Naive T cell

Naive T cell

A naïve T cell is a T cell that has differentiated in bone marrow, and successfully undergone the positive and negative processes of central selection in the thymus. Among these are the naïve forms of helper T cells (CD4+) and cytotoxic T cells (CD8+). A naïve T cell is considered mature and unlike activated, or memory T cells it has not encountered its cognate antigen within the periphery. ,

Contents

  • Phenotype 1
  • Function 2
  • Mechanism of activation 3
  • See also 4
  • Notes and references 5

Phenotype

Naïve T cells are commonly characterized by the surface expression of L-selectin (CD62L); the absence of the activation markers CD25, CD44 or CD69; and the absence of memory CD45RO isoform.[1] They also express functional IL-7 receptors, consisting of subunits IL-7 receptor-α, CD127, and common-γ chain, CD132. In the naïve state, T cells are thought to be quiescent and non-dividing, requiring the common-gamma chain cytokines IL-7 and IL-15 for homeostatic survival mechanisms.

Function

Naïve T cells can respond to novel pathogens that the immune system has not yet encountered. Recognition by a naïve T cell clone of its cognate antigen results in the initiation of an immune response. In turn, this results in the T cell acquiring an activated phenotype seen by the up-regulation of surface markers CD25+, CD44+, CD62Llow, CD69+ and may further differentiate into a memory T cell.

Having adequate numbers of naïve T cells is essential for the immune system to continuously respond to unfamiliar pathogens.

Mechanism of activation

When a recognized antigen binds to the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) located in the cell membrane of Th0 cells, these cells are activated through the following "classical" signal transduction cascade:[2]

An alternative "non-classical" pathway involves activated Zap70 directly phosphorylating the p38 MAPK that in turn induces the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Furthermore, the expression of PLC-γ1 is dependent on VDR activated by calcitriol.[2] Naïve T cells have very low expression of VDR and PLC-γ1. However activated TCR signaling through p38 upregulates VDR expression and calcitriol activated VDR in turn upregulates PLC-γ1 expression. Hence the activation of naïve T cells is crucially dependent on adequate calcitriol levels.[2]

In summary, activation of T cells first requires activation through the non-classical pathway to increase expression of VDR and PLC-γ1 before activation through the classical pathway can proceed. This provides a delayed response mechanism where the innate immune system is allowed time (~48 hrs) to clear an infection before the inflammatory T cell mediated adaptive immune response kicks in.[2]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^
  2. ^ a b c d