Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi

imeTCOG-223">[224] The Mahatma Gandhi District in Houston, Texas, United States, an ethnic Indian enclave, is officially named after Gandhi.[225]

Global holidays

In 2007, the United Nations General Assembly declared Gandhi's birthday 2 October as "the International Day of Nonviolence."[226] First proposed by UNESCO in 1948, as the School Day of Nonviolence and Peace (DENIP in Spanish),[227] 30 January is observed as the School Day of Nonviolence and Peace in schools of many countries[228] In countries with a Southern Hemisphere school calendar, it is observed on 30 March.[228]

Awards

Monument to M.K. Gandhi in New Belgrade, Serbia. On the monument is written "Nonviolence is the essence of all religions".

Time magazine named Gandhi the Man of the Year in 1930. Gandhi was also the runner-up to Albert Einstein as "Person of the Century"[229] at the end of 1999. The Government of India awards the annual Gandhi Peace Prize to distinguished social workers, world leaders and citizens. Nelson Mandela, the leader of South Africa's struggle to eradicate racial discrimination and segregation, was a prominent non-Indian recipient. In 2011, Time magazine named Gandhi as one of the top 25 political icons of all time.[230]

Gandhi did not receive the Nobel Peace Prize, although he was nominated five times between 1937 and 1948, including the first-ever nomination by the American Friends Service Committee,[231] though he made the short list only twice, in 1937 and 1947.[112] Decades later, the Nobel Committee publicly declared its regret for the omission, and admitted to deeply divided nationalistic opinion denying the award.[112] Gandhi was nominated in 1948 but was assassinated before nominations closed. That year, the committee chose not to award the peace prize stating that "there was no suitable living candidate" and later research shows that the possibility of awarding the prize posthumously to Gandhi was discussed and that the reference to no suitable living candidate was to Gandhi.[112] When the 14th Dalai Lama was awarded the Prize in 1989, the chairman of the committee said that this was "in part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi".[112]

Film and literature

Mahatma Gandhi has been portrayed in film, literature, and in the theatre. Ben Kingsley portrayed him in the 1982 film Gandhi, which won the Academy Award for Best Picture. Gandhi was a central figure in the 2006 Bollywood comedy film Lage Raho Munna Bhai. The 1996 film The Making of the Mahatma documented Gandhi's time in South Africa and his transformation from an inexperienced barrister to recognised political leader.[232]

Anti-Gandhi themes have also been showcased through films and plays. The 1995 Marathi play Gandhi Virudh Gandhi explored the relationship between Gandhi and his son Harilal. The 2007 film, Gandhi, My Father was inspired on the same theme. The 1989 Marathi play Me Nathuram Godse Boltoy and the 1997 Hindi play Gandhi Ambedkar criticised Gandhi and his principles.[233][234]

Several biographers have undertaken the task of describing Gandhi's life. Among them are D. G. Tendulkar with his Mahatma. Life of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi in eight volumes, and Pyarelal and Sushila Nayyar with their Mahatma Gandhi in 10 volumes. There is another documentary, Mahatma: Life of Gandhi, 1869–1948, which is 14 chapters and six hours long.[235] The 2010 biography, Great Soul: Mahatma Gandhi and His Struggle With India by Joseph Lelyveld contained controversial material speculating about Gandhi's sexual life.[236] Lelyveld, however, stated that the press coverage "grossly distort[s]" the overall message of the book.[237] The 2014 film Welcome Back Gandhi takes a fictionalized look at how Gandhi might react to modern day India.[238]

Current impact within India

The Gandhi Mandapam, a temple in Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu in India. This temple was erected to honour M.K. Gandhi.

India, with its rapid economic modernisation and urbanisation, has rejected Gandhi's economics[239] but accepted much of his politics and continues to revere his memory. Reporter Jim Yardley notes that, "modern India is hardly a Gandhian nation, if it ever was one. His vision of a village-dominated economy was shunted aside during his lifetime as rural romanticism, and his call for a national ethos of personal austerity and nonviolence has proved antithetical to the goals of an aspiring economic and military power." By contrast Gandhi is "given full credit for India's political identity as a tolerant, secular democracy."[240]

Gandhi's birthday, 2 October, is a national holiday in India, Gandhi Jayanti. Gandhi's image also appears on paper currency of all denominations issued by Reserve Bank of India, except for the one rupee note.[241] Gandhi's date of death, 30 January, is commemorated as a Martyrs' Day in India.[242]

There are two temples in India dedicated to Gandhi.[243] One is located at Sambalpur in Orissa and the other at Nidaghatta village near Kadur in Chikmagalur district of Karnataka.[243] The Gandhi Memorial in Kanyakumari resembles central Indian Hindu temples and the Tamukkam or Summer Palace in Madurai now houses the Mahatma Gandhi Museum.[244]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Gandhi, Rajmohan (2006) pp. 1–3.
  2. ^ McGregor, Ronald Stuart (1993). The Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. p. 799.   Quote: (mahā- (S. "great, mighty, large, ..., eminent") + ātmā (S. "1.soul, spirit; the self, the individual; the mind, the heart; 2. the ultimate being."): "high-souled, of noble nature; a noble or venerable man."
  3. ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (2006) p. 172: "... Kasturba would accompany Gandhi on his departure from Cape Town for England in July 1914 en route to India. ... In different South African towns (Pretoria, Cape Town, Bloemfontein, Johannesburg, and the Natal cities of Durban and Verulam), the struggle's martyrs were honoured and the Gandhi's bade farewell. Addresses in Durban and Verulam referred to Gandhi as a 'Mahatma', 'great soul'. He was seen as a great soul because he had taken up the poor's cause. The whites too said good things about Gandhi, who predicted a future for the Empire if it respected justice." (p. 172).
  4. ^ a b McAllister, Pam (1982). Reweaving the Web of Life: Feminism and Nonviolence. New Society Publishers. p. 194.   Quote: "With love, Yours, Bapu (You closed with the term of endearment used by your close friends, the term you used with all the movement leaders, roughly meaning 'Papa.'" Another letter written in 1940 shows similar tenderness and caring.
  5. ^   Quote: "... his niece Manu, who, like others called this immortal Gandhi 'Bapu,' meaning not 'father,' but the familiar, 'daddy.'" (p. 210)
  6. ^ a b Khan, Yasmin (2007). The Great Partition: The Making of India and Pakistan. Yale University Press. p. 18.   Quote: "the Muslim League had only caught on among South Asian Muslims during the Second World War. ... By the late 1940s, the League and the Congress had impressed in the British their own visions of a free future for Indian people. ... one, articulated by the Congress, rested on the idea of a united, plural India as a home for all Indians and the other, spelt out by the League, rested on the foundation of Muslim nationalism and the carving out of a separate Muslim homeland." (p. 18)
  7. ^ Khan, Yasmin (2007). The Great Partition: The Making of India and Pakistan. Yale University Press. p. 1.   Quote: "South Asians learned that the British Indian empire would be partitioned on 3 June 1947. They heard about it on the radio, from relations and friends, by reading newspapers and, later, through government pamphlets. Among a population of almost four hundred million, where the vast majority lived in the countryside, ..., it is hardly surprising that many ... did not hear the news for many weeks afterwards. For some, the butchery and forced relocation of the summer months of 1947 may have been the first they know about the creation of the two new states rising from the fragmentary and terminally weakened British empire in India." (p. 1)
  8. ^ a b c Brown (1991), p. 380: "Despite and indeed because of his sense of helplessness Delhi was to be the scene of what he called his greatest fast. ... His decision was made suddenly, though after considerable thought – he gave no hint of it even to Nehru and Patel who were with him shorty before he announced his intention at a prayer-meeting on 12 January 1948. He said he would fast until communal peace was restored, real peace rather than the calm of a dead city imposed by police and troops. Patel and the government took the fast partly as condemnation of their decision to withhold a considerable cash sum still outstanding to Pakistan as a result of the allocation of undivided India's assets, because the hostilities that had broken out in Kashmir; ... But even when the government agreed to pay out the cash, Gandhi would not break his fast: that he would only do after a large number of important politicians and leaders of communal bodies agreed to a joint plan for restoration of normal life in the city. Although this six-day fast was a considerable physical strain, during it Gandhi experienced a great feeling of strength and peace."
  9. ^ a b Cush, Denise; Robinson, Catherine; York, Michael (2008). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Taylor & Francis. p. 544.   Quote: "The apotheosis of this contrast is the assassination of Gandhi in 1948 by a militant Hindu nationalist, Nathuram Godse, on the basis of his 'weak' accommodationist approach towards the new state of Pakistan." (p. 544)
  10. ^ "Gandhi not formally conferred 'Father of the Nation' title: Govt", The Indian Express, 11 July 2012.
  11. ^ "Constitution doesn't permit 'Father of the Nation' title: Government", The Times of India, 26 October 2012.
  12. ^ Todd, Anne M. (2012) Mohandas Gandhi, Infobase Publishing, ISBN 1438106629, p. 8: The name Gandhi means "grocer", although Mohandas's father and grandfather were politicians not grocers.
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Bibliography

Books

  •  
  • Brown, Judith M. "Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand [Mahatma Gandhi] (1869–1948)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, January 2011 accessed 25 February 2012 (subscription required)
  • Brown, Judith M., and Anthony Parel, eds. The Cambridge Companion to Gandhi (2012); 14 esssays by scholars excerpt and text search
  • Brown, Judith Margaret (1991). Gandhi: Prisoner of Hope. Yale University Press.  
  •  
  • Hook, Sue Vander (1 September 2010). Mahatma Gandhi: Proponent of Peace. ABDO.  
  • Gandhi, Rajmohan (2006). Gandhi: The Man, His People, and the Empire. University of California Press.  
  • Gangrade, K.D. (2004). "Role of Shanti Sainiks in the Global Race for Armaments". Moral Lessons From Gandhi's Autobiography And Other Essays. Concept Publishing Company.  
  • Hardiman, David (2003). Gandhi in His Time and Ours: the global legacy of his ideas. C. Hurst & Co.  
  • Hatt, Christine (2002). Mahatma Gandhi. Evans Brothers.  
  • Herman, Arthur (2008). Gandhi and Churchill: the epic rivalry that destroyed an empire and forged our age. Random House Digital, Inc.  
  • Jai, Janak Raj (1996). Commissions and Omissions by Indian Prime Ministers: 1947–1980. Regency Publications.  
  • Johnson, Richard L. (2006). Gandhi's Experiments with Truth: Essential Writings by and about Mahatma Gandhi. Lexington Books.  
  • Jones, Constance and Ryan, James D. (2007). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase Publishing. p. 160.  
  • Majmudar, Uma (2005). Gandhi's Pilgrimage of Faith: from darkness to light. SUNY Press.  
  • Mathew, Sarah; Afreen, Munnazza (9 July 2013). An Introduction to Education. AuthorHouse.  
  • Pāṇḍeya, Viśva Mohana (2003). Historiography of India's Partition: an analysis of imperialist writings. Atlantic Publishers & Dist.  
  • Pilisuk, Marc; Nagler, Michael N. (2011). Peace Movements Worldwide: Players and practices in resistance to war. ABC-CLIO.  
  • Rühe, Peter (5 October 2004). Gandhi. Phaidon.  
  • Schouten, Jan Peter (2008). Jesus as Guru: the image of Christ among Hindus and Christians in India. Rodopi.  
  • Sharp, Gene (1979). Gandhi as a Political Strategist: with essays on ethics and politics. P. Sargent Publishers.  
  • Shashi, S. S. (1996). Encyclopaedia Indica: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh. Anmol Publications.  
  • Sofri, Gianni (1999). Gandhi and India: a century in focus. Windrush Press.  
  • Thacker, Dhirubhai (2006). ""Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand" (entry)". In Amaresh Datta. The Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature (Volume Two) (Devraj To Jyoti). Sahitya Akademi. p. 1345.  
  • Todd, Anne M (2004). Mohandas Gandhi. Infobase Publishing.  ; short biography for children
  • Wolpert, Stanley (2002). Gandhi's Passion: the life and legacy of Mahatma Gandhi. Oxford University Press.  

Primary sources

  • Abel M (4 January 2005). Glimpses Of Indian National Movement. ICFAI Books.  
  • Andrews, C. F. (2008) [1930]. "VII – The Teaching of Ahimsa". Mahatma Gandhi's Ideas Including Selections from His Writings. Pierides Press.  
  • Dalton, Dennis, ed. (1996). Mahatma Gandhi: Selected Political Writings. Hackett Publishing.  
  • Duncan, Ronald, ed. (May 2011). Selected Writings of Mahatma Gandhi. Literary Licensing, LLC.  
  • Gandhi, M. K.; Fischer, Louis (2002). Louis Fischer, ed. The Essential Gandhi: An Anthology of His Writings on His Life, Work and Ideas. Vintage Books.  
  • Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand (1928). Satyagraha in South Africa (in Gujarati) (1 ed.). Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing House. Translated by Valji G. Desai  Free online access at Wikilivres.ca (1/e). Pdfs from Gandhiserve (3/e) & Yann Forget (hosted by Arvind Gupta) (1/e).
  • Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand (1994). The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India.   (100 volumes). Free online access from Gandhiserve.
  • Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand (1928). "Drain Inspector's Report". The United States of India 5 (6,7,8): 3–4. 
  • Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand (1990). Desai, Mahadev H., ed. Autobiography:  
  • Gandhi, Rajmohan (9 October 2007). Mohandas: True Story of a Man, His People. Penguin Books Limited.  
  • Guha, Ramachandra (2 October 2013). "1. Middle Cast, Middle Rank". Gandhi Before India. Penguin Books Limited.  
  • Jack, Homer A., ed. (1994). The Gandhi Reader: A Source Book of His Life and Writings. Grove Press.  
  • Johnson, Richard L. and Gandhi, M. K. (2006). Gandhi's Experiments With Truth: Essential Writings by and about Mahatma Gandhi. Lexington Books.  
  • Todd, Anne M. (1 January 2009). Mohandas Gandhi. Infobase Publishing.  
  • Parel, Anthony J., ed. (2009). Gandhi: "Hind Swaraj" and Other Writings Centenary Edition. Cambridge University Press.  

External links

  • Sannuti, Arun (6 April 2010). "Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869–1948) – Vegetarianism: The Road to Satyagraha". International Vegetarian Union (IVU). Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  • Riggenbach, Jeff (2 February 2011). "Does Gandhi Deserve a Place in the Libertarian Tradition?". Mises Daily ( 
  • About Mahatma Gandhi
  • Gandhi Ashram at Sabarmati
  • Gandhi Smriti — Government of India website
  • Mani Bhavan Gandhi Sangrahalaya Gandhi Museum & Library
  • Sughosh, India (2 October 2010). "Bapu: Complete Life History". Research Work. http://www.bapu.sughosh.in. Retrieved 15 August 2012. 
  • Gandhi Research Foundation – One-Stop info on Gandhi
  • Works by or about Mahatma Gandhi in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
  • Mohandas K. Gandhi materials in the South Asian American Digital Archive (SAADA)
  • Works by Mahatma Gandhi at Project Gutenberg
  • Mohandas "Mahatma" Gandhi at Find a Grave