List of female Nobel laureates
|Women in society|
The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals who make outstanding contributions in the fields of Chemistry, Physics, Literature, Peace, Physiology or Medicine and Economics. All but the economics prize were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. The Nobel prize in Economics, or The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for outstanding contributions in the field of Economics. Each prize is awarded by a separate committee; the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, and Economics, the Swedish Academy awards the Prize in Literature, the Karolinska Institute awards the Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee awards the Prize in Peace. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a cash prize that has varied throughout the years.
As on 2011, Nobel Prizes have been awarded to 803 men, 44 women, 22 organizations. The first woman to win a Nobel Prize was Marie Curie, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903 with her husband, Pierre Curie, and Henri Becquerel. Curie is also the only woman to have won multiple Nobel Prizes; in 1911, she won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Curie's daughter, Irène Joliot-Curie, won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1935, making the two the only mother-daughter pair to have won Nobel Prizes. Fifteen women have won the Nobel Peace Prize, thirteen have won the Nobel Prize in Literature, ten have won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, four have won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, two have won the Nobel Prize in Physics and one, Elinor Ostrom, has won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. The most Nobel Prizes awarded to women in a single year was in 2009, when five women became laureates. The most recent women to be awarded a Nobel Prize were May-Britt Moser, and Malala Yousafzai .
Skłodowska-Curie, MarieMarie Skłodowska-Curie
(shared with Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel)
|Poland and France||Physics||"in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel"|
|1905||Suttner, Bertha vonBertha von Suttner||Austria–Hungary||Peace||Honorary President of Permanent International Peace Bureau, Bern, Switzerland; Author of Lay Down Your Arms.|
|1909||Lagerlof, SelmaSelma Lagerlöf||Sweden||Literature||"in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings"|
|1911||Curie-Skłodowska, MarieMarie Curie-Skłodowska||Poland and France||Chemistry||"for her discovery of radium and polonium"|
|1926||Deledda, GraziaGrazia Deledda||Italy||Literature||"for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general"|
|1928||Undset, SigridSigrid Undset||Norway||Literature||"principally for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages"|
Addams, JaneJane Addams
(shared with Nicholas Murray Butler)
|United States||Peace||Sociologist; International President, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.|
Joliot-Curie, IreneIrène Joliot-Curie
(shared with Frédéric Joliot-Curie)
|France||Chemistry||"for their synthesis of new radioactive elements"|
|1938||Buck, Pearl S.Pearl S. Buck||United States||Literature||"for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces"|
|1945||Mistral, GabrielaGabriela Mistral||Chile||Literature||"for her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world"|
Balch, Emily GreeneEmily Greene Balch
(shared with John Raleigh Mott)
|United States||Peace||Formerly Professor of History and Sociology; Honorary International President, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.|
Cori, Gerty TheresaGerty Theresa Cori
(shared with Carl Ferdinand Cori and Bernardo Houssay)
|United States||Physiology or Medicine||"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"|
Goeppert-Mayer, MariaMaria Goeppert-Mayer
(shared with J. Hans D. Jensen and Eugene Wigner)
|United States||Physics||"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"|
|1964||Hodgkin, Dorothy CrowfootDorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin||United Kingdom||Chemistry||"for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances"|
Sachs, NellyNelly Sachs
(shared with Samuel Agnon)
|Sweden and Germany||Literature||"for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny with touching strength"|
|1976||Williams, BettyBetty Williams||United Kingdom||Peace||Founder of the Northern Ireland Peace Movement (later renamed Community of Peace People)|
|Corrigan, MaireadMairead Corrigan|
Sussman Yalow, RosalynRosalyn Sussman Yalow
(shared with Roger Guillemin and Andrew Schally)
|United States||Physiology or Medicine||"for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"|
|1979||Teresa, MotherMother Teresa||
|Peace||Leader of Missionaries of Charity, Calcutta.|
Myrdal, AlvaAlva Myrdal
(shared with Alfonso García Robles)
|Sweden||Peace||Former Cabinet Minister; Diplomat; Writer.|
|1983||McClintock, BarbaraBarbara McClintock||United States||Physiology or Medicine||"for her discovery of mobile genetic elements"|
Levi-Montalcini, RitaRita Levi-Montalcini
(shared with Stanley Cohen)
|Physiology or Medicine||"for their discoveries of growth factors"|
Elion, Gertrude B.Gertrude B. Elion
(shared with George H. Hitchings)
|United States||Physiology or Medicine||"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"|
|1991||Gordimer, NadineNadine Gordimer||South Africa||Literature||"who through her magnificent epic writing has - in the words of Alfred Nobel - been of very great benefit to humanity"|
|Suu Kyi, Aung SanAung San Suu Kyi||Burma||Peace||"for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights"|
|1992||Menchu, RigobertaRigoberta Menchú||Guatemala||Peace||"in recognition of her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples"|
|1993||Morrison, ToniToni Morrison||United States||Literature||"who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality"|
Nusslein-Volhard, ChristianeChristiane Nüsslein-Volhard
(shared with Edward B. Lewis and Eric F. Wieschaus)
|Germany||Physiology or Medicine||"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"|
|1996||Szymborska, WislawaWisława Szymborska||Poland||Literature||"for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality"|
Williams, JodyJody Williams
(shared with the International Campaign to Ban Landmines)
|United States||Peace||"for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines"|
|2003||Ebadi, ShirinShirin Ebadi||Iran||Peace||"for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children"|
|2004||Jelinek, ElfriedeElfriede Jelinek||Austria||Literature||"for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power"|
|Maathai, WangariWangari Maathai||Kenya||Peace||"for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace"|
Buck, Linda B.Linda B. Buck
(shared with Richard Axel)
|United States||Physiology or Medicine||"for their discoveries of olfactory system"|
|2007||Lessing, DorisDoris Lessing||United Kingdom||Literature||"that epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny"|
Barre-Sinoussi, FrancoiseFrançoise Barré-Sinoussi
(shared with Harald zur Hausen and Luc Montagnier)
|France||Physiology or Medicine||"for their discovery of HIV, human immunodeficiency virus"|
Blackburn, ElizabethElizabeth Blackburn
(shared with Jack W. Szostak)
|Australia and United States||Physiology or Medicine||"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"|
Greider, Carol W.Carol W. Greider
(shared with Jack W. Szostak)
Yonath, Ada E.Ada E. Yonath
(shared with Venkatraman Ramakrishnan and Thomas A. Steitz)
|Israel||Chemistry||"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"|
|Muller, HertaHerta Müller||Germany and Romania||Literature||"who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed"|
Ostrom, ElinorElinor Ostrom
(shared with Oliver E. Williamson)
|United States||Economics||"for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons"|
|2011||Johnson Sirleaf, EllenEllen Johnson Sirleaf||Liberia||Peace||"For their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work"|
|Gbowee, LeymahLeymah Gbowee|
|Karman, TawakelTawakel Karman||Yemen|
|2013||Munro, AliceAlice Munro||Canada||Literature||"master of the contemporary short story"|
Moser, May-BrittMay-Britt Moser
(shared with Edvard Moser and John O'Keefe)
|Norway||Physiology or Medicine||"for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain"|
Yousafzai, MalalaMalala Yousafzai
(shared with Kailash Satyarthi)
|Pakistan||Peace||"for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education".|
- "Alfred Nobel – The Man Behind the Nobel Prize".
- "The Nobel Prize".
- "The Nobel Prize Awarders".
- "Nobel Laureates Facts".
- "Nobel Laureates Facts - Women".
- "Nobel Laureates Facts - Organizations".
- "Nobel Prize in Physics 1903".
- "Economics 2009".
- "Nobel Peace Prize 1905".
- "Nobel Prize in Literature 1909".
- "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1911".
- "Nobel Prize in Literature 1926".
- "Nobel Prize in Literature 1928".
- "Nobel Peace Prize 1931".
- "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1935".
- "Nobel Prize in Literature 1938".
- "Nobel Prize in Literature 1945".
- "Nobel Peace Prize 1946".
- "Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947".
- "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963".
- "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1964".
- "Nobel Prize in Literature 1966".
- "Nobel Peace Prize 1976".
- "Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977".
- "Nobel Peace Prize 1979".
- "Nobel Peace Prize 1982".
- "Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1983".
- "Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986".
- "Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988".
- "Nobel Prize in Literature 1991".
- "Nobel Peace Prize 1991".
- "Nobel Peace Prize 1992".
- "Nobel Prize in Literature 1993".
- "Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995".
- "Nobel Prize in Literature 1996".
- "Nobel Peace Prize 1997".
- "Nobel Peace Prize 2003".
- "Nobel Prize in Literature 2004".
- "Nobel Peace Prize 2004".
- "Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004".
- "Nobel Prize in Literature 2007".
- "Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008".
- "Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009".
- "Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009".
- "Nobel Prize in Literature 2009".
- "Nobel Prize in Economics 2009".
- "The Nobel Peace Prize 2011". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-07.
- "The Nobel Prize in Literature 2013" (PDF). Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2013-10-10.
- "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2014-10-07.
- "The Nobel Peace Prize 2014". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2014-10-10.
- Nobel Prize Awarded Women page on the Nobel Foundation site
- Alan Asaid (26 September 2009). "Så ratade Akademien kvinnorna" [How the Academy Rejected the Women].