Muhammad

s="reference">[283] Watt and Bernard Lewis argue that viewing Muhammad as a self-seeking impostor makes it impossible to understand Islam's development.[284][285] Alford T. Welch holds that Muhammad was able to be so influential and successful because of his firm belief in his vocation.[15]

Other religious views

  • Bahá'ís venerate Muhammad as one of a number of prophets or "Manifestations of God", but consider his teachings to have been superseded by those of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahai faith.[286]
  • The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints neither regards Muhammad as a prophet nor accepts the Quran as a book of scripture. However, it does respect Muhammad as one who taught moral truths which can enlighten nations and bring a higher level of understanding to individuals.[287]

Criticism

Criticism of Muhammad has existed since the 7th century. He has been attacked by his non-Muslim Arab contemporaries for preaching monotheism, as well as for his multiple marriages, possession of slaves and military expeditions across the Middle East.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community considers Muhammad to be the "Seal of the Prophets" (Khātam an-Nabiyyīn) and the last law-bearing Prophet but not the last Prophet. See:
    • Simon Ross Valentine (2008). Islam and the Ahmadiyya Jama'at: History, Belief, Practice. Columbia University Press. p. 134.  
    • "Finality of Prophethood | Hadhrat Muhammad (PUBH) the Last Prophet".  
  2. ^ There are smaller sects which too believe Muhammad to be not the last Prophet: The Nation of Islam considers Elijah Muhammad to be a prophet (source: African American Religious Leaders – Page 76, Jim Haskins, Kathleen Benson – 2008). United Submitters International consider Rashad Khalifa to be a prophet. (Source: Daniel Pipes, Miniatures: Views of Islamic and Middle Eastern Politics, page 98 (2004))
  3. ^ 'Islam' is always referred to in the Quran as a dīn, a word that means "way" or "path" in Arabic, but is usually translated in English as "religion" for the sake of convenience
  4. ^ S. A. Nigosian(2004), p. 6 The Encyclopaedia of Islam says that the Quran responds "constantly and often candidly to Muhammad's changing historical circumstances and contains a wealth of hidden data."
  5. ^ The aforementioned Islamic histories recount that as Muhammad was reciting Sūra Al-Najm (Q.53), as revealed to him by the Archangel Gabriel, Satan tempted him to utter the following lines after verses 19 and 20: "Have you thought of Allāt and al-'Uzzā and Manāt the third, the other; These are the exalted Gharaniq, whose intercession is hoped for." (Allāt, al-'Uzzā and Manāt were three goddesses worshiped by the Meccans). cf Ibn Ishaq, A. Guillaume p. 166.
  6. ^ "Apart from this one-day lapse, which was excised from the text, the Quran is simply unrelenting, unaccommodating and outright despising of paganism."(The Cambridge companion to Muhammad, Jonathan E. Brockopp, p.35)
  7. ^ "Although, there could be some historical basis for the story, in its present form, it is certainly a later, exegetical fabrication. Sura LIII, 1-20 and the end of the sura are not a unity, as is claimed by the story, XXII, 52 is later than LIII, 2107 and is almost certainly Medinan; and several details of the story- the mosque, the sadjda, and others not mentioned in the short summary above do not belong to Meccan setting. Caetani and J. Burton have argued against the historicity of the story on other grounds, Caetani on the basis of week isnads, Burton concluded that the story was invented by jurists so that XXII 52 could serve as a Kuranic proof-text for their abrogation theories."("Kuran" in the Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Vol. 5 (1986), p. 404)

References

  1. ^ Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632, the dominant Islamic tradition. Many earlier (mainly non-Islamic) traditions refer to him as still alive at the time of the invasion of Palestine. See Stephen J. Shoemaker,The Death of a Prophet: The End of Muhammad's Life and the Beginnings of Islam, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.
  2. ^ Quran 33:40
  3. ^ Morgan, Diane (2009). Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice. p. 101.  
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  5. ^ Esposito (2002b), pp. 4–5.
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  7. ^ Esposito, John (1998). Islam: The Straight Path (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 9, 12.  
  8. ^ a b Ann Goldman, Richard Hain, Stephen Liben (2006), p. 212
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    •  
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  13. ^ F. E. Peters (2003), p. 9.
  14. ^ Esposito (1998), p. 12; (1999) p. 25; (2002) pp. 4–5
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an Buhl, F.; Welch, A. T. (1993). "Muḥammad".  
  16. ^ Sahih-Bukhari, Book 43, #658
  17. ^ Sahih Bukhari Book 59, #641
  18. ^ Hisham Ibn Al-Kalbi – The Book of Idols. Translated by Nabih Amin Faris. Princeton University Press, pg. 21–22
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  20. ^ a b See:
    • Holt (1977a), p.57
    • Lapidus (2002), pp 0.31 and 32
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  22. ^ "Muhammad". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
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  25. ^ Ernst (2004), p. 80
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  27. ^ Living Religions: An Encyclopaedia of the World's Faiths, Mary Pat Fisher, 1997, page 338, I.B. Tauris Publishers.
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  47. ^ See:
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  49. ^ See also Quran 43:31 cited in EoI; Muhammad
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  66. ^ Esposito (2010), p.8
  67. ^ See:
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    • Razwy (1996), ch. 9
    • Rodinson (2002), p. 71.
  68. ^ Quran 93:3
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Encyclopedias

  • William H. McNeill, Jerry H. Bentley, David Christian, ed. (2005). Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History. Berkshire Publishing Group.  
  • Richard C. Martin, Said Amir Arjomand, Marcia Hermansen, Abdulkader Tayob, Rochelle Davis, John Obert Voll, ed. (2003). Encyclopedia of Islam & the Muslim World. MacMillan Reference Books.  
  • P. J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis,  
  • Lindsay Jones, ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of Religion (2nd ed.). MacMillan Reference Books.  
  • Jane Dammen McAuliffe, ed. (2005).  
  • Encyclopedia of World History. Oxford University Press. 1998.  
  • The New Encyclopædia Britannica (Rev ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica, Incorporated. 2005.  

Further reading

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  • Musa, A. Y. Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on The Authority Of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, New York: Palgrave, 2008
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  • Spencer, Robert (2006).  

External links

  • Works by or about Muhammad in libraries (WorldCat catalog)

Other biographies

  • Muhammad, article on Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  • Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet — PBS Site