves, From Little Guyana to Meokjagolmok". The New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2013.
- "The Newest New Yorkers: 2000" (PDF).
- Kirk Semple (December 18, 2013). "Immigration Remakes and Sustains City, a Report Concludes". The New York Times. Retrieved December 18, 2013.
- Joseph Goldstein (November 28, 2013). "Bangladeshis Build Careers in New York Traffic". The New York Times. Retrieved November 28, 2013.
- Kirk Semple (June 23, 2011). "Asian New Yorkers Seek Power to Match Numbers".
- "Asian American Statistics". Améredia Incorporated. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
- "State & County QuickFacts Nassau County, New York QuickLinks". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 18, 2014.
- Heng Shao (April 10, 2014). "Join The Great Gatsby: Chinese Real Estate Buyers Fan Out To Long Island's North Shore". Forbes. Retrieved August 2, 2014.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2011 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved July 18, 2014.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2013 Lawful Permanent Residents Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved July 18, 2014.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2013 Lawful Permanent Residents Supplemental Table 1". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved July 18, 2014.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2010 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
- John Marzulli (May 9, 2011). "Malaysian man smuggled illegal Chinese immigrants into Brooklyn using Queen Mary 2: authorities". New York: The New York Daily News. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
- "American Fact Finder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
- "Most Significant Unreached People Group Communities in Metro NY". GLOBAL GATES. July 17, 2012. Retrieved October 27, 2014.
- "Table SF1-P9 NYC: Total Asian Population by Selected Subgroups" (PDF). NYC.gov. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- "Queens County, New York QuickFacts". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- John Roleke. "A Growing Chinatown in Elmhurst". About.com. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- "American FactFinder – Results". U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- "Hispanic or Latino by Type: 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- "American FactFinder – Results". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- "A Community of Many Worlds: Arab Americans in New York City". Allied Media Corp. Retrieved October 9, 2014.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2013 Lawful Permanent Residents Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
- Nadège Ragaru and Amilda Dymi. "The Albanian-American Community in the United States : A Diaspora Coming to Visibility" (PDF). Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- Gary J. Gates, PhD. "Same-sex Couples and the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Population: New Estimates from the American Community Survey" (PDF). The Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation. Retrieved December 7, 2013.
- Brian Silverman and Kelsy Chauvin (2013). "Frommer's New York City 2013". Frommer – Google Books. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
- Ian Gordon, Tony Travers, and Christine Whitehead, London School of Economics and Political Science (July 2007). "The Impact of Recent Immigration on the London Economy" (PDF). The City of London Corporation. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2011 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved April 26, 2012.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2010 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved April 26, 2012.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2009 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved April 26, 2012.
- "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data Geography: New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA". Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data Geography: United States". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- Kirk Semple (June 23, 2011). "Asian New Yorkers Seek Power to Match Numbers". The New York Times. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- "ACS Demographics and Housing Estimates – 2013 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 18, 2014.
- "Persons Obtaining Lawful Permanent Resident Status by Leading Core Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs) of Residence and Region and Country of Birth: Fiscal Year 2013". United States Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved March 6, 2015.
- Nicholas Confessore and Michael Barbaro (June 24, 2011). "New York Allows Same-Sex Marriage, Becoming Largest State to Pass Law". The New York Times Company. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- Major U.S. metropolitan areas differ in their religious profiles, Pew Research Center, Accessed July 30, 2015.
- "World Jewish Population". SimpleToRemember.com – Judaism Online. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- "Jewish Community Study of New York: 2011 Comprehensive Report" (PDF). UJA-Federation of New York. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- Simone Weichselbaum (June 26, 2012). "Nearly one in four Brooklyn residents are Jews, new study finds". New York Daily News. Retrieved May 30, 2013.
- Marc Santora and Sharon Otterman (March 4, 2015). "New York City Adds 2 Muslim Holy Days to Public School Calendar". The New York Times. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
- Simone Weichselbaum (June 26, 2012). "Nearly one in four Brooklyn residents are Jews, new study finds". New York Daily News. Retrieved May 30, 2013.
- "Inequality" (PDF). harvard.edu. page 2, introduction. Retrieved March 30, 2014.
- "County Employment and Wages Summary". Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. September 18, 2014. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "The 20 Cities Where The Most Billionaires Live".
- "Mumbai sixth among top 10 global cities on billionaire count".
- "Which cities do the world's millionaires and billionaires live in?".
- "The World's Billionaires – Michael Bloomberg". Forbes. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
- Gregory Wallace (August 4, 2014). "Want to meet a millionaire? Here's where to go". CNN. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
- Julie Shapiro (January 11, 2012). "Downtown Baby Boom Sees 12 Percent Increase in Births". DNAinfo New York. Retrieved August 4, 2013.
- Fortune, Volume 167, Number 7 (May 20, 2013), page F-44
- Richard Florida (May 8, 2012). "What Is the World's Most Economically Powerful City?". The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
- Strunsky, Steve (August 5, 2014). "Port reports record container volume for first half of 2014". The Star-Ledger. Retrieved December 5, 2014.
- 500 web site (cities)Fortune, retrieved July 21, 2011; Fortune, Vol. 163, no. 7 (May 23, 2011), page F-45
- Wylde, Kathryn (January 23, 2006). "Keeping the Economy Growing". Gotham Gazette. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- Simon Kennedy (April 13, 2014). "Beijing Breaks Into Top Ten in Rankings by A.T. Kearney". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved April 13, 2014.
- Michelle Kaske (March 12, 2012). "New York City Tops Global Competitiveness, Economist Report Says". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved March 13, 2012.
- Walls, Jacqueline (April 8, 2013). "American Cities of the Future 2013–14". fDiIntelligence.com. Retrieved August 5, 2013.
- "Department of Finance Publishes Fiscal Year 2015 Tentative Assessment Roll" (PDF). New York City Department of Finance. January 15, 2014. Retrieved January 23, 2014.
- Quirk, James. "Bergen offices have plenty of space". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007., The Record (Bergen County), July 5, 2007. Accessed July 5, 2007. "On Monday, a 26-year-old, 33-story office building at 450 Park Ave. sold for a stunning $1,589 per square foot, or about ,10 million. The price is believed to be the most ever paid for a U.S. office building on a per-square-foot basis. That broke the previous record—set four weeks earlier—when 660 Madison Ave. sold for $1,476 a square foot."
- Erin Carlyle (October 8, 2014). "New York Dominates 2014 List of America's Most Expensive ZIP Codes". Forbes. Retrieved October 9, 2014.
- "Definition of Metonymy". Chegg, Inc. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
- Jennifer Fermino (February 7, 2014). "Mayor de Blasio announces $3M in grants for New York City's fashion industry". New York Daily News. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- Catherine Yang (July 19, 2014). "The Garment District, Brooklyn Style". Epoch Times. Retrieved October 27, 2014.
- "More Than a Link in the Food Chain" (PDF). The Mayor's Office for Industrial and Manufacturing Business. February 2007. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- Hilary Potkewitz (November 17, 2014). Chocolate district' in the making in Brooklyn"'". Crain Communications Inc. Retrieved December 15, 2014.
- "Godiva Chocolatier INC. Company Information". Hoover's Inc. Retrieved January 9, 2015.
- Thomas P. DiNapoli (New York State Comptroller) and Kenneth B. Bleiwas (New York State Deputy Comptroller) (October 2013). "The Securities Industry in New York City" (PDF). Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- Ambereen Choudhury, Elisa Martinuzzi & Ben Moshinsky (November 26, 2012). "London Bankers Bracing for Leaner Bonuses Than New York". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- Sanat Vallikappen (November 10, 2013). "Pay Raises for Bank Risk Officers in Asia Trump New York". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- "DiNapoli: Wall Street Bonuses Edge Up in 2014". Office of the New York State Comptroller. March 11, 2015. Retrieved July 15, 2015.
- McKinsey & Company and the New York City Economic Development Corporation. "Sustaining New York's and the US' Global Financial Services Leadership" (PDF). City of New York. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
- "Total debt securities" (PDF).
- David Enrich, Jacob Bunge, and Cassell Bryan-Low (July 9, 2013). "NYSE Euronext to Take Over Libor". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
- Saabira Chaudhuri (September 15, 2014). "Ranking the Biggest U.S. Banks: A New Entrant in Top 5". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
- "What is an office condominium?". Rudder Property Group. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
- "Understanding The Manhattan Office Space Market". Officespaceseeker.com. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- "Marketbeat United States CBD Office Report 2Q11" (PDF). Cushman & Wakefield, Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 8, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- Karim Lahlou. "Startups move to co-shared offices amid high real estate prices". The Midtown Gazette. Retrieved August 20, 2014.
- Megan Rose Dickey and Jillian D'Onfro (October 24, 2013). "SA 100 2013: The Coolest People In New York Tech". Business Insider. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- "Regional Aggregate Data". National Venture Capital Association. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
- "Telecommunications and Economic Development in New York City: A Plan for Action" (PDF). New York City Economic Development Corporation. March 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 7, 2008. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- Ivan Pereira (December 10, 2013). "City opens nation's largest continuous Wi-Fi zone in Harlem". amNewYork/Newsday. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- Jon Brodkin (June 9, 2014). "Verizon will miss deadline to wire all of New York City with FiOS". Condé Nast. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- S3 Partners (January 8, 2015). "5 signs NYC's tech scene is growing up – NYC tech sector hits 300,000". New York Daily News. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
- Jillian Eugenios, Steve Hargreaves and Aimee Rawlins (October 7, 2014). "The most innovative cities in America". CNNMoney. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- Richard Pérez-Peña (December 19, 2011). "Cornell Alumnus Is Behind $350 Million Gift to Build Science School in City". The New York Times. Retrieved August 1, 2014.
- Ju, Anne (December 19, 2011). Game-changing' Tech Campus Goes to Cornell, Technion"'". Cornell University. Retrieved August 1, 2014.
- Morris, Keiko (July 28, 2014). "Wanted: Biotech Startups in New York City: The Alexandria Center for Life Science Looks to Expand". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 1, 2014.
- "NYC The Official Guide nycgo.com – nyc statistics". NYC & Company, Inc. Retrieved January 22, 2012.
- Interview with Milton Glaser, The Believer. Accessed July 8, 2015.
- "I Love New York Logo".
- "Places To Visit In New York City". Pinterest Places To Visit In New York City. Retrieved February 14, 2015.
- Steve Hargreaves (July 15, 2015). "Visa-seeking Chinese fund giant NY Ferris wheel". CNN. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
- Jennifer Peltz, Associated Press (September 28, 2012). "NYC to get 'world's largest' Ferris wheel". NBC News. Associated Press. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
- Jessica Dailey (October 9, 2013). "Number Of Manhattan Hotel Rooms To Increase 10% In 2014". Vox Media. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
- Robert Frank (October 6, 2014). "Waldorf becomes most expensive hotel ever sold: $1.95 billion". CNBC. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
- Marc Santora (February 26, 2014). "Four Marvel TV Shows to Film in New York". The New York Times. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
- "The 2013 Report Presented by the NYC Mayor's Office of Media and Entertainment" (PDF). The City of New York Mayor's Office of Media and Entertainment. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- "New York Film Academy, New York City". New York Film Academy. Retrieved February 8, 2012.
- "Request for Expressions of Interest" (PDF). The Governors Island Preservation & Education Corporation. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 2, 2008. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- "AICP Staff & National Offices". Association of Independent Commercial Producers. Retrieved February 8, 2012.
- Nick Goundry (Jun 6, 2014). "New York half-year location filming surpasses record for whole of 2013". Location Guide. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
- Nick Goundry (Jun 25, 2014). "New York surpasses Los Angeles for TV drama pilot filming". Location Guide. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
- "Tampa Bay 12th Largest Media Market Now" (Press release). Tampa Bay Partnership. August 26, 2006. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- Top 10 Consolidated Agency Networks: Ranked by 2006 Worldwide Network Revenue, Advertising Age Agency Report 2007 Index (April 25, 2007). Retrieved June 8, 2007.
- "Media and Entertainment". New York City Economic Development Corporation. Archived from the original on January 28, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "New York Daily News (American newspaper)". Britannica.com. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
- Allan Nevins, The Evening Post: Century of Journalism, Boni and Liveright, 1922, page 17.
- "Ethnic Press Booms In New York City". Editor & Publisher. July 10, 2002. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "el Diario/La Prensa: The Nation's Oldest Spanish-Language Daily". New America Media. July 27, 2005. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "NYC Media". Nyc.gov. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
- "Community Celebrates Public Access TV's 35th Anniversary". Mnn.org. Retrieved October 28, 2010.
- "Top 30 Public Radio Subscribers: Spring 2006 Arbitron" (PDF). Radio Research Consortium. August 28, 2006. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- Wienerbronner, Danielle (November 9, 2010). "Most Beautiful College Libraries". TheHuffingtonPost.com. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- "New York City Department of Education – About Us". The New York City Department of Education. 2014. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- "The New York City Charter School Center". Retrieved April 16, 2015.
- "Private School Universe Survey". National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "The City University of New York". Retrieved August 24, 2014.
- McGeehan, Patrick (August 16, 2006). "New York Area Is a Magnet For Graduates". The New York Times. Retrieved March 27, 2007.
- "Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg and Economic Development Corporation President Andrew M. Alper Unveil Plans to Develop Commercial Bioscience Center in Manhattan" (Press release). New York City Economic Development Corporation. November 18, 2004. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- Blair Horner, Arthur Levin, and Suzanne Mattei, with contributions from Casey Ciceron (August 2014). "The Doctor Is In: New York's Increasing Number of Doctors – p.13, Appendix 1: Comparison Of The Numbers Of New York Doctors By County, As Of 12/31/2004 And 12/31/2012" (PDF). Retrieved August 22, 2014.
- "Nation's Largest Libraries". LibrarySpot. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "NewYork–Presbyterian". Retrieved August 12, 2014.
- "HHC Website".
- "The History of New York City's Municipal Hospitals,". HHC Foundation.
- "Answers.com, New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation". Answers.com. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- "Metroplus". MetroPlus. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- "HHC, Answers.com". Answers.com. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- "Funding Universe Web Site". Funding Universe. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- "CEO of Chicago Public Hospitals to Take the Helm of HHC". WNYC. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- "Bureau of Justice Statistics – Appendix Table 1 – page 34" (PDF). U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved December 5, 2013.
- Anthony M. Destefano (June 14, 2013). "NYC The Safest Big City In The Country? FBI Crime Stats Mixed". The Huffington Post (source Newsday). Retrieved October 24, 2013.
- Arthur Prager, "Worst-Case Scenario", American Heritage, February/March 2006.
- "Don't Tell New York, But Crime Is Going Up". Lib.jjay.cuny.edu. Retrieved August 20, 2011.
- Langan, Patrick A.; Matthew R. Durose (October 21, 2004). "The Remarkable Drop in Crime in New York City" (PDF). Istituto Nazionale di Statistica. Retrieved February 8, 2009.
- Fewer Killings in 2007, but Still Felt in City's Streets, The New York Times, January 1, 2008. Retrieved June 21, 2009.
- "The Color of Murder and Gun Violence in New York". The Washington Post. November 10, 2010
- "NYPD Stop And Frisks: 15 Shocking Facts About A Controversial Program". Huffington Post. May 15, 2012. Retrieved December 24, 2013.
- "Stop-and-Frisk Campaign: About the Issue". NYCLU. Retrieved December 24, 2013.
- "NYPD Stop and Frisk". Huffington Post. Retrieved December 24, 2013.
- "Livingstone to follow methods of the NYPD". Telegraph. January 17, 2001.
- "Staying a beat ahead of crime". Theage.com.au. November 5, 2002.
- Johnson, Bruce D., Andrew Golub, Eloise Dunlap (2006). "The Rise and Decline of Hard Drugs, Drug Markets, and Violence in Inner-City New York". In Blumstein, Alfred, Joel Wallman. The Crime Drop in America. Cambridge University Press.
- Joel N. Shurkin (February 13, 2013). "Mystery Of New York's Falling Crime Rate Remains Unsolved". American Institute of Physics. Retrieved July 5, 2015.
- Drum, Kevin (January–February 2013). "America's Real Criminal Element: Lead". Mother Jones. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
- Andrew W. Lehren and Christine Hauser (July 2, 2009). "In New York City, Fewer Murders on Rainy Days". The New York Times. Retrieved July 5, 2015.
- "Youth Gangs". Gotham Gazette. March 5, 2001.
- Sean Gardiner; Pervaiz Shallwani (February 18, 2014). "NY Crime – Mafia Is Down—but Not Out – Crime Families Adapt to Survive, Lowering Profile and Using Need-to-Know Tactics". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
- "9 Metrotech Center – FDNY Headquarters". Fresh Meadow Mechanical Corp. Retrieved on November 5, 2009.
- "FDNY Fire Academy". The City of New York. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- "Speeches: Tom Christopher Exhibit Opening" (Press release). Consulate General of the United States: Frankfurt, Germany. May 9, 2007. Archived from the original on July 23, 2007. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "Harlem in the Jazz Age". New York Times. February 8, 1987. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
- "ART; A 1920's Flowering That Didn't Disappear". NY Times. May 24, 1998. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
- "Harlem Renaissance Music in the 1920s". http://www.1920s-fashion-and-music.com. Retrieved June 1, 2012.
- "Will Gentrification Spoil the Birthplace of Hip-Hop? – New York". NY Times. May 21, 2007. Retrieved June 1, 2012.
- Harrington, Joe S. Sonic Cool: The Life & Death of Rock 'N' Roll. pp. 324–30. 2002. Hal-Leonard. USA.
- "Survival of the Streets". Vice. Retrieved June 1, 2012.
- "capital". Dictionary.com. Retrieved July 10, 2011.
- "Free To Dance – About The Film". Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved July 10, 2011.
- "Group Visits". Alvin Ailey Dance Foundation, Inc. Retrieved July 10, 2011.
- Bradford, Julie (2014). Fashion Journalism. Routledge. p. 129. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
- Dillon, Susan (2011). The Fundamentals of Fashion Management. A&C Black. p. 115. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
- "New York retakes Top Global Fashion Capital Title from London, edging past Paris". Languagemonitor.com. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- "Creative New York" (PDF). Center for an Urban Future. December 2005. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- Welsh, Anne Marie (June 6, 2004). "2 plays + 9 nominations=good odds for locals". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- McBeth, VR. "The Great White Way" on TimesSquare.com. Quote: "Coined in 1901 by O.J. Gude, the designer of many prominent advertising displays, to describe the new light show that beckoned along Broadway, The Great White Way is a phrase known worldwide to describe Broadway's profusion of theaters in Times Square."
- Tell, Darcy. Times Square spectacular: lighting up Broadway New York: HarperCollins, 2007
- Allen, Irving Lewis. The City in Slang: New York Life and Popular Speech. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Quote: "By 1910, the blocks of Broadway just above 42nd Street were at the very heart of the Great White Way. The glow of Times Square symbolized the center of New York, if not of the world."
- "Broadway Calendar-Year Statistics". The Broadway League. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- "About Summer Stage". City Parks Foundation. Retrieved June 14, 2012.
- "The Metropolitan Museum of Art General Information". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved September 10, 2012.
- "Museum Mile Festival". Official site. Retrieved August 23, 2014.
- Kusisto, Laura (October 21, 2011). "Reaching High on Upper 5th Avenue".
- "Museums on the Mile". Archived from the original on January 1, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2014.
- Sewell Chan (February 9, 2007). "Museum for African Art Finds its Place".
- "'"New Drive Promoting 5th Ave.'s 'Museum Mile.
- Strand, Oliver (July 5, 2011). "Brooklyn Market: Woodstock of Eating". The New York Times. Retrieved May 29, 2013.
- Bleyer, Jennifer (May 14, 2006). "Kebabs on the Night Shift". The New York Times. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
- "27,479 restaurants selected by the Michelin Guide – Top Destinations". Michelin. Retrieved August 24, 2014.
- "Restaurant Inspection Results (Letter Grades)". The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Retrieved January 19, 2014.
- Newman, Michael (2005). "New York Talk". In Wolfram, Walt; Ward, Ben. American Voices. Blackwell. pp. 82–87.
- Sontag, Deborah (February 14, 1993). "Oy Gevalt! New Yawkese An Endangered Dialect?".
- World's Largest Marathons, Association of International Marathons and Road Races (AIMS). Retrieved June 28, 2007.
- "National Football League Company Information". Hoover's, Inc. Retrieved May 18, 2013.
- "Major League Baseball Company Information". Hoover's, Inc. Retrieved May 18, 2013.
- "National Basketball Association, Inc. Company Information". Hoover's, Inc. Retrieved May 18, 2013.
- "National Hockey League Company Information". Hoover's, Inc. Retrieved May 18, 2013.
- "Major League Soccer, L.L.C. Company Information". Hoovers, Inc. Retrieved May 18, 2013.
- Esteban (October 27, 2011). "11 Most Expensive Stadiums In The World". Total Pro Sports. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- Inning 7: The Capital of BaseballBaseball: A Film by Ken Burns; (Television Documentary). PBS.
- "New York Mets – TeamReport". Chicago Tribune. May 30, 2012. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
- "2000S". Newyork Yankees. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
- "New York Yankees: Facts, History, Stats, and Resources". The free sources. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
- "How Mets, Colt .45s Grew Up To Beat The Bullies". Chicago Tribune. October 8, 1986. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
- "Dodgers Timeline". Los Angeles Dodgers. Retrieved September 22, 2008.
- "Historical Moments". Dodgers Giants. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
- "Major League Baseball, Police Athletic League and the Brooklyn Cyclones to host free MLB Umpire Camp". MLB Press Release. May 30, 2012. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
- "New ownership group for Staten Island Yankees talks about future plans". Silive. May 31, 2012. Retrieved May 17, 2012.
- "Preparations Different for a Home-and-Home Contest". New York Times. December 22, 2011. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
"Owners warm up to New York/New Jersey as Super Bowl XLVIII host". NFL.com. Associated Press. May 26, 2010. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
It's the first time the league has gone to a cold-weather site that doesn't have a dome ... the NFL will wait and see how this foray into the great outdoors in winter goes. Then the league might OK another bid
- "Islanders Moving to Brooklyn". October 24, 2012. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
- Anderson, Dave (May 14, 1995). "Sports of The Times; At Boston Garden, There's Much More Gold Than Green".
- "Devils' dance with Kings in Stanley Cup Finals gives Newark a spotlight". Nj.com. May 31, 2012. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
- "Postseason Overview". National Invitation Tournament. Archived from the original on July 24, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- Associated Press, Fox Sports Interactive Media (May 21, 2013). "Man City, Yankees to own MLS club". Retrieved May 21, 2013.
- "Picture-perfect opening for $200M Red Bull Arena in Harrison".
- "US Open 2015". United States Tennis Association. Retrieved July 6, 2015.
- "Boxer Johnny Tapia's 'crazy life' ends". CNN. May 31, 2012. Retrieved May 28, 2012.
- Sas, Adrian (Producer) (2006). It's my Park: Cricket (TV-Series). New York City:
- "The MTA Network: Public Transportation for the New York Region". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- Pisarski, Alan (October 16, 2006). "Commuting in America III: Commuting Facts" (PDF). Transportation Research Board. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- "Service Hours". MTR. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
- "Tsuen Wan Line". TravelChinaGuide.com. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
- "Train Time Table – Search station".
- "Subway map". Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
- Emma G. Fitzsimmons (April 20, 2015). "New York Subway Use Rose in 2014, Especially in Growing Neighborhoods". The New York Times. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
- Les Christie (June 29, 2007). "New Yorkers are Top Transit Users". CNNMoney.com. Retrieved January 2, 2008.
- "NHTS 2001 Highlights Report, BTS03-05" (PDF). U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics. 2001. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "New York Has Longest Commute to Work in Nation, American Community Survey Finds". December 2004. Archived from the original on March 13, 2008. Retrieved March 15, 2008.
Rachel Weinberger, John Kaehny, Matthew Rufo (2010). "U.S. Parking Policies: An Overview of Management Strategies" (PDF). Institute for Transportation and Development Policy. p. 62. Retrieved June 11, 2011.
New York City is the largest, densest and most transit- and pedestrian-oriented city in the United States. It is the only U.S. city in which a majority of households do not have a car. Despite this, New York City is very much an American city in the way it under prices and under uses curbside parking meters. Meter rates are far lower than in other leading world cities, and New York suffers from high levels of cruising and double parking (p 62) ... Nationally 90% of households own automobiles. New Yorkers own fewer at 48% with only 22% of Manhattan residents owning automobiles (page 78)
- "New York City's Green Dividend". CEOs for Cities. Retrieved January 26, 2012.
- Erin Durkin (January 20, 2015). "Andrew Cuomo announces $450M plan to build AirTrain connecting LaGuardia Airport to the subway". NYDailyNews.com. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- Honan, Katie. "Cuomo Announces AirTrain to LaGuardia Airport from Subway, LIRR". DNAinfo. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
- "National Fact Sheet Fiscal Year 2013" (PDF). Amtrak. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
- Verena Dobnik (February 7, 2013). "NYC Transit Projects: East Side Access, Second Avenue Subway, And 7 Train Extension (PHOTOS)". Huffington Post. Retrieved August 15, 2014.
- "Architect Chosen for Planned Office Tower Above Port Authority Bus Terminal's North Wing" (Press release).
- "Top 100 Transit Bus Fleets, page 4" (PDF). Metro Magazine. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
- "2012 Airport Traffic Report" (PDF). The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- "2011 Year-to-date International Passenger Traffic (as of December 2011)". Airports Council International. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- Steve Strunsky (May 31, 2012). "Stewart International Airport upgrade approved as Port Authority aims to increase passenger traffic". New Jersey On-Line LLC. Retrieved July 30, 2012.
- Patrick McGeehan (July 27, 2015). "La Guardia Airport to Be Overhauled by 2021, Cuomo and Biden Say". The New York Times. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
- "The Staten Island Ferry". SIFerry.com. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
- "The State of the NYC Taxi" (PDF). New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission. March 9, 2006. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "The Myths and Metaphors of Music and Dance Singin' in the Rain". Hofstra University. Retrieved February 6, 2012.
- Richard Nordquist. "Grammar & Composition metonymy". About.com. Retrieved February 6, 2012.
- "Metonymy vs Synecdoche". 2012 Buzzle.com. Retrieved February 6, 2012.
- George Washington Bridge turns 75 years old: Huge flag, cake part of celebration,
- "Longest Suspension Bridges in the World". Pearson Education. Retrieved September 7, 2012.
- "Verrazano-Narrows Bridge". Eastern Roads. Retrieved September 7, 2012.
- New York Harbor Video – How the Earth Was Made. HISTORY.com. Retrieved on April 12, 2014.
- "Port Authority of New York and New Jersey – George Washington Bridge". The Port Authority of New York & New Jersey. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- Bod Woodruff, Lana Zak, and Stephanie Wash (November 20, 2012). "GW Bridge Painters: Dangerous Job on Top of the World's Busiest Bridge". ABC News. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- New York Architecture Images-Manhattan Bridge. Nyc-architecture.com (December 31, 1909). Retrieved on April 12, 2014.
- New York Architecture Images. Nyc-architecture.com. Retrieved on April 12, 2014.
- "Lincoln Tunnel Historic Overview". Eastern Roads. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- Holland Tunnel (I-78). Nycroads.com. Retrieved on April 12, 2014.
- "Holland Tunnel". National Historic Landmark Quicklinks.
- "Queens-Midtown Tunnel Historic Overview". Eastern Roads. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- "President the 'First' to Use Midtown Tube; Precedence at Opening Denied Hundreds of Motorists", The New York Times, November 9, 1940. p. 19.
- "Mayor de Blasio Commits to 80 Percent Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by 2050, Starting with Sweeping Green Buildings Plan". City of New York. Retrieved October 31, 2014.
- Newman, Andy (July 27, 2010). "Appeals Court Rejects Effort to Create Hybrid Taxi Fleet". New York Times. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
- "Bicycling in New York City: Know the Facts". Transportation Alternatives. Retrieved October 31, 2014.
- Jervey, Ben (2006). The Big Green Apple: Your Guide to Eco-Friendly Living in New York City. Globe Pequot Press.
- "2001 National Household Travel Survey: Summary of Travel Trends" (PDF). U.S. Department of Transportation. December 2004. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- Richard Florida, The Atlantic (April 7, 2015). "2015's Most Walkable U.S. Cities". MSN. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
- "NYC tops list of most walkable cities in America – video narrative by Mara Montalbano". Buzz60, on MSN. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "The 10 Most Walkable U.S. Cities". MarketWatch. 2011. Retrieved July 20, 2011.
- James Hamblin (June 28, 2013). "The Summer Bicycles Took Control". The Atlantic Monthly. The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
- Pat Smith; Maurice Carroll (June 27, 2013). "New York City Voters Back Mayor's Storm Plan 4–1, Quinnipiac University Poll Finds; Slim Majority Backs Food Recycling, Bike Rentals" (PDF). Quinnipiac University Poll. Quinnipiac University. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
- "NYC In-Season Cycling Indicator, page 3" (PDF). City of New York. Retrieved October 31, 2014.
- "Current Reservoir Levels". New York City Department of Environmental Protection. Retrieved August 15, 2014.
- Lustgarten, Abrahm (August 6, 2008). "City's Drinking Water Feared Endangered; $10B Cost Seen". The New York Sun. Retrieved August 9, 2008.
- David W. Dunlap (July 23, 2014). "Quiet Milestone in Project to Bring Croton Water Back to New York City". The New York Times. Retrieved August 20, 2014.
- Matt Flegenheimer (October 16, 2013). "After Decades, a Water Tunnel Can Now Serve All of Manhattan". The New York Times. Retrieved August 15, 2014.
- Navarro, Mireya (September 27, 2010). "Newtown Creek Is Declared a Superfund Site".
- "Newtown Creek Clean-Up Efforts". The City Concealed. Thirteen (WNET.org). December 12, 2008. Retrieved June 29, 2009.
- "Forms of Municipal Government". National League of Cities. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
- "About the Council". New York City Council. Archived from the original on December 8, 2007. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
- Sewell Chan and Jonathan P. Hicks (October 23, 2008). "Council Votes, 29 to 22, to Extend Term Limits". The New York Times. Retrieved February 13, 2012.
- Gibson, Ellen M.; Manz, William H. (2004). Gibson's New York Legal Research Guide (PDF) (3rd ed.). Wm. S. Hein Publishing. pp. 450,458,473.
- Durkin, Erin (May 26, 2014). "Councilman Ben Kallos wants city to publish government notices on its website".
- Michael Barbaro and David W. Chen (November 5, 2013). "De Blasio Is Elected New York City Mayor". The New York Times. Retrieved November 6, 2013.
- "NYSVoter Enrollment by County, Party Affiliation and Status" (PDF). New York State Board of Elections. November 2008. Retrieved February 8, 2009.
- "2006 Election Overview: Top Zip Codes". Opensecrets.org. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "A Fair Share of State Budget: Does Albany Play Fair with NYC?". New York City Finance Division. March 11, 2005. Archived from the original on May 25, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "NYC's Partner Cities". The City of New York. Retrieved March 26, 2015.
- "K1084-2011: Recognizing Yunnan Province and Chongqing Municipality of the People's Republic of China as a "Sister City" with New York City". New York State Senate. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- "KL's Sister Cities". poskod.my. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- "(Israel) Sister Cities". Tel Aviv. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
- Official weather observations for Central Park were conducted at the Arsenal at Fifth Avenue and 64th Street from 1869 to 1919, and at Belvedere Castle since 1919.
(Mexico, Central America, and Caribbean)
- Amsterdam, Netherlands
- Antwerp, Belgium
- Belfast, Northern Ireland
- Berlin, Germany
- Brussels, Belgium
- Dublin, Ireland
- Düsseldorf, Germany
- Edinburgh, Scotland
- Geneva, Switzerland
- Glasgow, Scotland
- Hamburg, Germany
- Heidelberg, Germany
- London, United Kingdom (2001)
- Luxembourg City, Luxembourg
- Lyon, France
- Munich, Germany
- Paris, France
- Rotterdam, Netherlands
- The Hague, Netherlands
- Bangkok, Thailand
- Beijing, People's Republic of China (1980)
- Biên Hòa, Vietnam
- Changwon, South Korea
- Chongqing, People's Republic of China
- Guangzhou, People's Republic of China
- Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
- Hong Kong, People's Republic of China
- Jakarta, Indonesia
- Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 
- Manila, Philippines
- Seoul, South Korea
- Shanghai, People's Republic of China
- Shenyang, People's Republic of China
- Singapore, Singapore
- Taipei, Taiwan
- Tokyo, Japan (1960)
New York City Global Partners network
In 2006, the Sister City Program of the City of New York, Inc. was restructured and renamed New York City Global Partners. New York City has expanded its international outreach via this program to a network of cities worldwide, promoting the exchange of ideas and innovation between their citizenry and policymakers, according to the city's website. New York's historic sister cities are denoted below by the year they joined New York City's partnership network.
New York is the most important source of John Kerry. The city has a strong imbalance of payments with the national and state governments. It receives 83 cents in services for every $1 it sends to the federal government in taxes (or annually sends $11.4 billion more than it receives back). The city also sends an additional $11 billion more each year to the state of New York than it receives back.
The Democratic Party holds the majority of public offices. As of November 2008, 67% of registered voters in the city are Democrats. New York City has not been carried by a Republican in a statewide or presidential election since President Calvin Coolidge won the five boroughs in 1924. In 2012, Democrat Barack Obama became the first presidential candidate of any party to receive more than 80% of the overall vote in New York City, sweeping all five boroughs. Party platforms center on affordable housing, education, and economic development, and labor politics are of importance in the city.
Uniquely among major American cities, New York is divided between, and is host to the main branches of, two different US district courts: the District Court for the Southern District of New York, whose main courthouse is on Foley Square near City Hall in Manhattan and whose jurisdiction includes Manhattan and the Bronx, and the District Court for the Eastern District of New York, whose main courthouse is in Brooklyn and whose jurisdiction includes Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island. The US Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and US Court of International Trade are also based in New York, also on Foley Square in Manhattan.
Each borough is coextensive with a judicial district of the state Unified Court System, of which the Criminal Court and the Civil Court are the local courts, while the New York Supreme Court conducts major trials and appeals. Manhattan hosts the First Department of the Supreme Court, Appellate Division while Brooklyn hosts the Second Department.
The Mayor and council members are elected to four-year terms. The City Council is a unicameral body consisting of 51 council members whose districts are defined by geographic population boundaries. Each term for the mayor and council members lasts four years and has a three consecutive-term limit but can resume after a four-year break. The New York City Administrative Code, the New York City Rules and the City Record are the code of local laws, compilation of regulations and official journal, respectively.
New York City has been a metropolitan municipality with a mayor-council form of government since its consolidation in 1898. The government of New York is more centralized than that of most other U.S. cities. In New York City, the central government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, libraries, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services.
Government and politics
Newtown Creek, a 3.5-mile (6-kilometer) a long estuary that forms part of the border between the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, has been designated a Superfund site for environmental clean-up and remediation of the waterway's recreational and economic resources for many communities. One of the most heavily used bodies of water in the Port of New York and New Jersey, it had been one of the most contaminated industrial sites in the country, containing years of discarded toxins, an estimated 30 million US gallons (110,000 m3) of spilled oil, including the Greenpoint oil spill, raw sewage from New York City's sewer system, and other accumulation.
New York City is supplied with drinking water by the protected Catskill Mountains watershed. As a result of the watershed's integrity and undisturbed natural water filtration system, New York is one of only four major cities in the United States the majority of whose drinking water is pure enough not to require purification by water treatment plants. The Croton Watershed north of the city is undergoing construction of a US$3.2 billion water purification plant to augment New York City's water supply by an estimated 290 million gallons daily, representing a greater than 20% addition to the city's current availability of water. The ongoing expansion of New York City Water Tunnel No. 3, an integral part of the New York City water supply system, is the largest capital construction project in the city's history.
Water purity and availability
The city government was a petitioner in the landmark Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency Supreme Court case forcing the EPA to regulate greenhouse gases as pollutants. The city is also a leader in the construction of energy-efficient green office buildings, including the Hearst Tower among others. Mayor Bill de Blasio has committed to an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions between 2014 and 2050 to reduce the city's contributions to climate change, beginning with a comprehensive "Green Buildings" plan.
New York's high rate of public transit use, over 200,000 daily cyclists as of 2014, and many pedestrian commuters make it the most energy-efficient major city in the United States. Walk and bicycle modes of travel account for 21% of all modes for trips in the city; nationally the rate for metro regions is about 8%. In both its 2011 and 2015 rankings, Walk Score named New York City the most walkable large city in the United States. Citibank sponsored the introduction of 10,000 public bicycles for the city's bike-share project in the summer of 2013. Research conducted by Quinnipiac University showed that a majority of New Yorkers support the initiative. New York City's numerical "in-season cycling indicator" of bicycling in the city hit an all-time high in 2013.
New York City has focused on reducing its environmental impact and carbon footprint. Mass transit use in New York City is the highest in the United States. Also, by 2010, the city had 3,715 hybrid taxis and other clean diesel vehicles, representing around 28% of New York's taxi fleet in service, the most of any city in North America.
Environmental impact reduction
Manhattan Island is linked to New York City's outer boroughs and New Jersey by several tunnels as well. The Lincoln Tunnel, which carries 120,000 vehicles a day under the Hudson River between New Jersey and Midtown Manhattan, is the busiest vehicular tunnel in the world. The tunnel was built instead of a bridge to allow unfettered passage of large passenger and cargo ships that sailed through New York Harbor and up the Hudson River to Manhattan's piers. The Holland Tunnel, connecting Lower Manhattan to Jersey City, New Jersey, was the world's first mechanically ventilated vehicular tunnel when it opened in 1927. The Queens-Midtown Tunnel, built to relieve congestion on the bridges connecting Manhattan with Queens and Brooklyn, was the largest non-federal project in its time when it was completed in 1940. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first person to drive through it. The Hugh L. Carey Tunnel runs underneath Battery Park and connects the Financial District at the southern tip of Manhattan to Red Hook in Brooklyn.
The Queensboro Bridge is an important piece of cantilever architecture. The Manhattan Bridge, Throgs Neck Bridge, Triborough Bridge, and Verrazano-Narrows Bridge are all examples of Structural Expressionism.
, and Rosendale cement, and their architectural style is neo-Gothic, with characteristic pointed arches above the passageways through the stone towers. This bridge was also the longest suspension bridge in the world from its opening until 1903, and is the first steel-wire suspension bridge. granite, limestone is an icon of the city itself. The towers of the Brooklyn Bridge are built of Brooklyn Bridge The  and one of the world's longest.Americas in the suspension bridge is the longest Verrazano-Narrows Bridge. The Bergen County, New Jersey connecting Manhattan to  The
New York City is located on one of the world's largest natural harbors, and the boroughs of Manhattan and Staten Island are (primarily) coterminous with islands of the same names, while Queens and Brooklyn are located at the west end of the larger Long Island, and The Bronx is located at the southern tip of New York State's mainland. This situation of boroughs separated by water led to the development of an extensive infrastructure of bridges and tunnels. Nearly all of the city's major bridges and tunnels are notable, and several have broken or set records.
New York City also has an extensive web of expressways and parkways, which link the city's boroughs to each other as well as to northern New Jersey, Westchester County, Long Island, and southwestern Connecticut through various bridges and tunnels. Because these highways serve millions of outer borough and suburban residents who commute into Manhattan, it is quite common for motorists to be stranded for hours in traffic jams that are a daily occurrence, particularly during rush hour.
Despite New York's heavy reliance on its vast public transit system, streets are a defining feature of the city. Manhattan's street grid plan greatly influenced the city's physical development. Several of the city's streets and avenues, like Broadway, Wall Street, Madison Avenue, and Seventh Avenue are also used as metonyms for national industries there: the theater, finance, advertising, and fashion organizations, respectively.
Streets and highways
Other features of the city's transportation infrastructure encompass more than 12,000 yellow taxicabs; various competing startup transportation network companies; and an aerial tramway that transports commuters between Roosevelt Island and Manhattan Island.
Taxis, transport startups, and trams
The Staten Island Ferry is the world's busiest ferry route, carrying approximately 20 million passengers on the 5.2-mile (8.4 km) route between Staten Island and Lower Manhattan and running 24 hours a day. Other ferry systems shuttle commuters between Manhattan and other locales within the city and the metropolitan area.
New York's airspace is the busiest in the United States and one of the world's busiest air transportation corridors. The three busiest airports in the New York metropolitan area include John F. Kennedy International Airport, Newark Liberty International Airport, and LaGuardia Airport; 109 million travelers used these three airports in 2012, and the city's airspace is the busiest in the nation. JFK and Newark Liberty were the busiest and fourth busiest U.S. gateways for international air passengers, respectively, in 2012; as of 2011, JFK was the busiest airport for international passengers in North America. Plans have advanced to expand passenger volume at a fourth airport, Stewart International Airport near Newburgh, New York, by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Plans were announced in July 2015 to entirely rebuild LaGuardia Airport in a multibillion-dollar project to replace its aging facilities.
New York City's public bus fleet is the largest in North America, and the Port Authority Bus Terminal, the main intercity bus terminal of the city, serves 7,000 buses and 200,000 commuters daily, making it the busiest bus station in the world.
The Staten Island Railway rapid transit system solely serves Staten Island, operating 24 hours a day. The Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH train) links Midtown and Lower Manhattan to northeastern New Jersey, primarily Hoboken, Jersey City, and Newark. Like the New York City Subway, the PATH operates 24 hours a day; meaning three of the six rapid transit systems in the world which operate on 24-hour schedules are wholly or partly in New York (the others are a portion of the Chicago 'L', the PATCO Speedline serving Philadelphia, and the Copenhagen Metro).
New York City's commuter rail network is the largest in North America. The rail network, connecting New York City to its suburbs, consists of the Long Island Rail Road, Metro-North Railroad, and New Jersey Transit. The combined systems converge at Grand Central Terminal and Pennsylvania Station and contain more than 250 stations and 20 rail lines. In Queens, the elevated AirTrain people mover system connects JFK International Airport to the New York City Subway and the Long Island Rail Road; a separate AirTrain system is planned alongside the Grand Central Parkway to connect LaGuardia Airport to these transit systems. For intercity rail, New York City is served by Amtrak, whose busiest station by a significant margin is Pennsylvania Station on the West Side of Manhattan, from which Amtrak provides connections to Boston, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C. along the Northeast Corridor, as well as long-distance train service to other North American cities.
Public transport is essential in New York City. 54.6% of New Yorkers commuted to work in 2005 using mass transit. This is in contrast to the rest of the United States, where about 90% of commuters drive automobiles to their workplace. According to the US Census Bureau, New York City residents spend an average of 38.4 minutes a day getting to work, the longest commute time in the nation among large cities. New York is the only US city in which a majority (52%) of households do not have a car; only 22% of Manhattanites own a car. Due to their high usage of mass transit, New Yorkers spend less of their household income on transportation than the national average, saving $19 billion annually on transportation compared to other urban Americans.
The iconic New York City Subway system is the largest rapid transit system in the world when measured by stations in operation, with 469, and by length of routes. New York's subway is notable for nearly the entire system remaining open 24 hours a day, in contrast to the overnight shutdown common to systems in most cities, including Hong Kong, London, Paris, Seoul, and Tokyo. The New York City Subway is also the busiest metropolitan rail transit system in the Western Hemisphere, with 1.75 billion passengers rides in 2014, while Grand Central Terminal, also popularly referred to as "Grand Central Station", is the world's largest railway station by number of train platforms.
Mass transit in New York City, most of which runs 24 hours a day, accounts for one in every three users of mass transit in the United States, and two-thirds of the nation's rail riders live in the New York City Metropolitan Area.
New York City's comprehensive transportation system is both complex and extensive.
Many sports are associated with New York's immigrant communities. Stickball, a street version of baseball, was popularized by youths in the 1930s, and a street in the Bronx was renamed Stickball Boulevard in the late 2000s to memorialize this.
The annual United States Open Tennis Championships is one of the world's four Grand Slam tennis tournaments and is held at the National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, Queens. The New York Marathon is one of the world's largest, and the 2004–2006 events hold the top three places in the marathons with the largest number of finishers, including 37,866 finishers in 2006. The Millrose Games is an annual track and field meet whose featured event is the Wanamaker Mile. Boxing is also a prominent part of the city's sporting scene, with events like the Amateur Boxing Golden Gloves being held at Madison Square Garden each year. The city is also considered the host of the Belmont Stakes, the last, longest and oldest of horse racing's Triple Crown races, held just over the city's border at Belmont Park on the first or second Sunday of June. The city also hosted the 1932 U.S. Open golf tournament and the 1930 and 1939 PGA Championships, and has been host city for both events several times, most notably for nearby Winged Foot Golf Club.
In soccer, New York City is represented by New York City FC of Major League Soccer, who play their home games at Yankee Stadium. The New York Red Bulls play their home games at Red Bull Arena in nearby Harrison, New Jersey. Historically, the city is known for the New York Cosmos, the highly successful former professional soccer team which was the American home of Pelé, one of the world's most famous soccer players. A new version of the New York Cosmos was formed in 2010, and began play in the second division North American Soccer League in 2013. The Cosmos play their home games at James M. Shuart Stadium on the campus of Hofstra University, just outside the New York City limits in Hempstead, New York.
The city's National Basketball Association teams are the Brooklyn Nets and the New York Knicks, while the New York Liberty is the city's Women's National Basketball Association. The first national college-level basketball championship, the National Invitation Tournament, was held in New York in 1938 and remains in the city. The city is well known for its links to basketball, which is played in nearly every park in the city by local youth, many of whom have gone on to play for major college programs and in the NBA.
The New York Islanders and the New York Rangers represent the city in the National Hockey League. Also within the metropolitan area are the New Jersey Devils, who play in nearby Newark, New Jersey.
The city is represented in the National Football League by the New York Giants and the New York Jets, although both teams play their home games at MetLife Stadium in nearby East Rutherford, New Jersey, which hosted Super Bowl XLVIII in 2014.
New York has been described as the "Capital of Baseball". There have been 35 Major League Baseball World Series and 73 pennants won by New York teams. It is one of only five metro areas (Los Angeles, Chicago, Baltimore–Washington, and the San Francisco Bay Area being the others) to have two baseball teams. Additionally, there have been 14 World Series in which two New York City teams played each other, known as a Subway Series and occurring most recently in 2000. No other metropolitan area has had this happen more than once (Chicago in 1906, St. Louis in 1944, and the San Francisco Bay Area in 1989). The city's two current Major League Baseball teams are the New York Mets, who play at Citi Field in Queens, and the New York Yankees, who play at Yankee Stadium in the Bronx. who compete in six games of interleague play every regular season that has also come to be called the Subway Series. The Yankees have won a record 27 championships, while the Mets have won the World Series twice. The city also was once home to the Brooklyn Dodgers (now the Los Angeles Dodgers), who won the World Series once, and the New York Giants (now the San Francisco Giants), who won the World Series five times. Both teams moved to California in 1958. There are also two Minor League Baseball teams in the city, the Brooklyn Cyclones and Staten Island Yankees.
New York City is home to the headquarters of the National Football League, Major League Baseball, the National Basketball Association, the National Hockey League, and Major League Soccer. The New York metropolitan area hosts the most sports teams in these five professional leagues. Participation in professional sports in the city predates all professional leagues, and the city has been continuously hosting professional sports since the birth of the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1882. The city has played host to over forty major professional teams in the five sports and their respective competing leagues, both current and historic. Four of the ten most expensive stadiums ever built worldwide (MetLife Stadium, the new Yankee Stadium, Madison Square Garden, and Citi Field) are located in the New York metropolitan area. Madison Square Garden, its predecessor, as well as the original Yankee Stadium and Ebbets Field, are some of the most famous sporting venues in the world, the latter two having been commemorated on U.S. postage stamps.
The traditional New York area accent is characterized as non-rhotic, so that the sound [ɹ] does not appear at the end of a syllable or immediately before a consonant; hence the pronunciation of the city name as "New Yawk." There is no [ɹ] in words like park [pɑək] or [pɒək] (with vowel backed and diphthongized due to the low-back chain shift), butter [bʌɾə], or here [hiə]. In another feature called the low back chain shift, the [ɔ] vowel sound of words like talk, law, cross, chocolate, and coffee and the often homophonous [ɔr] in core and more are tensed and usually raised more than in General American. In the most old-fashioned and extreme versions of the New York dialect, the vowel sounds of words like "girl" and of words like "oil" became a diphthong [ɜɪ]. This would often be misperceived by speakers of other accents as a reversal of the er and oy sounds, so that girl is pronounced "goil" and oil is pronounced "erl"; this leads to the caricature of New Yorkers saying things like "Joizey" (Jersey), "Toidy-Toid Street" (33rd St.) and "terlet" (toilet). The character Archie Bunker from the 1970s sitcom All in the Family (played by Carroll O'Connor) was a notable example of having used this pattern of speech, which continues to fade in its overall presence.
The New York area is home to a distinctive regional speech pattern called the New York dialect, alternatively known as Brooklynese or New Yorkese. It has generally been considered one of the most recognizable accents within American English. The classic version of this dialect is centered on middle and working-class people of European descent. However, the influx of non-European immigrants in recent decades has led to changes in this distinctive dialect, and the traditional form of this speech pattern is no longer as prevalent among general New Yorkers as in the past.
Accent and dialect
New York City's food culture includes a variety of international cuisines influenced by the city's immigrant history. Central European and Italian immigrants originally made the city famous for bagels, cheesecake, and New York-style pizza, while Chinese and other Asian restaurants, sandwich joints, trattorias, diners, and coffeehouses have become ubiquitous. Some 4,000 mobile food vendors licensed by the city, many immigrant-owned, have made Middle Eastern foods such as falafel and kebabs popular examples of modern New York street food. The city is also home to nearly one thousand of the finest and most diverse haute cuisine restaurants in the world, according to Michelin. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene assigns letter grades to the city's 24,000 restaurants based upon their inspection results.
New York City is home to hundreds of cultural institutions and historic sites, many of which are internationally known. Museum Mile is the name for a section of Fifth Avenue running from 82nd to 105th streets on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, in an area sometimes called Upper Carnegie Hill. The Mile, which contains one of the densest displays of culture in the world, is actually three blocks longer than one mile (1.6 km). Ten museums occupy the length of this section of Fifth Avenue. The tenth museum, the Museum for African Art, joined the ensemble in 2009, however its Museum at 110th Street, the first new museum constructed on the Mile since the Guggenheim in 1959, opened in late 2012. In addition to other programming, the museums collaborate for the annual Museum Mile Festival, held each year in June, to promote the museums and increase visitation. Many of the world's most lucrative art auctions are held in New York City.
Metropolitan Opera, New York City Opera, New York Philharmonic, and New York City Ballet, as well as the Vivian Beaumont Theater, the Juilliard School, Jazz at Lincoln Center, and Alice Tully Hall. The Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute is in Union Square, and Tisch School of the Arts is based at New York University, while Central Park SummerStage presents performances of free plays and music in Central Park.
Forty of the city's theaters, with more than 500 seats each, are collectively known as Broadway, after the major thoroughfare that crosses the Times Square Theater District, sometimes referred to as "The Great White Way". According to The Broadway League, Broadway shows sold approximately US$1.27 billion worth of tickets in the 2013–2014 season, an 11.4% increase from US$1.139 billion in the 2012–2013 season. Attendance in 2013–2014 stood at 12.21 million, representing a 5.5% increase from the 2012–2013 season's 11.57 million.
New York City has more than 2,000 arts and cultural organizations and more than 500 George M. Cohan, and others used song in narratives that often reflected themes of hope and ambition.
The city is the birthplace of many cultural movements, including the Harlem Renaissance in literature and visual art; abstract expressionism (also known as the New York School) in painting; and hip hop, punk, salsa, disco, freestyle, Tin Pan Alley, and Jazz in music. New York City has been considered the dance capital of the world. The city is also widely celebrated in popular lore, frequently the setting for books, movies (see List of films set in New York City), and television programs. New York Fashion Week is one of the world's preeminent fashion events and is afforded extensive coverage by the media. New York has also frequently been ranked the top fashion capital of the world on the annual list compiled by the Global Language Monitor.
Numerous major American cultural movements began in the city, such as the Harlem Renaissance, which established the African-American literary canon in the United States. The city was a center of jazz in the 1940s, abstract expressionism in the 1950s, and the birthplace of hip hop in the 1970s. The city's punk and hardcore scenes were influential in the 1970s and 1980s. New York has long had a flourishing scene for Jewish American literature.
New York City has been described as the cultural capital of the world by the diplomatic consulates of Iceland and Latvia and by New York's Baruch College. A book containing a series of essays titled New York, culture capital of the world, 1940–1965 has also been published as showcased by the National Library of Australia. In describing New York, author Tom Wolfe said, "Culture just seems to be in the air, like part of the weather."
Culture and contemporary life
The FDNY headquarters is located at 9 MetroTech Center in Downtown Brooklyn, and the FDNY Fire Academy is located on Randalls Island. There are three Bureau of Fire Communications alarm offices which receive and dispatch alarms to appropriate units. One office, at 11 Metrotech Center in Brooklyn, houses Manhattan/Citywide, Brooklyn, and Staten Island Fire Communications. The Bronx and Queens offices are in separate buildings.
The New York City Fire Department faces highly multifaceted firefighting challenges in many ways unique to New York. In addition to responding to building types that range from wood-frame single family homes to high-rise structures, there are many secluded bridges and tunnels, as well as large parks and wooded areas that can give rise to brush fires. New York is also home to one of the largest subway systems in the world, consisting of hundreds of miles of tunnel with electrified track.
The New York City Fire Department (FDNY), provides fire protection, technical rescue, primary response to biological, chemical, and radioactive hazards, and emergency medical services for the five boroughs of New York City. The New York City Fire Department is the largest municipal fire department in the United States and the second largest in the world after the Tokyo Fire Department. The FDNY employs approximately 11,080 uniformed firefighters and over 3,300 uniformed EMTs and paramedics. The FDNY's motto is New York's Bravest.
Forty Thieves and the Roach Guards in the Five Points in the 1820s. The 20th century saw a rise in the Mafia, dominated by the Five Families, as well as in gangs, including the Black Spades. The Mafia presence has declined in the city in the 21st century.
Sociologists and criminologists have not reached consensus on the explanation for the dramatic decrease in the city's crime rate. Some attribute the phenomenon to new tactics used by the NYPD, including its use of CompStat and the broken windows theory. Others cite the end of the crack epidemic and demographic changes, including from immigration. Another theory is that widespread exposure to lead pollution from automobile exhaust, which can lower intelligence and increase aggression levels, incited the initial crime wave in the mid-20th century, most acutely affecting heavily trafficked cities like New York. A strong correlation was found demonstrating that violent crime rates in New York and other big cities began to fall after lead was removed from American gasoline in the 1970s. Another theory cited to explain New York City's falling homicide rate is the inverse correlation between the number of murders and the increasingly wetter climate in the city.
Violent crime in New York City decreased more than 75% from 1993 to 2005, and continued decreasing during periods when the nation as a whole saw increases. In 2005 the homicide rate was at its lowest level since 1966, and in 2007 the city recorded fewer than 500 homicides for the first time ever since crime statistics were first published in 1963. In the first six months of 2010, 95.1% of all murder victims and 95.9% of all shooting victims in New York City were black or Hispanic; additionally, 90.2 percent of those arrested for murder and 96.7 percent of those arrested for shooting someone were black or Hispanic. New York experienced a record low of 328 homicides in 2014 and has a far lower murder rate than other major American cities. In 2012 the NYPD came under scrutiny for its use of a stop-and-frisk program.
The New York Police Department (NYPD) has been the largest police force in the United States by a significant margin, with over 35,000 sworn officers. In 2012, New York City had the lowest overall crime rate and the second lowest murder rate among the largest U.S. cities, having become significantly safer after a spike in crime in the 1980s and early 1990s. By 2002, New York City's crime rate was similar to that of Provo, Utah and was ranked 197th in crime among the 216 U.S. cities with populations greater than 100,000. Members of the NYPD are frequently referred to by politicians, the media, and their own police cars by the nickname, New York's Finest.
Police and law enforcement
The most well-known hospital in the HHC system is Bellevue Hospital, the oldest public hospital in the United States. Bellevue is the designated hospital for treatment of the President of the United States and other world leaders if they become sick or injured while in New York City. The president of HHC is Ramanathan Raju, MD, a surgeon and former CEO of the Cook County health system in Illinois.
Each year HHC's facilities provide about 225,000 admissions, one million emergency room visits and five million clinic visits to New Yorkers. HHC facilities treat nearly one-fifth of all general hospital discharges and more than one third of emergency room and hospital-based clinic visits in New York City.
The New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC) operates the public hospitals and clinics in New York City. A public benefit corporation with $6.7 billion in annual revenues, HHC is the largest municipal healthcare system in the United States serving 1.4 million patients, including more than 475,000 uninsured city residents. HHC was created in 1969 by the New York State Legislature as a public benefit corporation (Chapter 1016 of the Laws 1969). It is similar to a municipal agency but has a Board of Directors. HHC operates 11 acute care hospitals, five nursing homes, six diagnostic and treatment centers, and more than 70 community-based primary care sites, serving primarily the poor and working class. HHC's own MetroPlus Health Plan is one of the New York area's largest providers of government-sponsored health insurance and is the plan of choice for nearly half million New Yorkers.
The New York Public Library, which has the largest collection of any public library system in the United States, serves Manhattan, the Bronx, and Staten Island. The New York Public Library has four research libraries. Queens is served by the Queens Borough Public Library, the nation's second largest public library system, while the Brooklyn Public Library serves Brooklyn.
Public library system
Much of the scientific research in the city is done in medicine and the life sciences. New York City has the most post-graduate life sciences degrees awarded annually in the United States, with 127 Nobel laureates having roots in local institutions as of 2004; while in 2012, 43,523 licensed physicians were practicing in New York City. Major biomedical research institutions include Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center, Rockefeller University, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, and Weill Cornell Medical College, being joined by the Cornell University/Technion-Israel Institute of Technology venture on Roosevelt Island.
Over 600,000 students are enrolled in New York City's over 120 higher education institutions, the highest number of any city in the United States, including over half million in the City University of New York (CUNY) system alone in 2014. In 2005, three out of five Manhattan residents were college graduates, and one out of four had a postgraduate degree, forming one of the highest concentrations of highly educated people in any American city. New York City is home to such notable private universities as Barnard College, Columbia University, Cooper Union, Fordham University, New York University, New York Institute of Technology, Pace University, and Yeshiva University. The public CUNY system is one of the largest universities in the nation, comprising 24 institutions across all five boroughs: senior colleges, community colleges, and other graduate/professional schools. The city also has other smaller private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions, such as St. John's University, The Juilliard School, Manhattan College, The College of Mount Saint Vincent, The New School, Pratt Institute, The School of Visual Arts, The King's College, and Wagner College.
Higher education and research
The New York City Charter School Center assists the setup of new charter schools. There are approximately 900 additional privately-run secular and religious schools in the city.
The New York City Public Schools system, managed by the New York City Department of Education, is the largest public school system in the United States, serving about 1.1 million students in more than 1,700 separate primary and secondary schools. The city's public school system includes nine specialized high schools to serve academically and artistically gifted students.
Education and scholarly activity
New York is also a major center for non-commercial educational media. The oldest public-access television channel in the United States is the Manhattan Neighborhood Network, founded in 1971. WNET is the city's major public television station and a primary source of national Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television programming. WNYC, a public radio station owned by the city until 1997, has the largest public radio audience in the United States.
The television industry developed in New York and is a significant employer in the city's economy. The three major American broadcast networks are all headquartered in New York: ABC, CBS, and NBC. Many cable networks are based in the city as well, including MTV, Fox News, HBO, Showtime, Bravo, Food Network, AMC, and Comedy Central. The City of New York operates a public broadcast service, NYCTV, that has produced several original Emmy Award-winning shows covering music and culture in city neighborhoods and city government.
More than 200 newspapers and 350 consumer magazines have an office in the city, and the publishing industry employs about 25,000 people. Two of the three national daily newspapers in the United States are New York papers: The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times, which has won the most Pulitzer Prizes for journalism. Major tabloid newspapers in the city include: The New York Daily News, which was founded in 1919 by Joseph Medill Patterson and The New York Post, founded in 1801 by Alexander Hamilton. The city also has a comprehensive ethnic press, with 270 newspapers and magazines published in more than 40 languages. El Diario La Prensa is New York's largest Spanish-language daily and the oldest in the nation. The New York Amsterdam News, published in Harlem, is a prominent African American newspaper. The Village Voice is the largest alternative newspaper.
New York City is additionally a center for the advertising, music, newspaper, digital media, and publishing industries and is also the largest media market in North America. Some of the city's media conglomerates and institutions include Time Warner, the Thomson Reuters Corporation, the Associated Press, Bloomberg L.P., the News Corporation, The New York Times Company, NBCUniversal, the Hearst Corporation, AOL, and Viacom. Seven of the world's top eight global advertising agency networks have their headquarters in New York. Two of the top three record labels' headquarters are in New York: Sony Music Entertainment and Warner Music Group. Universal Music Group also has offices in New York. New media enterprises are contributing an increasingly important component to the city's central role in the media sphere.
New York is a prominent location for the American entertainment industry, with many films, television series, books, and other media being set there. As of 2012, New York City was the second largest center for filmmaking and television production in the United States, producing about 200 feature films annually, employing 130,000 individuals, and generating an estimated $7.1 billion in direct expenditures, and by volume, New York is the world leader in independent film production; one-third of all American independent films are produced in New York City. The Association of Independent Commercial Producers is also based in New York. In the first five months of 2014 alone, location filming for television pilots in New York City exceeded the record production levels for all of 2013, with New York surpassing Los Angeles as the top North American city for the same distinction during the 2013/2014 cycle.
Media and entertainment
Manhattan was on track to have an estimated 90,000 hotel rooms at the end of 2014, a 10% increase from 2013. In October 2014, the Anbang Insurance Group, based in China, purchased the Waldorf Astoria New York for US$1.95 billion, making it the world's most expensive hotel ever sold.
Major tourist destinations include Times Square; Broadway theater productions; the Empire State Building; the Statue of Liberty; Ellis Island; the United Nations Headquarters; museums such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art; greenspaces such as Central Park and Washington Square Park; Rockefeller Center; the Manhattan Chinatown; luxury shopping along Fifth and Madison Avenues; and events such as the Halloween Parade in Greenwich Village; the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade; the lighting of the Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree; the St. Patrick's Day parade; seasonal activities such as ice skating in Central Park in the wintertime; the Tribeca Film Festival; and free performances in Central Park at Summerstage. Major attractions in the boroughs outside Manhattan include Flushing Meadows-Corona Park and the Unisphere in Queens; the Bronx Zoo; Coney Island, Brooklyn; and the New York Botanical Garden in the Bronx. The New York Wheel, a 630-foot ferris wheel, was under construction at the northern shore of Staten Island in 2015, overlooking the Statue of Liberty, New York Harbor, and the Lower Manhattan skyline.
I Love New York (stylized I ❤ NY) is both a logo and a song that are the basis of an advertising campaign and have been used since 1977 to promote tourism in New York City, and later to promote New York State as well. The trademarked logo, owned by New York State Empire State Development, appears in souvenir shops and brochures throughout the city and state, some licensed, many not. The song is the state song of New York.
Tourism is a vital industry for New York City, which has witnessed a growing combined volume of international and domestic tourists – receiving approximately 51 million tourists in 2011, 54 million in 2013, and a record 56.4 million in 2014. Tourism generated an all-time high US$61.3 billion in overall economic impact for New York City in 2014.
The biotechnology sector is also growing in New York City, based upon the city's strength in academic scientific research and public and commercial financial support. On December 19, 2011, then Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg announced his choice of Cornell University and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology to build a US$2 billion graduate school of applied sciences called Cornell Tech on Roosevelt Island with the goal of transforming New York City into the world's premier technology capital. By mid-2014, Accelerator, a biotech investment firm, had raised more than US$30 million from investors, including Eli Lilly and Company, Pfizer, and Johnson & Johnson, for initial funding to create biotechnology startups at the Alexandria Center for Life Science, which encompasses more than 700,000 square feet (65,000 m2) on East 29th Street and promotes collaboration among scientists and entrepreneurs at the center and with nearby academic, medical, and research institutions. The New York City Economic Development Corporation's Early Stage Life Sciences Funding Initiative and venture capital partners, including Celgene, General Electric Ventures, and Eli Lilly, committed a minimum of US$100 million to help launch 15 to 20 ventures in life sciences and biotechnology.
Silicon Alley, centered in Manhattan, has evolved into a metonym for the sphere encompassing the New York City metropolitan region's high technology industries involving the Internet, new media, telecommunications, digital media, software development, biotechnology, game design, financial technology ("fintech"), and other fields within information technology that are supported by its entrepreneurship ecosystem and venture capital investments. In the first half of 2015, Silicon Alley generated over US$3.7 billion in venture capital investment across a broad spectrum of high technology enterprises, most based in Manhattan, with others in Brooklyn, Queens, and elsewhere in the region. High technology startup companies and employment are growing in New York City and the region, bolstered by the city's position in North America as the leading Internet hub and telecommunications center, including its vicinity to several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines, New York's intellectual capital, and its extensive outdoor wireless connectivity. Verizon Communications, headquartered at 140 West Street in Lower Manhattan, was at the final stages in 2014 of completing a US$3 billion fiberoptic telecommunications upgrade throughout New York City. As of 2014, New York City hosted 300,000 employees in the tech sector.
Many of the world's largest media conglomerates are also based in the city. Manhattan contained approximately 520 million square feet (48.1 million m2) of office space in 2013, making it the largest office market in the United States, while Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the nation.
Lower Manhattan is the third-largest central business district in the United States and is home to the New York Stock Exchange, on Wall Street, and the NASDAQ, at 165 Broadway, representing the world's largest and second largest stock exchanges, respectively, when measured both by overall average daily trading volume and by total market capitalization of their listed companies in 2013. Investment banking fees on Wall Street totaled approximately $40 billion in 2012, while in 2013, senior New York City bank officers who manage risk and compliance functions earned as much as $324,000 annually. In fiscal year 2013–14, Wall Street's securities industry generated 19% of New York State's tax revenue. New York City remains the largest global center for trading in public equity and debt capital markets, driven in part by the size and financial development of the U.S. economy.:31–32 In July 2013, NYSE Euronext, the operator of the New York Stock Exchange, took over the administration of the London interbank offered rate from the British Bankers Association. New York also leads in hedge fund management; private equity; and the monetary volume of mergers and acquisitions. Several investment banks and investment mangers headquartered in Manhattan are important participants in other global financial centers.:34–35 New York is also the principal commercial banking center of the United States.
New York City's most important economic sector lies in its role as the headquarters for the U.S.financial industry, metonymously known as Wall Street. The city's securities industry, enumerating 163,400 jobs in August 2013, continues to form the largest segment of the city's financial sector and an important economic engine, accounting in 2012 for 5 percent of the city's private sector jobs, 8.5 percent (US$3.8 billion) of its tax revenue, and 22 percent of the city's total wages, including an average salary of US$360,700. Many large financial companies are headquartered in New York City, and the city is also home to a burgeoning number of financial startup companies.
Chocolate is New York City's leading specialty-food export, with up to US$234 million worth of exports each year. Entrepreneurs were forming a "Chocolate District" in Brooklyn as of 2014, while Godiva, one of the world's largest chocolatiers, continues to be headquartered in Manhattan.
Other important sectors include medical research and technology, non-profit institutions, and universities. Manufacturing accounts for a significant but declining share of employment, although the city's garment industry is showing a resurgence in Brooklyn. Food processing is a US$5 billion industry that employs more than 19,000 residents.
As of 2013, the global advertising agencies of Omnicom Group and Interpublic Group, both based in Manhattan, had combined annual revenues of approximately US$21 billion, reflecting New York City's role as the top global center for the advertising industry, which is metonymously referred to as "Madison Avenue". The city's fashion industry provides approximately 180,000 employees with $11 billion in annual wages.
Real estate is a major force in the city's economy, as the total value of all New York City property was assessed at US$914.8 billion for the 2015 fiscal year. The Time Warner Center is the property with the highest-listed market value in the city, at US$1.1 billion in 2006. New York City is home to some of the nation's—and the world's—most valuable real estate. 450 Park Avenue was sold on July 2, 2007 for US$510 million, about $1,589 per square foot ($17,104/m²), breaking the barely month-old record for an American office building of $1,476 per square foot ($15,887/m²) set in the June 2007 sale of 660 Madison Avenue. According to Forbes, in 2014, Manhattan was home to six of the top ten zip codes in the United States by median housing price.
Many Fortune 500 corporations are headquartered in New York City, as are a large number of foreign corporations. One out of ten private sector jobs in the city is with a foreign company. New York City has been ranked first among cities across the globe in attracting capital, business, and tourists. This ability to attract foreign investment helped New York City top the FDi Magazine American Cities of the Future ranking for 2013.
New York is a global hub of international business and commerce. In 2012, New York City topped the first Global Economic Power Index, published by The Atlantic (to be differentiated from a namesake list published by the Martin Prosperity Institute), with cities ranked according to criteria reflecting their presence on similar lists as published by other entities. The city is a major center for banking and finance, retailing, world trade, transportation, tourism, real estate, new media as well as traditional media, advertising, legal services, accountancy, insurance, theater, fashion, and the arts in the United States; while Silicon Alley, metonymous for New York's broad-spectrum high technology sphere, continues to expand. The Port of New York and New Jersey is also a major economic engine, handling record cargo volume in the first half of 2014.
Top publicly traded companies
in New York City for 2012
(ranked by revenues)
with City and U.S. ranks
|2||J.P. Morgan Chase & Co.||18|
|4||American International Group||38|
|8||Goldman Sachs Group||68|
|10||New York Life Insurance||89|
|Financial services firms in green|
|Full table at Economy of New York City|
|Source: Fortune 500|
New York City has a high degree of income disparity as indicated by its Gini Coefficient of 0.5 for the city overall and 0.6 for Manhattan. The disparity is driven by wage growth in high-income brackets, while wages have stagnated for middle and lower-income brackets. In the first quarter of 2014, the average weekly wage in New York County (Manhattan) was $2,749, representing the highest total among large counties in the United States. New York City is home to the highest number of the world's billionaires, higher than the next five U.S. cities combined, including former Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg. New York also had the highest density of millionaires per capita among major U.S. cities in 2014, at 4.6% of residents. Lower Manhattan has been experiencing a baby boom, with the area south of Canal Street witnessing 1,086 births in 2010, 12% greater than 2009 and over twice the number born in 2001.
The New York metropolitan area is home to a self-identifying gay and bisexual community estimated at 568,903 individuals, the largest in the United States and one of the world's largest. Same-sex marriages in New York were legalized on June 24, 2011 and were authorized to take place beginning 30 days thereafter.
Ecuador, Colombia, Guyana, Peru, and Brazil were the top source countries from South America for legal immigrants to the New York City region in 2013; the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Haiti, and Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean; Egypt, Ghana, and Nigeria from Africa; and El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala in Central America. Amidst a resurgence of Puerto Rican migration to New York City, this population had increased to approximately 1.3 million in the metropolitan area as of 2013.
The wider New York City metropolitan area, with over 20 million people, about 50% greater than the second-place Los Angeles metropolitan area in the United States, is also ethnically diverse. The New York region continues to be by far the leading metropolitan gateway for legal immigrants admitted into the United States, substantially exceeding the combined totals of Los Angeles and Miami, the next most popular gateway regions. It is home to the largest Jewish as well as Israeli communities outside Israel, with the Jewish population in the region numbering over 1.5 million in 2012 and including many diverse Jewish sects from around the Middle East and Eastern Europe. The metropolitan area is also home to 20% of the nation's Indian Americans and at least 20 Little India enclaves, as well as 15% of all Korean Americans and four Koreatowns; the largest Asian Indian population in the Western Hemisphere; the largest Russian American, Italian American, and African American populations; the largest Dominican American, Puerto Rican American, and South American and second-largest overall Hispanic population in the United States, numbering 4.8 million; and includes at least 6 established Chinatowns within New York City alone, with the urban agglomeration comprising a population of 779,269 overseas Chinese as of 2013 Census estimates, the largest outside of Asia.
New York City has the largest European and non-Hispanic white population of any American city. At 2.7 million in 2012, New York's non-Hispanic white population is larger than the non-Hispanic white populations of Los Angeles (1.1 million), Chicago (865,000), and Houston (550,000) combined. The European diaspora residing in the city is very diverse. According to 2012 Census estimates, there were roughly 560,000 Italian Americans, 385,000 Irish Americans, 253,000 German Americans, 223,000 Russian Americans, 201,000 Polish Americans, and 137,000 English Americans. Additionally, Greek and French Americans numbered 65,000 each, with those of Hungarian descent estimated at 60,000 people. Ukrainian and Scottish Americans numbered 55,000 and 35,000, respectively. People identifying ancestry from Spain numbered 30,838 total in 2010. People of Norwegian and Swedish descent both stood at about 20,000 each, while people of Czech, Lithuanian, Portuguese, Scotch-Irish, and Welsh descent all numbered between 12,000–14,000 people. Arab Americans number over 160,000 in New York City, with the highest concentration in Brooklyn. Central Asians, primarily Uzbek Americans, are a rapidly growing segment of the city's non-Hispanic white population, enumerating over 30,000, and including over half of all Central Asian immigrants to the United States, most settling in Queens or Brooklyn. Albanian Americans are most highly concentrated in the Bronx.
Asian Americans in New York City, according to the 2010 Census, number more than one million, greater than the combined totals of San Francisco and Los Angeles. New York contains the highest total Asian population of any U.S. city proper. The New York City borough of Queens is home to the state's largest Asian American population and the largest Andean (Colombian, Ecuadorian, Peruvian, and Bolivian) populations in the United States, and is also the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world. The Chinese population constitutes the fastest-growing nationality in New York State; multiple satellites of the original Manhattan Chinatown (紐約華埠), in Brooklyn (布鲁克林華埠), and around Flushing, Queens (法拉盛華埠), are thriving as traditionally urban enclaves, while also expanding rapidly eastward into suburban Nassau County (拿騷縣) on Long Island (長島), as the New York metropolitan region and New York State have become the top destinations for new Chinese immigrants, respectively, and large-scale Chinese immigration continues into New York City and surrounding areas. In 2012, 6.3% of New York City was of Chinese ethnicity, with nearly three-fourths living in either Queens or Brooklyn, geographically on Long Island. A community numbering 20,000 Korean-Chinese (Chaoxianzu (Chinese: 朝鲜族) or Joseonjok (Hangul: 조선족)) is centered in Flushing, Queens, while New York City is also home to the largest Tibetan population outside China, India, and Nepal, also centered in Queens. Koreans made up 1.2% of the city's population, and Japanese 0.3%. Filipinos were the largest Southeast Asian ethnic group at 0.8%, followed by Vietnamese, who made up 0.2% of New York City's population in 2010. Indians are the largest South Asian group, comprising 2.4% of the city's population, with Bangladeshis and Pakistanis at 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively. Queens is the preferred borough of settlement for Asian Indians, Koreans, and Filipinos, as well as Malaysians and other Southeast Asians; while Brooklyn is receiving large numbers of both West Indian as well as Asian Indian immigrants.
Approximately 37% of the city's population is foreign born. In New York, no single country or region of origin dominates. The ten largest sources of foreign-born individuals in the city as of 2011 were the Dominican Republic, China, Mexico, Guyana, Jamaica, Ecuador, Haiti, India, Russia, and Trinidad and Tobago, while the Bangladeshi immigrant population has since become one of the fastest growing in the city, counting over 74,000 by 2013.
The term "melting pot" was first coined to describe densely populated immigrant neighborhoods on the Lower East Side. By 1900, Germans constituted the largest immigrant group, followed by the Irish, Jews, and Italians. In 1940, whites represented 92% of the city's population.
Throughout its history, the city has been a major port of entry for immigrants into the United States; more than 12 million European immigrants were received at Ellis Island between 1892 and 1924.
The city's population in 2010 was 44% white (33.3% non-Hispanic white), 25.5% black (23% non-Hispanic black), 0.7% Native American, and 12.7% Asian. Hispanics of any race represented 28.6% of the population, while Asians constituted the fastest-growing segment of the city's population between 2000 and 2010; the non-Hispanic white population declined 3 percent, the smallest recorded decline in decades; and for the first time since the Civil War, the number of blacks declined over a decade.
Race and ethnicity
In 2014, the city had an estimated population density of 27,858 people per square mile (10,756/km²), rendering it the most densely populated of all municipalities housing over 100,000 residents in the United States; however, several small cities (of fewer than 100,000) in adjacent Hudson County, New Jersey are more dense overall, as per the 2000 Census. Geographically co-extensive with New York County, the borough of Manhattan's population density of 71,672 people per square mile (27,673/km²) makes it the highest of any county in the United States and higher than the density of any individual American city.
New York City is the most-populous city in the United States, with an estimated record high of 8,491,079 residents as of 2014, incorporating more immigration into the city than outmigration since the 2010 United States Census. More than twice as many people live in New York City as in the second-most populous U.S. city (Los Angeles), and within a smaller area. New York City gained more residents between April 2010 and July 2014 (316,000) than any other U.S. city. New York City's population amounts to about 40% of New York State's population and a similar percentage of the New York metropolitan area population.
1790–1890, 1900–1990, 2000 and 2010 Census. 2014 Census estimates.
|Black or African American||25.5%||28.7%||21.1%||6.1%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||28.6%||24.4%||16.2%||1.6%|
|City compared to State & U.S.|
|2000 Census||NY City||NY State||U.S.|
|Population change, 1990 to 2000||+9.4%||+5.5%||+13.1%|
|Median household income (1999)||$38,293||$43,393||$41,994|
|Bachelor's degree or higher||27%||27%||29%|
|Hispanic (any race)||27%||15%||11%|
New York City is home to Fort Hamilton, the U.S. military's only active duty installation within the city. Established in 1825 in Brooklyn on the site of a small battery utilized during the American Revolution, it is one of America's longest serving military forts. Today Fort Hamilton serves as the headquarters of the North Atlantic Division of the United States Army Corps of Engineers as well as for the New York City Recruiting Battalion. It also houses the 1179th Transportation Brigade, the 722nd Aeromedical Staging Squadron, and a Military Entrance Processing Station. Other formerly active military reservations still utilized for National Guard and military training or reserve operations in the city include Fort Wadsworth in Staten Island and Fort Totten in Queens.
-  The park contains a myriad of attractions; there are several lakes and ponds, two ice-skating rinks, the Central Park Zoo, the Central Park Conservatory Garden, and the 106-acre (0.43 km2) Jackie Onassis Reservoir. Indoor attractions include Belvedere Castle with its nature center, the Swedish Cottage Marionette Theater, and the historic Carousel. On October 23, 2012, hedge fund manager John A. Paulson announced a $100 million gift to the Central Park Conservancy, the largest ever monetary donation to New York City's park system.
- Prospect Park in Brooklyn has a 90-acre (360,000 m2) meadow, a lake, and extensive woodlands. Within the park is the historic Battle Pass, prominent in the Battle of Long Island.
- Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in Queens, the city's third largest park, was the setting for the 1939 World's Fair and the 1964 World's Fair and is host to the annual United States Open Tennis Championships tournament.
- Over a fifth of the Bronx's area, 7,000 acres (28 km2), is given over to open space and parks, including Van Cortlandt Park, Pelham Bay Park, the Bronx Zoo, and the New York Botanical Gardens.
- In Staten Island, the Conference House Park contains the historic Conference House, site of the only attempt of a peaceful resolution to the American Revolution, attended by Benjamin Franklin representing the Americans and Lord Howe representing the British Crown. The historic Burial Ridge, the largest Native American burial ground within New York City, is within the park.
New York City has over 28,000 acres (110 km2) of municipal parkland and 14 miles (23 km) of public beaches. Parks in New York City include Central Park, Prospect Park, Flushing Meadows–Corona Park, Forest Park, and Washington Square Park. The largest municipal park in the city is Pelham Bay Park with 2,700 acres (1,093 ha).
There are seven state parks within the confines of New York City, including Clay Pit Ponds State Park Preserve, a natural area which includes extensive riding trails, and Riverbank State Park, a 28-acre (110,000 m2) facility that rises 69 feet (21 m) over the Hudson River.
The Statue of Liberty National Monument and Ellis Island Immigration Museum are managed by the National Park Service and are in both the states of New York and New Jersey. They are joined in the harbor by Governors Island National Monument, in New York. Historic sites under federal management on Manhattan Island include Castle Clinton National Monument; Federal Hall National Memorial; Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site; General Grant National Memorial ("Grant's Tomb"); African Burial Ground National Monument; and Hamilton Grange National Memorial. Hundreds of private properties are listed on the National Register of Historic Places or as a National Historic Landmark such as, for example, the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village as the catalyst of the modern gay rights movement.
Gateway National Recreation Area contains over 26,000 acres (10,521.83 ha) in total, most of it surrounded by New York City, including the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge in Brooklyn and Queens, over 9,000 acres (36 km2) of salt marsh, islands, and water, including most of Jamaica Bay. Also in Queens, the park includes a significant portion of the western Rockaway Peninsula, most notably Jacob Riis Park and Fort Tilden. In Staten Island, the park includes Fort Wadsworth, with historic pre-Civil War era Battery Weed and Fort Tompkins, and Great Kills Park, with beaches, trails, and a marina.
In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land reported that the park system in New York City was the second best park system among the 50 most populous U.S. cities, behind the park system of Minneapolis. ParkScore ranks urban park systems by a formula that analyzes median park size, park acres as percent of city area, the percent of city residents within a half-mile of a park, spending of park services per resident, and the number of playgrounds per 10,000 residents.
The City of New York has a complex park system, with various lands operated by the National Park Service, the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation, and the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation.
|Climate data for New York (Belvedere Castle, Central Park), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1869–present|
|Record high °F (°C)||
|Average high °F (°C)||
|Daily mean °F (°C)||
|Average low °F (°C)||
|Record low °F (°C)||
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||10.4||9.2||10.9||11.5||11.1||11.2||10.4||9.5||8.7||8.9||9.6||10.6||122.0|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||4.0||2.8||1.8||0.3||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.2||2.3||11.4|
|Average relative humidity (%)||61.5||60.2||58.5||55.3||62.7||65.2||64.2||66.0||67.8||65.6||64.6||64.1||63.0|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||162.7||163.1||212.5||225.6||256.6||257.3||268.2||268.2||219.3||211.2||151.0||139.0||2,534.7|
|Percent possible sunshine||54||55||57||57||57||57||59||63||59||61||51||48||57|
Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)
See Geography of New York City for additional climate information from the outer boroughs.
Average winter snowfall between 1981 and 2010 has been 25.8 inches (66 cm), but this varies considerably from year to year. Hurricanes and tropical storms are rare in the New York area, but are not unheard of and always have the potential to strike the area. Hurricane Sandy brought a destructive storm surge to New York City on the evening of October 29, 2012, flooding numerous streets, tunnels, and subway lines in Lower Manhattan and other areas of the city and cutting off electricity in many parts of the city and its suburbs. The storm and its profound impacts have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal barriers around the shorelines of the city and the metropolitan area to minimize the risk of destructive consequences from another such event in the future.
The city receives 49.9 inches (1,270 mm) of precipitation annually, which is fairly spread throughout the year.
Winters are cold and damp, and prevailing wind patterns that blow offshore minimize the moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean; yet the Atlantic and the partial shielding from colder air by the Appalachians keep the city warmer in the winter than inland North American cities at similar or lesser latitudes such as Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis. The daily mean temperature in January, the area's coldest month, is 32.6 °F (0.3 °C); however, temperatures usually drop to 10 °F (−12 °C) several times per winter, and reach 50 °F (10 °C) several days each winter month. Spring and autumn are unpredictable and can range from chilly to warm, although they are usually mild with low humidity. Summers are typically warm to hot and humid, with a daily mean temperature of 76.5 °F (24.7 °C) in July and an average humidity level of 72%. Nighttime conditions are often exacerbated by the urban heat island phenomenon, while daytime temperatures exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on average of 17 days each summer and in some years exceed 100 °F (38 °C). In the warmer months, the dew point, a measure of atmospheric moisture, ranges from 57.3 °F (14.1 °C) in June to 62.0 °F (16.7 °C) in August. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −15 °F (−26 °C), recorded on February 9, 1934, up to 106 °F (41 °C) on July 9, 1936.
Under the Köppen climate classification, using the 0 °C (32 °F) coldest month (January) isotherm, New York City itself experiences a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) and is thus the northernmost major city on the North American continent with this categorization. The suburbs to the immediate north and west lie in the transition zone from a humid subtropical (Cfa) to a humid continental climate (Dfa). The area averages 234 days with at least some sunshine annually, and averages 57% of possible sunshine annually, accumulating 2,535 hours of sunshine per annum. The city falls under USDA 7b Plant Hardiness zone.
Manhattan (New York County) is the most densely populated borough and is home to Central Park and most of the city's skyscrapers. Most of the borough is on Manhattan Island, at the mouth of the Hudson River. Several small islands are also part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall's Island, Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and Governors Island and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor. There is also a small neighborhood in Manhattan that constitutes a part of the mainland United States, called Marble Hill, which is contiguous with the Bronx.
- The Bronx (Bronx County) is New York City's northernmost borough and the only New York City borough with a majority of it a part of the mainland United States. It is the location of Yankee Stadium, home of the New York Yankees, and home to the largest cooperatively owned housing complex in the United States, Co-op City. It is also home to the Bronx Zoo, the world's largest metropolitan zoo, which spans 265 acres (1.07 km2) and houses over 6,000 animals. The Bronx is also the birthplace of rap and hip hop culture.
- Brooklyn (Kings County), on the western tip of Long Island, is the city's most populous borough. Brooklyn is known for its cultural, social, and ethnic diversity, an independent art scene, distinct neighborhoods, and a distinctive architectural heritage. Downtown Brooklyn is the only central core neighborhood in the outer boroughs. The borough has a long beachfront shoreline including Coney Island, established in the 1870s as one of the earliest amusement grounds in the country.
- Queens (Queens County), on Long Island north and east of Brooklyn, is geographically the largest borough, the most ethnically diverse county in the United States, as well as the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world. Historically a collection of small towns and villages founded by the Dutch, the borough has since developed both commercial and residential prominence. Queens is the site of Citi Field, the home of the New York Mets, and hosts the annual U.S. Open tennis tournament. Additionally, two of the three busiest airports serving the New York metropolitan area, John F. Kennedy International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, are located in Queens. (The third is Newark Liberty International Airport in Newark, New Jersey.)
- Staten Island (Richmond County) is the most suburban in character of the five boroughs. Staten Island is connected to Brooklyn by the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge and to Manhattan by way of the free Staten Island Ferry, a daily commuter ferry and popular tourist attraction which provides unobstructed views of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island, and Lower Manhattan. In central Staten Island, the Staten Island Greenbelt spans approximately 2,500 acres (10 km2), including 28 miles (45 km) of walking trails and one of the last undisturbed forests in the city. Designated in 1984 to protect the island's natural lands, the Greenbelt comprises seven city parks.
Throughout the boroughs, there are hundreds of distinct neighborhoods, many with a definable history and character to call their own. If the boroughs were each independent cities, four of the boroughs (Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, and the Bronx) would be among the ten most populous cities in the United States.
According to the United States Geological Survey, an updated analysis of seismic hazard in July 2014 revealed a "slightly lower hazard for tall buildings" in New York City than previously assessed. Scientists estimated this lessened risk based upon a lower likelihood than previously thought of slow shaking near the city, which would be more likely to cause damage to taller structures from an earthquake in the vicinity of the city.
Stone and brick became the city's building materials of choice after the construction of wood-frame houses was limited in the aftermath of the Great Fire of 1835. A distinctive feature of many of the city's buildings is the wooden roof-mounted water towers. In the 1800s, the city required their installation on buildings higher than six stories to prevent the need for excessively high water pressures at lower elevations, which could break municipal water pipes. Garden apartments became popular during the 1920s in outlying areas, such as Jackson Heights.
The character of New York's large residential districts is often defined by the elegant brownstone rowhouses and townhouses and shabby tenements that were built during a period of rapid expansion from 1870 to 1930. In contrast, New York City also has neighborhoods that are less densely populated and feature free-standing dwellings. In neighborhoods such as Riverdale (in the Bronx), Ditmas Park (in Brooklyn), and Douglaston (in Queens), large single-family homes are common in various architectural styles such as Tudor Revival and Victorian.
The 1916 Zoning Resolution required setbacks in new buildings, and restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size, to allow sunlight to reach the streets below. The Art Deco style of the Chrysler Building (1930) and Empire State Building (1931), with their tapered tops and steel spires, reflected the zoning requirements. The buildings have distinctive ornamentation, such as the eagles at the corners of the 61st floor on the Chrysler Building, and are considered some of the finest examples of the Art Deco style. A highly influential example of the international style in the United States is the Seagram Building (1957), distinctive for its façade using visible bronze-toned I-beams to evoke the building's structure. The Condé Nast Building (2000) is a prominent example of green design in American skyscrapers and has received an award from the American Institute of Architects as well as AIA New York State for its design.
Manhattan's skyline, with its many skyscrapers, is universally recognized, and the city has been home to several of the tallest buildings in the world. As of 2011, New York City had 5,937 high-rise buildings, of which 550 completed structures were at least 330 feet (100 m) high, both second in the world after Hong Kong, with over 50 completed skyscrapers taller than 656 feet (200 m). These include the Woolworth Building (1913), an early gothic revival skyscraper built with massively scaled gothic detailing.
New York has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of styles and from distinct time periods, from the saltbox style Pieter Claesen Wyckoff House in Brooklyn, the oldest section of which dates to 1656, to the modern One World Trade Center, the skyscraper at Ground Zero in Lower Manhattan and currently the most expensive new office tower in the world.
The city's total area is 468.9 square miles (1,214 km2). 164.1 sq mi (425 km2) of this is water and 304.8 sq mi (789 km2) is land. The highest point in the city is Todt Hill on Staten Island, which, at 409.8 feet (124.9 m) above sea level, is the highest point on the Eastern Seaboard south of Maine. The summit of the ridge is mostly covered in woodlands as part of the Staten Island Greenbelt.
The city's land has been altered substantially by human intervention, with considerable land reclamation along the waterfronts since Dutch colonial times; reclamation is most prominent in Lower Manhattan, with developments such as Battery Park City in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the natural relief in topography has been evened out, especially in Manhattan.
The Hudson River flows through the Hudson Valley into New York Bay. Between New York City and Troy, New York, the river is an estuary. The Hudson River separates the city from the U.S. state of New Jersey. The East River—a tidal strait—flows from Long Island Sound and separates the Bronx and Manhattan from Long Island. The Harlem River, another tidal strait between the East and Hudson Rivers, separates most of Manhattan from the Bronx. The Bronx River, which flows through the Bronx and Westchester County, is the only entirely fresh water river in the city.
New York City is situated in the Northeastern United States, in southeastern New York State, approximately halfway between Washington, D.C. and Boston. The location at the mouth of the Hudson River, which feeds into a naturally sheltered harbor and then into the Atlantic Ocean, has helped the city grow in significance as a trading port. Most of New York City is built on the three islands of Long Island, Manhattan, and Staten Island.
The Occupy Wall Street protests in Zuccotti Park in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan began on September 17, 2011, receiving global attention and spawning the Occupy movement against social and economic inequality worldwide.
The city and surrounding area suffered the bulk of the economic damage and largest loss of human life in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States; 2,606 people, including 2,192 civilians, 71 law enforcement officers, and 343 firefighters who were in the towers and in the surrounding area died as a result of the terrorist attack on the original World Trade Center, and many more were injured in the disaster. The rebuilding of the area, has created a new One World Trade Center, and a 9/11 memorial and museum along with other new buildings and infrastructure. The World Trade Center PATH station, which opened on July 19, 1909 as the Hudson Terminal, was also destroyed in the attack. A temporary station was built and opened on November 23, 2003. A permanent station, the World Trade Center Transportation Hub, is currently under construction. The new One World Trade Center is the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth-tallest building in the world by pinnacle height, with its spire reaching a symbolic 1,776 feet (541.3 m) in reference to the year of American independence.
In the 1970s, job losses due to industrial restructuring caused New York City to suffer from economic problems and rising crime rates. While a resurgence in the financial industry greatly improved the city's economic health in the 1980s, New York's crime rate continued to increase through that decade and into the beginning of the 1990s. By the mid 1990s, crime rates started to drop dramatically due to revised police strategies, improving economic opportunities, gentrification, and new residents, both American transplants and new immigrants from Asia and Latin America. Important new sectors, such as Silicon Alley, emerged in the city's economy. New York's population reached all-time highs in the 2000 Census and then again in the 2010 Census.
The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan. They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States.
Returning World War II veterans created a post-war economic boom and the development of large housing tracts in eastern Queens. New York emerged from the war unscathed as the leading city of the world, with Wall Street leading America's place as the world's dominant economic power. The United Nations Headquarters was completed in 1952, solidifying New York's global geopolitical influence, and the rise of abstract expressionism in the city precipitated New York's displacement of Paris as the center of the art world.
New York became the most populous urbanized area in the world in the early 1920s, overtaking London. The metropolitan area surpassed the 10 million mark in the early 1930s, becoming the first megacity in human history. The difficult years of the Great Depression saw the election of reformer Fiorello La Guardia as mayor and the fall of Tammany Hall after eighty years of political dominance.
New York's non-white population was 36,620 in 1890. New York City was a prime destination in the early twentieth century for African Americans during the Great Migration from the American South, and by 1916, New York City was home to the largest urban African diaspora in North America. The Harlem Renaissance of literary and cultural life flourished during the era of Prohibition. The larger economic boom generated construction of skyscrapers competing in height and creating an identifiable skyline.
In 1904, the steamship General Slocum caught fire in the East River, killing 1,021 people on board. In 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the city's worst industrial disaster, took the lives of 146 garment workers and spurred the growth of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union and major improvements in factory safety standards.
In 1898, the modern City of New York was formed with the consolidation of Brooklyn (until then a separate city), the County of New York (which then included parts of the Bronx), the County of Richmond, and the western portion of the County of Queens. The opening of the subway in 1904, first built as separate private systems, helped bind the new city together. Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the city became a world center for industry, commerce, and communication.
The situation deteriorated into attacks on New York's elite, followed by black New Yorkers and their property after fierce competition for a decade between immigrants and blacks for work. Rioters burned the Colored Orphan Asylum to the ground, but its more than 200 children escaped harm due to efforts of the city's largely Irish immigrant police force. According to historian James M. McPherson (2001), at least 120 civilians were killed. In all, eleven black men were lynched over five days, and the riots forced hundreds of blacks to flee the city for Williamsburg, Brooklyn, as well as New Jersey; the black population in Manhattan fell below 10,000 by 1865, which it had last been in 1820. The white working class had established dominance. Violence by longshoremen against black men was especially fierce in the docks area. It was one of the worst incidents of civil unrest in American history.
Democratic Party candidates were consistently elected to local office, increasing the city's ties to the South and its dominant party. In 1861, Mayor Fernando Wood called on the aldermen to declare independence from Albany and the United States after the South seceded, but his proposal was not acted on. Anger at new military conscription laws during the American Civil War (1861–1865), which spared wealthier men who could afford to pay a $300 (equivalent to $5,746 in 2016) commutation fee to hire a substitute, led to the Draft Riots of 1863, whose most visible participants were ethnic Irish working class.
The Great Irish Famine brought a large influx of Irish immigrants. Over 200,000 were living in New York by 1860 (making up a quarter of the population). There was also extensive immigration from the German provinces, where revolutions had disrupted societies, and Germans comprised another 25% of New York's population by 1860.
Several prominent American literary figures lived in New York during the 1830s and 1840s, including William Cullen Bryant, Washington Irving, Herman Melville, Rufus Wilmot Griswold, John Keese, Nathaniel Parker Willis, and Edgar Allan Poe. Public-minded members of the contemporaneous business elite lobbied for the establishment of Central Park, which in 1857 became the first landscaped park in an American city.
In the 19th century, the city was transformed by development relating to its status as a trading center, as well as by European immigration. The city adopted the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, which expanded the city street grid to encompass all of Manhattan. The 1825 completion of the Erie Canal through central New York connected the Atlantic port to the agricultural markets and commodities of the North American interior via the Hudson River and the Great Lakes. Local politics became dominated by Tammany Hall, a political machine supported by Irish and German immigrants.
Under New York State's gradual abolition act of 1799, children of slave mothers were born to be eventually liberated but were held in indentured servitude until their mid-to-late twenties. Together with slaves freed by their masters after the Revolutionary War and escaped slaves, gradually a significant free-black population developed in Manhattan. Under such influential United States founders as Alexander Hamilton and John Jay the New York Manumission Society worked for abolition and established the African Free School to educate black children. It was not until 1827 that slavery was completely abolished in the state, and free blacks struggled afterward with discrimination. New York interracial abolitionist activism continued; among its leaders were graduates of the African Free School. The city's black population reached more than 16,000 in 1840.
In 1785, the assembly of the United States Congress and the Supreme Court of the United States each assembled for the first time, and the United States Bill of Rights was drafted, all at Federal Hall on Wall Street. By 1790, New York had surpassed Philadelphia as the largest city in the United States.
The only attempt at a peaceful solution to the war took place at the Conference House on Staten Island between American delegates, including Benjamin Franklin, and British general Lord Howe on September 11, 1776. Shortly after the British occupation began, the Great Fire of New York occurred, a large conflagration on the West Side of Lower Manhattan, which destroyed about a quarter of the buildings in the city, including Trinity Church.
The Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the American Revolutionary War, was fought in August 1776 entirely within the modern-day borough of Brooklyn. After the battle, in which the Americans were defeated, leaving subsequent smaller armed engagements following in its wake, the city became the British military and political base of operations in North America. The city was a haven for Loyalist refugees, as well as escaped slaves who joined the British lines for freedom newly promised by the Crown for all fighters. As many as 10,000 escaped slaves crowded into the city during the British occupation. When the British forces evacuated at the close of the war in 1783, they transported 3,000 freedmen for resettlement in Nova Scotia. They resettled other freedmen in England and the Caribbean.