NADH dehydrogenase, subunit 4 (complex I)
Symbols  ; MTND4
External IDs ChEMBL: GeneCards:
RNA expression pattern
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA) n/a n/a
RefSeq (protein) n/a
Location (UCSC)
PubMed search

NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4, also known as ND4, is a mitochondrial gene present in many species of organisms, including humans.

Further reading

  • Torroni A, Achilli A, Macaulay V, et al. (2006). "Harvesting the fruit of the human mtDNA tree.". Trends Genet. 22 (6): 339–45. PMID 16678300. doi:10.1016/j.tig.2006.04.001. 
  • Lertrit P, Noer AS, Jean-Francois MJ, et al. (1992). "A new disease-related mutation for mitochondrial encephalopathy lactic acidosis and strokelike episodes (MELAS) syndrome affects the ND4 subunit of the respiratory complex I.". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 51 (3): 457–68. PMC 1682709. PMID 1323207. 
  • Lu X, Walker T, MacManus JP, Seligy VL (1992). "Differentiation of HT-29 human colonic adenocarcinoma cells correlates with increased expression of mitochondrial RNA: effects of trehalose on cell growth and maturation.". Cancer Res. 52 (13): 3718–25. PMID 1377597. 
  • Marzuki S, Noer AS, Lertrit P, et al. (1992). "Normal variants of human mitochondrial DNA and translation products: the building of a reference data base.". Hum. Genet. 88 (2): 139–45. PMID 1757091. doi:10.1007/bf00206061. 
  • Majander A, Huoponen K, Savontaus ML, et al. (1992). "Electron transfer properties of NADH:ubiquinone reductase in the ND1/3460 and the ND4/11778 mutations of the Leber hereditary optic neuroretinopathy (LHON).". FEBS Lett. 292 (1–2): 289–92. PMID 1959619. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(91)80886-8. 
  • Kormann BA, Schuster H, Berninger TA, Leo-Kottler B (1992). "Detection of the G to A mitochondrial DNA mutation at position 11778 in German families with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy". Hum. Genet. 88 (1): 98–100. PMID 1959931. doi:10.1007/BF00204937. 
  • Moraes CT, Andreetta F, Bonilla E, et al. (1991). "Replication-competent human mitochondrial DNA lacking the heavy-strand promoter region". Mol. Cell. Biol. 11 (3): 1631–7. PMC 369459. PMID 1996112. 
  • Wallace DC, Singh G, Lott MT, et al. (1989). "Mitochondrial DNA mutation associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy". Science 242 (4884): 1427–30. PMID 3201231. doi:10.1126/science.3201231. 
  • Chomyn A, Cleeter MW, Ragan CI, et al. (1986). "URF6, last unidentified reading frame of human mtDNA, codes for an NADH dehydrogenase subunit". Science 234 (4776): 614–8. PMID 3764430. doi:10.1126/science.3764430. 
  • Chomyn A, Mariottini P, Cleeter MW, et al. (1985). "Six unidentified reading frames of human mitochondrial DNA encode components of the respiratory-chain NADH dehydrogenase". Nature 314 (6012): 592–7. PMID 3921850. doi:10.1038/314592a0. 
  • Brown WM, Prager EM, Wang A, Wilson AC (1982). "Mitochondrial DNA sequences of primates: tempo and mode of evolution". J. Mol. Evol. 18 (4): 225–39. PMID 6284948. doi:10.1007/BF01734101. 
  • Anderson S, Bankier AT, Barrell BG, et al. (1981). "Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome". Nature 290 (5806): 457–65. PMID 7219534. doi:10.1038/290457a0. 
  • Montoya J, Ojala D, Attardi G (1981). "Distinctive features of the 5'-terminal sequences of the human mitochondrial mRNAs". Nature 290 (5806): 465–70. PMID 7219535. doi:10.1038/290465a0. 
  • De Vries DD, Went LN, Bruyn GW, et al. (1996). "Genetic and biochemical impairment of mitochondrial complex I activity in a family with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and hereditary spastic dystonia". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 58 (4): 703–11. PMC 1914692. PMID 8644732. 
  • Sudoyo H, Sitepu M, Malik S, et al. (1999). "Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy in Indonesia: two families with the mtDNA 11778G>A and 14484T>C mutations". Hum. Mutat. Suppl 1: S271–4. PMID 9452107. doi:10.1002/humu.1380110186. 
  • Andrews RM, Kubacka I, Chinnery PF, et al. (1999). "Reanalysis and revision of the Cambridge reference sequence for human mitochondrial DNA". Nat. Genet. 23 (2): 147. PMID 10508508. doi:10.1038/13779. 
  • Ingman M, Kaessmann H, Pääbo S, Gyllensten U (2001). "Mitochondrial genome variation and the origin of modern humans". Nature 408 (6813): 708–13. PMID 11130070. doi:10.1038/35047064. 
  • Finnilä S, Lehtonen MS, Majamaa K (2001). "Phylogenetic network for European mtDNA". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 68 (6): 1475–84. PMC 1226134. PMID 11349229. doi:10.1086/320591. 
  • Maca-Meyer N, González AM, Larruga JM, et al. (2003). "Major genomic mitochondrial lineages delineate early human expansions". BMC Genet. 2: 13. PMC 55343. PMID 11553319. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-2-13. 
  • Herrnstadt C, Elson JL, Fahy E, et al. (2002). "Reduced-median-network analysis of complete mitochondrial DNA coding-region sequences for the major African, Asian, and European haplogroups". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 70 (5): 1152–71. PMC 447592. PMID 11938495. doi:10.1086/339933. 

External links

  • GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Mitochondrial DNA-Associated Leigh Syndrome and NARP