List of Nobel laureates in Chemistry

List of Nobel laureates in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Swedish: Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, who died in 1896. These prizes are awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.[1] As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by a committee that consists of five members elected by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.[2] The first Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded in 1901 to Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, of the Netherlands. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award prize that has varied throughout the years.[3] In 1901, van 't Hoff received 150,782 SEK, which is equal to 7,731,004 SEK in December 2007. In 2012, the prize was awarded to Robert Lefkowitz and Brian Kobilka.[4] The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.[5]

At least 25 laureates have received the Nobel Prize for contributions in the field of [6] Two winners of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Germans Richard Kuhn (1938) and Adolf Butenandt (1939), were not allowed by their government to accept the prize. They would later receive a medal and diploma, but not the money. Frederick Sanger is one out of two laureates to be awarded the Nobel prize twice in the same subject, in 1958 and 1980. John Bardeen is the other and was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 1956 and 1972. Two others have won Nobel Prizes twice, one in chemistry and one in another subject: Maria Skłodowska-Curie (physics in 1903, chemistry in 1911) and Linus Carl Pauling (chemistry in 1954, peace in 1962).[7] Four women have won the prize: Maria Skłodowska-Curie, Irène Joliot-Curie (1935), Dorothy Hodgkin (1964), and Ada Yonath (2009).[8] As of 2012, the prize has been awarded to 162 individuals. There have been eight years in which the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was not awarded.


Year Laureate Country Rationale
1901 Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff Netherlands "[for his] discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions"[9]
1902 Hermann Emil Fischer Germany "[for] his work on sugar and purine syntheses"[10]
1903 Svante August Arrhenius Sweden "[for] his electrolytic theory of dissociation"[11]
1904 Sir William Ramsay United Kingdom "[for his] discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system"[12]
1905 Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer Germany "[for] the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on [13]
1906 Henri Moissan France "[for his] investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for [the] electric furnace called after him"[14]
1907 Eduard Buchner Germany "for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation"[15]
1908 Ernest Rutherford United Kingdom
New Zealand
"for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances"[16]
1909 Wilhelm Ostwald Germany "[for] his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction"[17]
1910 Otto Wallach Germany "[for] his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds"[18]
1911 Maria Skłodowska-Curie Poland/France "[for] the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element"[19]
1912 Victor Grignard France "for the discovery of the [...] Grignard reagent"[20]
Paul Sabatier France "for his method of [20]
1913 Alfred Werner Switzerland "[for] his work on the [21]
1914 Theodore William Richards United States "[for] his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements"[22]
1915 Richard Martin Willstätter Germany "for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll"[23]
1916 Not awarded
1918 Fritz Haber Germany "for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"[24]
1919 Not awarded
1920 Walther Hermann Nernst Germany "[for] his work in thermochemistry"[25]
1921 Frederick Soddy United Kingdom "for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes"[26]
1922 Francis William Aston United Kingdom "for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule"[27]
1923 Fritz Pregl Austria "for his invention of the method of [28]
1924 Not awarded
1925 Richard Adolf Zsigmondy Germany / Hungary "for his demonstration of the heterogeneous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used"[29]
1926 The (Theodor) Svedberg Sweden "for his work on disperse systems"[30]
1927 Heinrich Otto Wieland Germany "for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances"[31]
1928 Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus Germany "[for] his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins"[32]
1929 Arthur Harden United Kingdom "for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"[33]
Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin Sweden
1930 Hans Fischer Germany "for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin"[34]
1931 Carl Bosch Germany "[for] their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"[35]
Friedrich Bergius Germany
1932 Irving Langmuir United States "for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry"[36]
1933 Not awarded
1934 Harold Clayton Urey United States "for his discovery of heavy hydrogen"[37]
1935 Frédéric Joliot France "[for] their synthesis of new radioactive elements"[38]
Irène Joliot-Curie France
1936 Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye Netherlands "[for his work on] molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases"[39]
1937 Walter Norman Haworth United Kingdom "for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C"[40]
Paul Karrer Switzerland "for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2"
1938 Richard Kuhn Germany "for his work on carotenoids and vitamins"[41]
1939 Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt Germany "for his work on sex hormones"[42]
Leopold Ruzicka Switzerland "for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes"[42]
1940 Not awarded
1943 George de Hevesy Germany "for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"[43]
1944 Otto Hahn Germany "for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei"[44]
1945 Artturi Ilmari Virtanen Finland "for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method"[45]
1946 James Batcheller Sumner United States "for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized"[46]
John Howard Northrop United States "for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"[46]
Wendell Meredith Stanley United States
1947 Sir Robert Robinson United Kingdom "for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids"[47]
1948 Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius Sweden "for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins"[48]
1949 William Francis Giauque United States "for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures"[49]
1950 Otto Paul Hermann Diels Federal Republic of Germany "for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis"[50]
Kurt Alder Federal Republic of Germany
1951 Edwin Mattison McMillan United States "for their discoveries in the chemistry of transuranium elements"[51]
Glenn Theodore Seaborg United States
1952 Archer John Porter Martin United Kingdom "for their invention of partition chromatography"[52]
Richard Laurence Millington Synge United Kingdom
1953 Hermann Staudinger Federal Republic of Germany "for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry"[53]
1954 Linus Carl Pauling United States "for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances"[54]
1955 Vincent du Vigneaud United States "for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone"[55]
1956 Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood United Kingdom "for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions"[56]
Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov Soviet Union
1957 Lord (Alexander R.) Todd United Kingdom "for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes"[57]
1958 Frederick Sanger United Kingdom "for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin"[58]
1959 Jaroslav Heyrovský Czechoslovakia "for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis"[59]
1960 Willard Frank Libby United States "for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science"[60]
1961 Melvin Calvin United States "for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"[61]
1962 Max Ferdinand Perutz United Kingdom "for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"[62]
John Cowdery Kendrew United Kingdom
1963 Karl Ziegler Federal Republic of Germany "for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers"[63]
Giulio Natta Italy
1964 Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin United Kingdom "for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances"[64]
1965 Robert Burns Woodward United States "for his [65]
1966 Robert S. Mulliken United States "for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method"[66]
1967 Manfred Eigen Federal Republic of Germany "for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy"[67]
Ronald George Wreyford Norrish United Kingdom
George Porter United Kingdom
1968 Lars Onsager United States "for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes"[68]
1969 Derek H. R. Barton United Kingdom "for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry"[69]
Odd Hassel Norway
1970 Luis F. Leloir Argentina "for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates"[70]
1971 Gerhard Herzberg Canada/Germany "for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals"[71]
1972 Christian B. Anfinsen United States "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"[72]
Stanford Moore United States "for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"[72]
William H. Stein United States
1973 Ernst Otto Fischer Federal Republic of Germany "for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the [73]
Geoffrey Wilkinson United Kingdom
1974 Paul J. Flory United States "for his fundamental work, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of macromolecules"[74]
1975 John Warcup Cornforth Australia
United Kingdom
"for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions"[75]
Vladimir Prelog Yugoslavia/Switzerland "for his research into the [75]
1976 William N. Lipscomb United States "for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding"[76]
1977 Ilya Prigogine Belgium "for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"[77]
1978 Peter D. Mitchell United Kingdom "for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory"[78]
1979 Herbert C. Brown United States "for their development of the use of [79]
Georg Wittig Federal Republic of Germany
1980 Paul Berg United States "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"[80]
Walter Gilbert Walter Gilbert United States "for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"[80]
Frederick Sanger Frederick Sanger United Kingdom
1981 Kenichi Fukui Japan "for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"[81]
Roald Hoffmann United States
1982 Aaron Klug United Kingdom "for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes"[82]
1983 Henry Taube United States "for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes"[83]
1984 Robert Bruce Merrifield United States "for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix"[84]
1985 Herbert A. Hauptman United States "for their outstanding achievements in developing direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"[85]
Jerome Karle United States
1986 Dudley R. Herschbach Dudley R. Herschbach United States "for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"[86]
Yuan T. Lee United States / Taiwan
John C. Polanyi Canada / Hungary
1987 Donald J. Cram United States "for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"[87]
Jean-Marie Lehn France
Charles J. Pedersen United States
1988 Johann Deisenhofer Federal Republic of Germany "for their determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"[88]
Robert Huber Robert Huber Federal Republic of Germany
Hartmut Michel Federal Republic of Germany
1989 Sidney Altman Canada
United States
"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"[89]
Thomas R. Cech Thomas Cech United States
1990 Elias James Corey United States "for his development of the theory and methodology of [90]
1991 Richard R. Ernst Richard R. Ernst Switzerland "for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy"[91]
1992 Rudolph A. Marcus United States/Canada "for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"[92]
1993 Kary B. Mullis United States "for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry [...] for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method"[93]
Michael Smith Canada "for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry [...] for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies"[93]
1994 George A. Olah United States / Hungary "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry"[94]
1995 Paul J. Crutzen Netherlands "for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"[95]
Mario J. Molina Mexico
F. Sherwood Rowland United States
1996 Robert F. Curl Jr. United States "for their discovery of fullerenes"[96]
Sir Harold W. Kroto United Kingdom
Richard E. Smalley United States
1997 Paul D. Boyer United States "for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)"[97]
John E. Walker United Kingdom
Jens C. Skou Denmark "for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase"[97]
1998 Walter Kohn Walter Kohn United States "for his development of the density-functional theory"[98]
John A. Pople United Kingdom "for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry"[98]
1999 Ahmed Zewail Egypt "for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy"[99]
2000 Alan J. Heeger United States "for their discovery and development of conductive polymers"[100]
Alan G. MacDiarmid United States
New Zealand
Hideki Shirakawa Japan
2001 William S. Knowles United States "for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions"[101]
Ryōji Noyori Ryōji Noyori Japan
K. Barry Sharpless United States "for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions"[101]
2002 John B. Fenn John B. Fenn United States "for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules [...] for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules"[102]
Koichi Tanaka Japan
Kurt Wüthrich Kurt Wüthrich Switzerland "for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules [...] for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution"[102]
2003 Peter Agre United States "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [...] for the discovery of water channels"[103]
Roderick MacKinnon Roderick MacKinnon United States "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [...] for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels"[103]
2004 Aaron Ciechanover Israel "for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"[104]
Avram Hershko Israel
Irwin Rose United States
2005 Yves Chauvin France "for the development of the [105]
Robert Grubbs Robert H. Grubbs United States
Richard R. Schrock United States
2006 Roger D. Kornberg United States "for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"[106]
2007 Gerhard Ertl Germany "for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces"[107]
2008 Osamu Shimomura Japan[108] "for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"[109]
Martin Chalfie United States
Roger Y. Tsien United States
2009 Venkatraman Ramakrishnan United States "for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"[110]
Thomas A. Steitz United States
Ada E. Yonath Israel
2010 Richard F. Heck United States "for palladium-catalyzed [111]
Ei-ichi Negishi Japan
Akira Suzuki Japan
2011 Dan Shechtman Israel "for the discovery of quasicrystals"[112]
2012 Robert Lefkowitz United States "for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"[4]
Brian Kobilka United States
2013 Martin Karplus United States
"for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"[113]
Michael Levitt United States
United Kingdom
Arieh Warshel United States
2014 Eric Betzig United States "for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy"[115]
Stefan W. Hell Germany
William E. Moerner United States

See also

References and notes

  • "All Nobel Laureates in Chemistry". Nobel Media AB. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  • "Nobel Prize winners by category (chemistry)".  
  1. ^ "Alfred Nobel – The Man Behind the Nobel Prize". Retrieved 2008-10-07. 
  2. ^ "The Nobel Prize Awarders". Retrieved 2008-10-07. 
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  4. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012". Retrieved 2012-10-13. 
  5. ^ "The Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies". Archived from the original on 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2008-10-07. 
  6. ^ Malmström, Bo G.; Bertil Andersson (2001-12-03). "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry: The Development of Modern Chemistry". Retrieved 2008-10-08. 
  7. ^ "Nobel Laureates Facts". Retrieved 2008-10-07. 
  8. ^ "Women Nobel Laureates". Retrieved 2008-10-07. 
  9. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1901". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  10. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1902". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  11. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1903". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  12. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1904". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  13. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1905". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  14. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1906". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  15. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1907". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  16. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  17. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1909". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  18. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1910". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  19. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1911". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  20. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1912". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  21. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1913". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  22. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1914". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  23. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1915". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  24. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1918". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  25. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1920". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  26. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1921". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  27. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1922". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  28. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1923". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  29. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1925". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  30. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1926". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  31. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1927". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  32. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1928". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  33. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1929". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  34. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1930". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  35. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1931". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
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  37. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1934". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  38. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1935". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  39. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1936". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  40. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1937". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  41. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1938". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
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  43. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1943". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  44. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1944". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  45. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1945". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  46. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  47. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1947". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  48. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1948". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
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  50. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1950". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  51. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  52. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1952". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  53. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1953". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  54. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1954". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  55. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1955". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  56. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1956". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  57. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1957". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  58. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1958". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
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  61. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1961". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
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  63. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1963". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  64. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1964". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  65. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1965". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  66. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1966". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  67. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1967". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  68. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1968". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  69. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1969". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  70. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1970". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  71. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1971". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  72. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  73. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1973". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  74. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1974". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  75. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1975". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  76. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1976". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  77. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1977". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  78. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1978". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  79. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1979". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
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  81. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1981". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  82. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1982". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  83. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1983". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  84. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1984". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  85. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1985". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  86. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  87. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  88. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1988". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  89. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1989". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  90. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1990". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  91. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1991". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  92. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1992". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  93. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1993". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  94. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1994". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  95. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  96. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  97. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  98. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1998". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  99. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1999". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  100. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  101. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  102. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  103. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  104. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  105. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  106. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  107. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2007". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  108. ^ As of 26 October 2008, the website page for the 2008 award gives Shimomura's country as "USA". However, the press release from the Nobel Foundation on 8 October 2008, announcing the award, states that Shimomura is a Japanese citizen. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008–Press Release". 2008-10-08. Retrieved 2008-10-08. 
  109. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008". Retrieved 2008-10-08. 
  110. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009". Retrieved 2009-10-07. 
  111. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010". Retrieved 2009-10-06. 
  112. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2011". Retrieved 2011-10-05. 
  113. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013". Retrieved 2013-10-09. 
  114. ^ 3 Jewish professors -- two of them Israeli -- share 2013 Nobel Prize in chemistry | The Times of Israel
  115. ^ "Microscope work wins Nobel Prize". BBC. 8 October 2014. 

^ A. The form and spelling of the names in the name column is according to, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. Alternative spellings and name forms, where they exist, are given at the articles linked from this column. Where available, an image of each Nobel laureate is provided. For the official pictures provided by the Nobel Foundation, see the pages for each Nobel laureate at

^ B. The information in the country column is according to, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. This information may not necessarily reflect the recipient's birthplace or citizenship.

^ C. The citation for each award is quoted (not always in full) from, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. The links in this column are to articles (or sections of articles) on the history and areas of chemistry for which the awards were presented. The links are intended only as a guide and explanation. For a full account of the work done by each Nobel laureate, please see the biography articles linked from the name column.

External links

  • Official website of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
  • Official website of the Nobel Foundation
  • Nobel Laureates and Universities at