Maharashtra schools are run by the state government or by private organisations, including religious institutions. Instruction is mainly in Marathi, English or Hindi, though Urdu is also used. The secondary schools are affiliated with the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), the National Institute of Open School (NIOS) or the Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education. Under the 10+2+3 plan, after completing secondary school, students typically enroll for two years in a junior college, also known as pre-university, or in schools with a higher secondary facility affiliated with the Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education or any central board. Students choose from one of three streams, namely liberal arts, commerce or science. Upon completing the required coursework, students may enroll in general or professional degree programs.
Maharashtra has 24 universities with a turnout of 160,000 Graduates every year. Maharashtra has played a pioneering role in the development of the modern education system in India. The University of Mumbai, is the largest university in the world in terms of the number of graduates and has 141 affiliated colleges. People like, Jyotirao Phule, Scottish missionary John Wilson, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Dhondo Keshav Karve and Bhaurao Patil played a leading role in the setting up of modern schools and colleges in the state. The Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute was established in 1821. The Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey Women's University, the oldest women's liberal arts college in South Asia, started its journey in 1916. College of Engineering Pune, established in 1854, is the third oldest college in Asia.
According to prominent national rankings, 5 to 7 Maharashtra colleges and universities are ranked among the top 20 in India. Maharashtra is also home to such notable autonomous institutes as Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University, Institute of Chemical Technology, Homi Bhabha National Institute , VNIT (Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology Nagpur ) and Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (VJTI). These autonomous institutes are ranked as the most difficult colleges in Maharashtra to gain admission to. At the undergraduate level admission to autonomous institutes is extremely competitive. The University of Pune, the National Defence Academy, Film and Television Institute of India, National Film Archives, Armed Forces Medical College and National Chemical Laboratory were established in Pune after the Indian independence movement. Maharashtra has hundreds of other private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions. Most of these were set up in the last thirty years after the State Government of Vasantdada Patil liberalized the Education Sector in 1982. There are also local community colleges with generally more open admission policies, shorter academic programs, and lower tuition.
Besides these, the state also has Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, North Maharashtra University, Shivaji University, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University and Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, all well established and nationally renowned, to cover the educational needs at the district levels of the state. Apart from this, there are a number of deemed universities in Maharashtra: the Symbiosis International University, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Tilak Maharashtra University and Tata Institute of Social Sciences. Notable scholars who were born, worked or studied in the geographic area of the state include prominent Varkari saint and spiritual poet Tukaram, Dalit Leader and Father of Indian Constitution Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, Indian Nationalist leader Bal Gangadhar Tilak, the father of Indian cinema Dadasaheb Phalke and Social reformer Jyotirao Phule.
In 2011, the health care system in Maharashtra consisted of 363 rural government hospitals, 23 district hospitals (with 7,561 beds), 4 general hospitals (with 714 beds) mostly under the Maharashtra Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, and 380 private medical establishments; these establishments provide the state with more than 30,000 hospital beds. It is the first state in India to have nine women's hospitals serving 1,365 beds.
Maharashtra has a life expectancy of 65.48 years at birth, up from 67.2 years in 2011, ranking it third among 29 Indian states. The total fertility rate of the state is 1.9. The Infant mortality rate is 28 and the maternal mortality ratio is 104 (2012–2013), which are lower than the national averages. Public health services are governed by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW), through various departments. The Ministry is divided into two departments: the Public Health Department, which includes family welfare and medical relief, and the Department of Medical Education and Drugs.
In Maharashtra, health insurance includes any program that helps pay for medical expenses, whether through privately purchased insurance, social insurance or a social welfare program funded by the government. In a more technical sense, the term is used to describe any form of insurance that provides protection against the costs of medical services. This usage includes private insurance and social insurance programs such as National Health Mission, which pools resources and spreads the financial risk associated with major medical expenses across the entire population to protect everyone, as well as social welfare programs such as National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) and the Health Insurance Program, which provide assistance to people who cannot afford health coverage.
Although its population makes Maharashtra one of the country's largest energy users, conservation mandates, mild weather in the largest population centres and strong environmental movements have kept its per capita energy use to one of the smallest of any Indian state. The high electricity demand of the state constitutes 13% of the total installed electricity generation capacity in India, which is mainly from fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas. Mahavitaran is responsible for distribution of electricity throughout the state by buying power from Mahanirmiti, captive power plants, other state electricity boards and private sector power generation companies.
As of 2012, Maharashtra was the largest power generating state in India, with installed electricity generation capacity of 26,838 MW. The state forms a major constituent of the western grid of India, which now comes under the North, East, West and North Eastern (NEWNE) grids of India. Maharashtra Power Generation Company (MAHAGENCO) operates thermal power plants. In addition to the state government-owned power generation plants, there are privately owned power generation plants that transmit power through the Maharashtra State Electricity Transmission Company, which is responsible for transmission of electricity in the state.
Maharashtra cuisine covers a range from mild to very spicy dishes. Wheat, rice, jowar, bajri, vegetables, lentils and fruit form staple food of the Maharashtrian diet. Some of the popular dishes include puran poli, ukdiche modak, and batata wada. Meals (mainly lunch and dinner) are served on a plate called thali. Each food item served on the thali has a specific place. In some households, meals begin with a thanksgiving offering of food (Naivedya) to the household Gods. Maharashtrian cuisine has many regional varieties including Malvani (Konkani) and Varadhi. Though quite different, both use a lot of seafood and coconut.
The bhaajis are vegetable dishes made with a particular vegetable or a combination. They require the use of goda (sweet) masala, essentially consisting of some combination of onion, garlic, ginger, red chilli powder, green chillies and mustard. Depending on the caste or specific religious tradition of a family, onion and garlic may not be used in cooking. A particular variant of bhaaji is the rassa or curry. Vegetarians prepare rassa or curry of potatoes and or cauliflower with tomatoes or fresh coconut kernel and plenty of water to produce a soup-like preparation rather than bhaaji. Varan is nothing but plain dal, a common Indian lentil stew. Aamti is variant of the curry, typically consisting of a lentil (tur) stock, flavoured with goda masala, tamarind or amshul, and jaggery (gul).
Among seafood, the most popular fish is bombil or the Bombay duck, which is normally served batter fried and crisp. All non-vegetarian and vegetarian dishes are eaten with boiled rice or with bhakris, which are soft rotis made of rice flour. Special rice puris called vada and amboli, which is a pancake made of fermented rice, urad dal, and semolina, are also eaten as a part of the main meal.
Traditionally, Marathi women commonly wore the sari, often distinctly designed according to local cultural customs. Most middle aged and young women in urban Maharashtra dress in western outfits such as skirts and trousers or shalwar kameez with the traditionally nauvari or nine-yard lugade, disappearing from the markets due to a lack of demand. Older women wear the five-yard sari. In urban areas, the five-yard sari is worn by younger women for special occasions such as marriages and religious ceremonies. Among men, western dressing has greater acceptance. Men also wear traditional costumes such as the dhoti and pheta on cultural occasions. The Gandhi cap is the popular headgear among older men in rural Maharathra. Women wear traditional jewelleries derived from Marathas and Peshwas dynasties. Kolhapuri saaj, a special type of necklace, is also worn by Marathi women. In urban areas, many women and men wear western attire.
Music and dance
Maharashtra has given major contributions to Indian Classical music. Its vibrant folk form includes Powada, Bharuds and Gondhals. Cities like Kolhapur and Pune have been playing a major role in preservation of music like Bhavageet and Natya Sangeet, which are inherited from Indian classical music. The songs from Hindi films and Marathi films are popular in urban areas.
Marathi dance forms draw from folk traditions. Lavani is popular form of dance in the state. The Bhajan, Kirtan and Abhangas of the Varkari sect (Vaishanav Devotees) have a long history and are part of their daily rituals. Koli dance is among the most popular dances of Maharashtra. As the name suggests, it is related to the fisher folk of Maharashtra, who are called Kolis. Popular for their unique identity and liveliness, their dances represent their occupation. This type of dance is represented by both men and women. While dancing, they are divided into groups of two. These fishermen display the movements of waves and casting of the nets during their koli dance performances.
Maharashtra’s regional literature is about lives and circumstances of Marathi people in specific parts of the state. The Marathi language, which boasts a rich literary heritage, is a Sanskrit-derived language and is written in the Devanagari script. The earliest instances of Marathi literature is by Sant Dnyaneshwar with his Bhawarthadeepika (popularly known as Dnyaneshwari). The compositions, written in the 13th-century, are spiritually inclined. Other compositions are by Bhakti saints such as Tukaram, Eknath, Namdev, and Gora Kumbhar. Their compositions are mostly in poetic form, which are called Abhang. Maharashtra has a long tradition in spiritual literature, evidenced by the Amrutanubhav, Bhavarth Deepika, Bhagavata Purana, Eknathi Bhagwat and Bhavarth Ramayan.
19th century Marathi literature icludes the works of authors such as Balshastri Jambhekar, Gopal Ganesh Agarkar, Gopal Hari Deshmukh, Mahadev Govind Ranade, Hari Narayan Apte, and Keshavsuta. 20th century notable writers include Mahadevshastri Joshi, Kusumagraj, Pu La Deshpande, Prahlad Keshav Atre, Sane Guruji, and Laxmanshastri Joshi. Varjesh Solanki, Manya Joshi, Hemant Divate, Mangesh Narayanrao Kale and Saleel Wagh are some of the more recent authors.
Maharashtra is a prominent location for the Indian entertainment industry, with many films, television series, books, and other media being set there. Mainstream Hindi films are popular in Maharashtra, especially in urban areas. Mumbai is the largest center for film and television production and a third of all Indian films are produced in the state. Multi-million dollar Bollywood productions, with the most expensive costing up to 150 billion (US$2.4 billion), are filmed there. The Marathi film industry, previously located in Kolhapur, has spread throughout Mumbai. Well known for its art films, the early Marathi film industry included acclaimed directors such as Dadasaheb Phalke,and V. Shantaram. Dada Kondke is the most prominent name in Marathi film. The Dadasaheb Phalke Award is India's highest award in cinema, given annually by the Government of India for lifetime contribution to Indian cinema.
Theatre in Maharashtra can trace its origins to the British colonial era in the middle of the 19th century. It is modelled mainly after the western tradition but also includes forms like Sangeet Natak (Musical drama). In recent decades, Marathi Tamasha has been also been incorporated in some experimental plays. Today, theatre continues to have a marked presence in Mumbai and Pune with an educated loyal audience base, when most theatre in other parts of India have had tough time facing the onslaught of cinema and television. Its repertoire ranges from humorous social plays, farces, historical plays, musical, to experimental plays and serious drama. Marathi Playwrights such as Vijay Tendulkar, P. L. Deshpande, Mahesh Elkunchwar and Satish Alekar have influenced theatre throughout India. Besides Marathi theatre, Maharashtra and particularly, Mumbai, has had a long tradition of theatre in other languages such as Gujarati, Hindi and English.
More than 200 newspapers and 350 consumer magazines have an office in this state and the book-publishing industry employs about 250,000 people. Lokmat, published from Mumbai with 1,588,801 daily copies, has the largest circulation for a single-edition, regional language newspaper in India. Other major Marathi newspapers are Maharashtra Times, Loksatta, Nava Kaal, Pudhari, and Sakal. Popular Marathi language magazines are Saptahik Sakaal, Grihashobhika, Lokrajya, Lokprabha and Chitralekha. Major English language newspapers which are published and sold in large numbers are Daily News & Analysis, The Times of India, Hindustan Times, The Indian Express, Mumbai Mirror, Asian Age, MiD-DAY and The Free Press Journal. Some prominent financial dailies like The Economic Times, Mint, Business Standard and The Financial Express are widely circulated. Vernacular newspapers such as those in Hindi, Kannada, Gujarati and Urdu are also read by a select readership. The television industry developed in Maharashtra and is a significant employer in the state's economy.
Numerous Indian and international television channels can be watched in Maharashtra through one of the Pay TV companies or the local cable television provider. The four major India broadcast networks are all headquartered in Maharashtra: The Times, STAR India, CNN-IBN and ZEEL. Doordarshan is the state-owned television broadcaster and provides two free terrestrial channels. Multi system operators provide a mix of Marathi, Bengali, Nepali, Hindi, English and international channels via cable. The wide range of cable channels available includes sports channels like ESPN, Star Sports, National entertainment channels like Colors, Sony, Zee TV and Star Plus, business news channels like CNBC Awaaz, Zee Business, ET Now and Bloomberg UTV. Marathi 24-hour television news channels include ABP Majha, IBN-Lokmat, Zee 24 Taas, TV9 Maharashtra, ETV Marathi, TV9 Maharashtra and Jai Maharashtra.
All India Radio is a public radio station. Private FM stations are available in all major cities. Vodafone, Airtel, BSNL, Reliance Communications, Uninor, Aircel, MTS India, Tata Indicom, Idea Cellular and Tata DoCoMo are available cellular phone operators. Maharashtra has the highest share of the internet market at 18.8% of total households internet users in India. Broadband internet is available in all towns, villages and cities, provided by the state-run MTNL and BSNL and by other private companies. Dial-up access is provided throughout the state by BSNL and other providers.
Wankhede Stadium, which has a capacity of 45,000, hosted the final match of the 2011 Cricket World Cup. It is home to the Mumbai Indians and Mumbai cricket team. Mumbai and Pune hold derby races at the Mahalaxmi Racecourse and Pune Race Course respectively. The wrestling championship Hind Kesari is widely popular in the rural regions and is affiliated with the All India Amateur Wrestling Federation (AIAWF). Maharashtra Chess Association is the apex body for the game of chess in Maharashtra. Maharashtra Tennis League is India's first league format in tennis. Other notable sports include hockey, Kho kho, fencing, archery and shooting.
Notable athletes from Maharashtra include Sachin Tendulkar and Sunil Gavaskar who were part of the Indian national cricket team; Asian Games silver medalist Hiranna M. Nimal, wrestler Khashaba Jadhav, chess player Rohini Khadilkar, tennis player Gaurav Natekar, former hockey players Dhanraj Pillay, Viren Rasquinha and badminton player Aparna Popat.
- "census of india".
- "Sex ratio of Maharashtra".
- "Trivia". Maharashtra Tourism. Government of Maharashtra. Retrieved 16 July 2007.
- Palkar, AB (2007). "Shri Bhaurao Dagadu Paralkar & Others V/s State of Maharashtra" (PDF). Report of One Man Commission Justice I. p. 41. Retrieved 16 July 2007.
- "The Linguist List". The Linguist List. 22 June 2009. Retrieved 30 April 2013.
- Maharashtra State Gazetteers: General Series. Directorate of Government Print., Stationery and Publications. 1967. p. 208. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
- R.V. Russell. "The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India – Volume IV of IV". Gutenberg.org. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
- Sir H. Risley's India Census Report (1901), Ethnographic Appendices, p. 93.
- K. Balasubramanyam (1965). the mysore. Mittal Publications. p. 174. GGKEY:HRFC6GWCY6D. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
- "Maharashtra (state, India) :: The arts – Encyclopedia Britannica". Encyclopædia Britannica. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- Tej Ram Sharma (1978). Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions. Concept Publishing Co., Delhi. p. 209.
- India Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic: p.440
- "Satavahana kingdom". Civil Services India. Archived from the original on 2014-09-12. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
- An inscription at Naneghat describes Vedishri as a very brave king and the lord of Dakshinapatha (Deccan). Mirashi, Studies in Indology, vol. I, p. 76 f.
- Ali Javid (January 2008). World Heritage Monuments and Related Edifices in India. Algora Publishing. p. 101.
- Indian History – page B-57
- A Comprehensive History of Ancient India (3 Vol. Set): p.203
- The Penguin History of Early India: From the Origins to AD 1300 by Romila Thapar: p.365-366
- Ancient Indian History and Civilization by Sailendra Nath Sen: p.383-384
- "Kingdoms of South Asia - Indian Bahamani Sultanate". http://www.historyfiles.co.uk/. The History Files, United Kingdom. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
- Bhasker Anand Saletore (1934). Social and Political Life in the Vijayanagara Empire (A.D. 1346-A.D. 1646). B.G. Paul.
- A Sketch of the Dynasties of Southern India. E. Keys. 1883. pp. 26–28.
- "Malik Ambar (1548–1626): the rise and fall of military slavery". http://www.bl.uk/. British Library. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
- "Bijapur (Adil Shah Dynasty)". http://www.historyfiles.co.uk/. The History Files, United Kingdom. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
- "Bijapur (Vijapura), the historic city". http://www.bijapur.nic.in/. Bijapur district administration. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
- N. G. Rathod (1 January 1994). The Great Maratha Mahadaji Scindia. Sarup & Sons. p. 180.
- R. V. Russell (1997). The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India (Volumes I and II). Library of Alexandria. p. 8.
- S. Gajrani (2004). History, Religion and Culture of India. Gyan Publishing House. p. 239.
- "History of Kolhapur City". http://www.kolhapurcorporation.gov.in/. Kolhapur Corporation. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
- Jadhav, Radheshyam (Apr 30, 2010). "Samyukta Maharashtra movement".
- "The Samyukta Maharashtra movement".
- Bhagwat, Ramu (Aug 3, 2013). "Linguistic states".
- Banerjee, S (1997). "The Saffron Wave: The Eleventh General Elections in Maharashtra". Economic and Political Weekly 32 (40): 2551.
- Sirsikar, V.M. (1966). Politics in Maharashtra, Problems and Prospects. Poona: University of Poona. p. 8.
- "Belgaum border dispute".
- "Maharashtra Geography". Government of Maharashtra. Archived from the original on 2014-06-25. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- "Western Ghats as world heritage site".
- "State Farmer Guide". Government of India. Ministry of Agriculture. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- "Most urbanised state".
- "The Western Ghats". Government of Maharashtra. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- "Maharashtra Rivers". Maharashtra Tourism. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- "Geographical set up". Government of Maharashtra. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- "Cities of Maharashtra". Maharashtra Tourism. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- "Regions in Maharashtra". Discover India Portal. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- "United Nations Development Programme".
- "A Deccan Odyssey destination". Maharashtra Tourism. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- Showick Thorpe Edgar Thorpe (2009). The Pearson General Studies Manual 2009, 1/e. Pearson Education India. p. 511.
- R. P. Singh, Zubairul Islam. Environmental Studies. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 172–173.
- S. C. Bhatt, Gopal K. Bhargava. Bhamragad-Chiroli-Gaikhuri range. Gyan Publishing House. p. 29. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- "Geographical plateaus of India". Project Tiger reserve in India. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- "Climate of Maharashtra". Public Library. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- "State Animal, Bird, Tree and Flower". http://www.pannatigerreserve.in/. Panna Tiger Reserve. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- "The State's forest cover". Wildlife Conservation Trust, Mumbai.
- "Forest department". Forest Management system.
- "Forest Cover in Maharashtra". Department of Maharashtra.
- "Pench Tiger Reserve (Maharashtra)".
- "Flora And Fauna of Maharashtra". Discovered India. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
- "Maharashtra wildlife". Maharashtra Tourism.
- "Nagzira Wildlife Sanctuary".
- "The Melghat Forests". Dhakna –Kolkaz wildlife sanctuary. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- "Talukas of Maharashtra". District department. Government of Maharashtra. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- Maharashtra districts, By population. "District Census 2011". Census Statistics. Government of India. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "District level governance". The Government of Maharashtra. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
- "Department of Panchayati Raj". Ministry of Panchayati Raj. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- "Panchayati raj in state".
- "Maharashtra regional and town planning".
- "Short title and extent".
- "Mahapopulation" (PDF). Census of India (in Marathi). maharashtra.gov.in. Retrieved 4 June 2008.
- "Maharashtra Population Census data 2011". Government of India. Census 2011. Archived from the original on 2014-07-09. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
- "Population of Maharashtra 2011 census". Press Population. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
- "Population proportion in Maharashtra".
- "Census India Info". Retrieved 28 September 2014.
- "Population statics of state".
- "Census of India 2011, PCA Maharashtra". Director of Census Operations Maharashtra. Retrieved 28 September 2014.
- "Tribals of Maharashtra". Central Cluster UUPGS. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
- "Religion based population". Director of Census Operations, Maharashtra. PCA Maharashtra. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
- "Buddhists popuation".
- "Provisional population totals".
- "Census 2011 data". Census of India. Archived from the original on 2014-09-13. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- "Maharashtra in elite group with 83% literacy".
- "Literacy ratio in state".
- "The Maharashtra Official Languages ACT". The Bombay High Court. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
- "Most spoken language in Maharashtra".
- S. C. Bhatt, Gopal K. Bhargava (2006). Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories: In 36 Volumes. Maharashtra. Gyan Publishing House. p. 231.
- "Marathi population in state falls to 69%".
- "Legislative assembly Maharashtra". Congress. Maharashtra Congress. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
- "CM Selection". Election Commission. Election Commission of India. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
- "The Council of Ministers". Government of J & K. J & K Raj Bhavan. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
- Wilkinson, Steven (January 2005). "Elections in India: Behind the Congress Comeback". Journal of Democracy 16 (1): 153–167.
- Kamat, AR (October 1980). "Politico-economic developments in Maharashtra: a review of the post-independence period , - JSTOR". Economic and Political Weekly 15, (40): 1669.
- Palshikar,, S; Birmal, N (December 18, 2004). "Maharashtra: Towards a New Party System". Economic and Political Weekly > Vol. , No. , Dec. 2... > 39 (51): 5467.
- "Clean yet invisible: Prithviraj Chavan quits as CM, did anyone notice?".
- "Maharashtra CM Prithviraj Chavan's rivals get key posts for Assembly polls".
- "Right man in the wrong polity".
- "Fifteenth Lok Sabha members". Parliament of India. Lok Sabha. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
- "Members of Rajya Sabha". Parliament of India. Rajya Sabha. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
- "State body info". Government of Maharashtra. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
- "District Deputy Commissioner". http://ahd.maharashtra.gov.in/. Ministry of Rural Development. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "Office of Chief Conservator of Forests & Deputy Director General, Social Forestry". http://aurangabad.nic.in/.
- "Sectoral Skill Development Committees". http://www.nsdcindia.org/. National Skill Development Corporation. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "Regional Structure, Growth and Convergence of Income in Maharashtra". http://www.hss.iitb.ac.in/. Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "Introduction". The Bombay High Court. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
- "The High Court of Bombay". http://bombayhighcourt.nic.in/. High Court of Bombay. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "State supports all-India judicial service proposal".
- "Introduction to Maharashtra Judiciary". http://court.mah.nic.in/. Maharashtra Judicial Academy. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- "District Courts, Maharashtra". http://court.mah.nic.in/. Maharashtra Judiciary. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- "Maharashtra Judicial Academy". csi-sigegov.org/. Computer Society of India. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- "Net state domestic product at factor cost—state-wise (at current prices)". Handbook of statistics on Indian economy.
- Planning Commission of the Government of India (1 January 2007). Maharashtra, Development Report. Academic Foundation. pp. 55–56.
- "Assessing climate change vulnerability and adaptation strategies for Maharashtra State". Department of Environment. Government of Maharashtra. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
- "Overview of MSSIDC". http://www.mssidc.org/. The Maharashtra Small Scale Industries Development Corporation Ltd. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
- Pachouly, Manish (August 9, 2011). "Taxpayers in Maharashtra".
- "Economic Survey". Government of Maharashtra. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
- "Economic Profile of Maharashtra". http://planningcommission.nic.in/. Planning commission. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "Agricultural Growth". https://mahades.maharashtra.gov.in. Directorate of Economics and Statics. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "Agriculture growth". http://planningcommission.nic.in/. Planning Commission. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "Industrial investments in Maharashtra". Delhi Mumbai industrial corridor portal. Archived from the original on 2014-02-22. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
- "Maharashtra service sector". Maharashtra Business and Service Directory. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- "Public Sector Undertakings". http://www.maharashtrastat.com/. Planning Commission. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "Report on IT Sector in Maharashtra". https://www.maharashtra.gov.in. Industry Department. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "Microfinance, Self-Help Groups and Empowerment in Maharashtra". http://ncw.nic.in/. National Commission for Women, New Delhi. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
- "Multimodal transportation system in state". https://mmrda.maharashtra.gov.in.
- "Public Private Partnerships In India". http://pppinindia.com/.
- "List of State-wise National Highways in India". http://knowindia.gov.in/.
- "The Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation". http://www.msrtc.gov.in/.
- "Village speed limit in maharashtra". http://www.rediff.com/. Rediff News. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- "Western Railway in its present form". Indian Railways.
- "Central Railway's Head Quarter".
- "Mumbai-New Delhi Rajdhani Express".
- "Sea ports of Maharashtra". Geo cities organization. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
- "Reliance Airport gets five projects on lease". The Times of India. 6 August 2009. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
- "MIDC projects".
- "Statewise airfield list". http://cad.gujarat.gov.in/. Director Civil Aviation, Government of Gujarat. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- "State University". University Grants Commission. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
- "Universities of Maharashtra". Education information of India. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
- "Mumbai University Affiliated Colleges". University of Mumbai. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
- "Mahatma Jotiba Phule: An Educational Philosopher". http://sikhinstitute.org/. Institute of Sikh Studies. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- "Dr. B.R.Ambedkar's Contribution To Buddhist Education". http://www.countercurrents.org/. Counter Currents news portal. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- George Smith (7 June 2012). Life of John Wilson, D.D. F.R.S.: For Fifty Years Philanthropist and Scholar in the East. Cambridge University Press. p. 50.
- "The Poona Engineering Class and Mechanical School". College of Engineering, Pune. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- "10 Indian universities in developing nations top 100 list".
- "India's Best Universities for 2013".
- "Top colleges in state".
- "List of autonomous institutes in Maharashtra". University Grants Commission. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
- Bhosale, Jayashree (Nov 10, 2007). "Economic Times: Despite private participation Education lacks quality in Maharashtra". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "List of Deemed Universities". http://www.aicte-india.org/.
- "List of hospitals in state".
- "Medical colleges in Mahrashtra". MBBS organization, Maharashtra. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
- "Private Medical Colleges in Maharashtra". Medical India Network. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
- "List of Women Hospital".
- "Inequality- adjusted Human Development Index for India's states". United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- "Health Indicators of Maharashtra". Government of Maharashtra. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- "Impressive drop in maternal, infant mortality rates".
- "Infant Mortality Rate". Government of Maharashtra. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- "1 1 Medical Education & Drugs Department".
- "Public health department".
- "Health Intelligence & Vital Statistics".
- "Maharashtra tie up for diagnostic facilities".
- "Maharashtra State Health Status".
- "Electricity consupmtion of state".
- "Indian Power Sector". http://indianpowersector.com/. Ministry of Power. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- "Electricity Governance Initiative". http://electricitygovernance.wri.org/. Government of Maharashtra. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- "Electricity tariff in Maharashtra". http://www.mercindia.org.in/.
- "Maharashtra State Power Generation Company -A Power Generating Utility". http://www.mahagenco.in/.
- "Power demand-supply position of the state of Maharashtra". Green guide. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- "Cuisine of Maharashtra". http://www.marathiheritage.com. Maharashtra Heritage news portal. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- "Maharashtrian food". http://www.maharashtratourism.gov.in/.
- "Maharashtrian Cuisine". http://www.maharashtratourism.net/.
- "Maharashtra Recipes". http://cooks.ndtv.com/. NDTV. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Costumes of Maharashtra". Maharashtra Tourism. Archived from the original on 014-07-13. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- Ghurye, Govind Sadashiv (1995) . Indian Costume (Second ed.). Bombay: Popular Prakashan. p. 186.
- Kher 2003.
- Kher, Swati (2003). "Bid farewell to her". Indian Express, Mumbai Newsline. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
- Ghurye, Govind Sadashiv (1995) . Indian Costume (Second ed.). Bombay: Popular Prakashan. p. 177.
- Bhanu, B.V (2004). People of India: Maharashtra, Part 2. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan. pp. 1033, 1037, 1039.
- "Traditional costumes of Maharashtra". Marathi Heritage Organization. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- Mandpe, Dr Asha (Mar 10, 2011). "Vibrant colours of Maharashtra".
- "Dances of Maharashtra". http://www.marathiheritage.com/. Maharashtra Heritage news portal. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- "Maharashtra’s Regional Literature". http://www.discoveredindia.com/.
- Singh. The Pearson Indian History Manual for the UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Examination. Pearson Education India. p. 120.
- Indian History. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. pp. B–244.
- "Dadasaheb Phalke Awards". Directorate of Film Festivals. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- Dharwadker, Aparna Bhargava (2009). Theatres of Independence: Drama, Theory, and Urban Performance in India Since 1947. University of Iowa Press. pp. 314 and 368.
- "Modern Marathi theatre had milestones, limitations..".
- Sengupta, Ashis (2014). Mapping South Asia Through Contemporary Theatre. Basingstoke, Uk and New York,USA: Palgrave MacMillan. p. 88.
- "Largest read & circulated Marathi language newspaper". News Watch Journal. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- "Marathi Newspapers". India Grid. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
- "IRS Q2 2010: Publications in Maharashtra see some light". Exchange4media.com. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- "Prominent financial dailies". India Press. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- "Profile display". http://www.karmayog.org/. National Film & Television Industry Committee-Maharashtra. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
- "State wise Internet users in India Census 2011".
- "Citizen Charter of BSNL - Maharashtra Telecom Circle".
- "Adventure activities in Maharashtra". http://www.discoveredindia.com/. Discovery India. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
- "Maharashtra Football Clubs List with Names & Foundation". FIFA World Cup 2014, Brazil. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
- "Gridiron league launched in India".
- "Mumbai Gladiators".
- "Pune Marathas Video Profile – The Elite Football League of India".
- "Wankhede stadium capacity". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- "Wankhede Stadium- MCA". Mumbai cricket association. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- "The Mahalaxmi Race Course". Royal Western India Turf Club. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- "The Pune Race Course". Royal Western India Turf Club. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- "Hind Kesari Kushti".
- "Maharashtra tennis league".
- "Tennis League in Maharashtra". Maharashtra Tennis League. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
- "Sachin Tendulkar". http://www.espncricinfo.com/.
- "Sunil Manohar Gavaskar". http://www.espncricinfo.com/.
- Maharashtra travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Maharashtra at DMOZ
- Maharashtra Government Website
- Department of Tourism, Government of Maharashtra