List of rocket launch sites

List of rocket launch sites

This article constitutes a list of rocket launch sites. Some of these sites are known as spaceports or cosmodromes. A single rocket launch is sufficient for inclusion in the table, as long as the site is properly documented through a reference. Missile locations with no launches are not included in the list. Proposed and planned sites and sites under construction are not included in the main tabulation, but may appear in condensed lists under the tables.

A shorter list of spaceports for human spaceflight and satellite launches is available in the article Spaceport.

Table specification

Sorting order

  • operational date;
  • Countries in alphabetical order within a table;
  • Launch sites within a country are sorted chronologically according to start of operations.

Column specification

  • Country – territory of the site (the organisation responsible for the launches may reside elsewhere, as indicated in the notes column;
  • Location – Name of launch site (sometimes also province etc.)
  • Coordinates – geographical coordinates
  • Operational date – the period of years of launch activities
  • Number of rocket launches – the total number of launches, including failed launches
  • Heaviest rocket launched – total mass at lift-off
  • Highest achieved altitude – height in km above launch site
  • Notes – comments

Africa

Country Location Coordinates Operational date Number of rocket launches Heaviest rocket launched Highest achieved altitude Notes
Algeria Hammaguira French Special Weapons Test Centre, Hammaguir 1947–1967   18 000 kg   Orbital   Operated by France.[1]
Algeria Reggane 1961–1965 10      
Congo (Zaire) Shaba North, Kapani Tonneo OTRAG Launch Center 1977–1978 3     <50 km   German OTRAG rockets.[2]
Egypt Jabal Hamzah ballistic missile test and launch facility Late 1950s–present 6       Al Zafir and Al Kahir SRBMs testing[3][4]
Kenya Broglio Space Centre (San Marco), Malindi 1964–1988 27   20 000 kg   Orbital   Scout rockets, operated by ASI and Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.[5]
Libya Sabha, Tawiwa OTRAG Launch Center 1981–1982     50 km   German OTRAG rockets.[6]
Mauretania Nouadhibou 1973–1973 1       During a solar eclipse
South Africa Overberg South African Test Centre 1989–1990       Launched test mission rockets only.[7]

Asia

Note that some Russian cosmodromes appear in this section, some in the section Europe

Country Location Coordinates Operational date Number of rocket launches Heaviest rocket launched Highest achieved altitude Notes
China Base 603, Shijiedu, Guangde 1960–1966   1 000 kg   <60 km  
China Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center 1970–   464 000 kg   Orbital   Human spaceflight[8]
China Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center 1980–     Orbital   Polar satellites[9]
China Xichang Satellite Launch Center 1984–     Lunar   Geo-synchronous satellites, lunar probes.[10][11]
China Jingyu      
India Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, thumba 1962– >2000       [12]
India Balasore, in the state of Odisha      
India Satish Dhawan Space Centre (Sriharikota), Andhra Pradesh 1971–   402 000 kg   Interplanetary   Satellites and lunar probes;[13]
India Wheeler Island      
Indonesia Pameungpeuk 1965–2005      
Indonesia Lapan Space Center, Tjulitan 1987– 2   300 kg   70 km  
Iran Qom Space Center 1991       Military testing[14]
Iran Emamshahr Space Center 1998       Military testing and sounding rockets for ISA.[15]
Iran Semnan 2009– 2     Orbital  
Iraq Al-Anbar Test Centre 1989       Out of function[16]
Israel Palmachim Air Force Base 1987– 9   70 000 kg   Orbital   [17]
Japan Akita 1956–1990 81     343 km  
Japan Uchinoura Space Center 1962–   139 000 kg   Orbital   [18]
Japan Tanegashima Space Center, Tanegashima Island 1967–   445 000 kg   Orbital   [19]
Japan Ryori 1970–      
Japan Niijima      
Japan Obachi      
Kazakhstan Baikonur Cosmodrome, Tyuratam 1957– >1000   2 400 000 kg   Interplanetary   First satellite, first human. Operated by Russia.[20]
Kazakhstan Sary Shagan 1958–      
Korea, North Musudan-ri 1998–       Military rockets; satellite launch[21]
Korea South Anhueng 1993–      
Korea, South Naro Space Center, Gohueng 2008 3     Orbital   Attempted satellite launches[22]
Maldives Gan Island       Several rockets of the Kookaburra type were launched from a pad at 0°41' S and 73°9' E [23]
Pakistan Sonmiani Satellite Launch Center, Las Bela, Balochistan 1960s –[24]       Sounding rockets, missile testing, for SUPARCO.[25]
Pakistan Tilla Satellite Launch Center, Jhelum District, Punjab 1980s –[26]       Sounding rockets, missile testing, for SUPARCO.[27]
Russia Kheysa 1956–1980      
Russia Svobodny Cosmodrome, Amur Oblast 1957–   47 000 kg   Orbital   ICBM base converted for satellites[28]
Russia Sovetskaya Gavan 1963–1964 6     402 km  
Russia Okhotsk 1981–2005     1000 km  
Russia Yasny Cosmodrome (formerly Dombarovskiy), Orenburg Oblast 2006–   211 000 kg   Orbital   ICBM base converted for satellites[29]
Taiwan Haiqian 1988-   10 000 kg   300 km   Science and technology development

Proposed or planned spaceports and rocket launch sites in Asia

Europe

Note that some European countries operate spaceports in Africa, South America, or other equatorial regions. These spaceports are listed in this article according to their geographical location. Some Russian-controlled launch sites are listed as being in Asia.

Note that some Russian cosmodromes appear in this section, some in the section Asia

Country Location Coordinates Operational date Number of rocket launches Heaviest rocket launched Highest achieved altitude Notes
France Ile de Levant 1948–      
Germany Rocket Launch Site Berlin, Berlin-Tegel 1930–1933     4 km  
Germany Peenemünde/Greifswalder Oie 1942–1945 >3000   12 500 kg   >100 km   V-2 rockets during World War II.
Germany Cuxhaven ) 1945–1964      
Germany Hespenbusch, Großenkneten 1952–1957     <10 km  
Germany Zingst 1970–1992 67     80 km  
Greece Koroni 1966–1989 371     114 km  
Iceland Vik 1964–1965 2      
Italy Salto di Quirra 1964–      
Norway Andøya Rocket Range 1962– >900   700 kg     Rockets to the upper atmosphere.[36]
Norway Marka 1983–1984   16 kg    
Norway SvalRak 1997–      
Poland Tuchola Forest 1944–1945       Nazi-German V-2 rockets
Poland Łeba 1941–1945       Nazi-German rockets
Poland Łeba-Rąbka 1963–1973 36       Polish rockets
Poland Blizna 1943–1944 139       Nazi-German V-2 rockets
Russia Kapustin Yar Cosmodrome, Astrakhan Oblast 1957–     Orbital   Previously for satellite launches[37]
Russia Nyonoksa 1965–1997      
Russia Plesetsk Cosmodrome 1966– >1000   300 000 kg   Orbital  
Spain El Arenosillo 1966– >500      
Sweden Nausta 1961–1961 1   30 kg   <80 km   Arcas rocket for atmospheric research.[38]
Sweden Kronoga*rd 1961–1964 18   700 kg   135 km   Arcas, Nike-Cajun and Nike-Apache rockets for atmospheric research.
Sweden Esrange, Kiruna 1966–1972 150   700 kg   237 km   Operated by ESRO.[39]
Sweden Esrange, Kiruna 1972– 300   12 400 kg   717 km   Operated by SSC.[39] Major programmes: Maxus, TEXUS, Maser, stratospheric balloons.
United Kingdom The Needles 1956–1971      
United Kingdom South Uist 1959–      

Proposed or planned spaceports in Europe

North America

Country Location Coordinates Operational date Number of rocket launches Heaviest rocket launched Highest achieved altitude Notes
Canada Fort Churchill, Manitoba 1954–1985 >3500       Canadian Army.[41]
Canada Hall Beach 1971–1971 7     270 km  
Canada Southend 1980–1980 2   1 200 kg    
Greenland (Denmark) Thule Air Base 1964–1980       US Air Force[42]
USA Wallops Flight Facility, Delmarva Peninsula, Virginia 1945–       Now operated by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center[43]
USA White Sands Missile Range 1946– >7000       Military and civilian flights. Served as alternate landing site for the space shuttle.[44]
USA Nevada Test and Training Range (formerly Nellis Air Force Range) 1950s–       [45]
USA Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida 1956–     Interplanetary   Commercial and U.S. Government unmanned missions.
USA Vandenberg Air Force Base, California 1958–     Orbital   Satellites, ballistic missile tests. Government and commercial launches.[46]
USA Kennedy Space Center, Florida 1963– 151   3 000 000 kg   Lunar   Launched each NASA manned mission. Adjacent to Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.
USA Pacific Missile Range Facility, Hawaii 1963–       testing of antiballistic missile and missile tracking by the US Navy.
USA Keweenaw, Michigan 1964–1971 >50   770 kg   <160 km   Currently inactive
USA Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska 1991– 14   86 000 kg   Orbital   Ballistic missile interceptor tests, satellite launches. Alaska Aerospace Corporation.[47]
USA Mojave Air & Space Port, California 2004–     112 km   Privately-funded spaceflights (SpaceShipOne, SpaceShipTwo).
USA Spaceport America (formerly Southwest Regional Spaceport), Upham, New Mexico 2006– 8       Sub-orbital commercial and planned space tourist launches. Joint venture between state of New Mexico and Virgin Galactic.[48][49]
USA Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport (MARS), Delmarva Peninsula, Virginia 2006– 6   89 805 kg   Lunar   Operates in partnership with NASA, adjacent to the Wallops Flight Facility site. Designed for both commercial and government launches.[50]

Additional rocket launch sites in North America

Please delete items or move them to the table above with appropriate data and references.

Proposed or planned spaceports in North America

South America

Country Location Coordinates Operational date Number of rocket launches Heaviest rocket launched Highest achieved altitude Notes
Argentina Puerto Belgrano 2017 Launch pad for future Tronador II under construction (CONAE)
Argentina Punta Indio 2014 - 2   2 800 kg   2.2 km   Civilian Launch Test Site (CONAE)
Argentina CELPA 1962 - 1974 / 2011 - 100 (approximately)  933 kg   550 km   Military Launch Test Site (CITIDEF)
Argentina Serrezuela 2009 1   500 kg   40 km   Military test (Gradicom I)
Argentina Las Palmas 1966–1966 2   3 400 kg   270 km   During a solar eclipse, with Titus rockets.
Argentina Tartagal 1966–1966       During a solar eclipse
Argentina Mar Chiquita 1968–1972 11      
Argentina Villa Reynolds 1973–1973 2      
Argentina Pampa de Achala 1961 - 1962 8   28 kg   25 km   First argentine launch site.
Brazil Natal/Barreira 1965– 233     1100 km  
Brazil Praia do Cassino 1966–1966 27      
Brazil Alcântara Launch Center, Maranhão 1990– 35   6 737 kg   956 km   Brazilian Air Force, Brazilian Space Agency. Planned satellite launches.
French Guiana Guiana Space Centre, Kourou 1968– <200   777 000 kg   Interplanetary   Operated by CNES for ESA; launch base for Arianespace. Commercial and governmental launches.
Peru Chilca      
Peru Punta Lobos   2 000 kg    
Surinam Coronie 1965–1965 4     205 km  

Proposed or planned spaceports in South America

Australia and New Zealand

Country Location Coordinates Operational date Number of rocket launches Heaviest rocket launched Highest achieved altitude Notes
Australia Woomera Test Range 1950s–   28 000 kg   Orbital   British/Australian government research facility. Missile testing, 2 satellite launches.
Australia Carnarvon 1964–1965 12     120 km  
Australia Lancelin 1974–1974 2       During a total solar eclipse
New Zealand Birdling's Flat      

Proposed or planned spaceports in Australia and New Zealand

Other

Country Location Coordinates Operational date Number of rocket launches Heaviest rocket launched Highest achieved altitude Notes
Marshall Island Omelek 1950s-   39 000 kg   Orbital   ICBM base converted for satellites. SpaceX Falcon 1. Close to the equator.
Ocean Odyssey complex Mobile 1999– 30   462 000 kg   Orbital   Mobile satellite launch platform operated by Sea Launch. Uses a converted oil platform that plies between Long Beach, California, where a Zenit-3SL rocket is collected, and the equator, where the rocket is launched.
Russian Delta class submarines Mobile 1998– 2   30 000 kg   Orbital   Launch of unmanned satellites into Earth orbit via converted SLBM missile Shtil from the Barents Sea.

Additional rocket launch sites in the oceans and Antarctica

Please delete items or move them to the table above with appropriate data and references.

See also

  • Launch pad
  • Spaceport, including lists of spaceports that have achieved satellite launches and launches of humans

References

  1. ^ Hammaguira – astronautix.com
  2. ^ Kapani Tonneo – astronautix.com
  3. ^ "Jabal Hamzah". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 25 October 2014. 
  4. ^ "Egypt - Missile". NTI. James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. Retrieved 25 October 2014. 
  5. ^ San Marco – astronautix.com
  6. ^ Tawiwa – astronautix.com
  7. ^ Overberg – astronautix.com
  8. ^ Jiuquan – astronautix.com
  9. ^ Taiyuan – astronautix.com
  10. ^ 嫦娥一号"发射时间确定 但未到公布时机""".  
  11. ^ Xichang – astronautix.com
  12. ^ Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), ISRO
  13. ^ Sriharikota – astronautix.com
  14. ^ Qom – astronautix.com
  15. ^ Emamshahr – astronautix.com
  16. ^ Al Anbar – astronautix.com
  17. ^ Palmachim – astronautix.com
  18. ^ Kagoshima – astronautix.com
  19. ^ Tanegashima – astronautix.com
  20. ^ Baikonur – astronautix.com
  21. ^ Musudan – astronautix.com
  22. ^ Goheung – astronautix.com
  23. ^ http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/kooburra.htm
  24. ^ Missile Facilities – Flight Test Range, Sonmiani Beach, NTI
  25. ^ Sonmiani – astronautix.com
  26. ^ [1]
  27. ^ [2]
  28. ^ Svobodniy – astronautix.com
  29. ^ Dombarovsky – astronautix.com
  30. ^ Space Adventures Announces $265 Million Global Spaceport Development Project, Space Adventures, February 17, 2006
  31. ^ Spaceport Singapore
  32. ^ "消息人士:朝鲜试验远程导弹发动机".  
  33. ^ [3]
  34. ^ China to use jumbo rocket for delivery of lunar rover, space station, People's Daily Online, March 11, 2008
  35. ^ China's 4th Satellite Launch Center to Be Built in Hainan – CHINA.ORG.CN
  36. ^ Andoya – astronautix.com
  37. ^ Kapustin Yar – astronautix.com
  38. ^ Nausta
  39. ^ a b Kiruna – astronautix.com
  40. ^ Spaceport Sweden
  41. ^ Fort Churchill – astronautix.com
  42. ^ Thule AFB – astronautix.com
  43. ^ Wallops Flight Facility (NASA)
  44. ^ White Sands, Astronautix
  45. ^ Nevada Test Site – astronautix.com
  46. ^ Vandenberg – astronautix.com
  47. ^ Kodiak Launch Complex, AADC
  48. ^ spaceportamerica.com
  49. ^ Spaceport America – astronautix.com
  50. ^ Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport website
  51. ^ PlanetSpace still plans to blast-off from Cape Breton, chairman says, CBC News, February 21, 2008
  52. ^ Rocketeers pick Canadian launch site, MSNBC, June 2, 2005
  53. ^ Oklahoma Spaceport website
  54. ^ Spaceport Oklahoma Licensed by FAA, SpecRef.com, October 15, 2001
  55. ^ Spaceports Around the World: Australia's Woomera and Weipa Spaceports, spacetoday.org
  56. ^ Cape York – astronautix.com
  57. ^ Christmas Island – astronautix.com
  58. ^ High Speed Flight Demonstration project (HSFD), JAXA

External links

  • Overview of rocket launch sites worldwide – astronautix.com
  • Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral – nasa.gov
  • Description and map of Cape Canaveral – astronautix.com
  • Missile Range Tool – Carlos Labs
  • Baikonur – russianspaceweb.com
  • Description and map of Baikonur – astronautix.com
  • Description and map of Kourou – astronautix.com
  • Rocket launch site Kiruna – astronautix.com
  • Homepage of Esrange – ssc.se
  • Rocket launch site Salto di Quirra – astronautix.com