List of Jewish Nobel laureates

List of Jewish Nobel laureates

Sign on Nobel Laureates Boulevard in Rishon LeZion saluting Jewish Nobel Laureates.

The Nobel Prize is an annual, international prize first awarded in 1901 for achievements in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace. An associated prize in Economics has been awarded since 1969.[1] Nobel Prizes have been awarded to over 850 individuals,[2] of whom at least 22% (without peace prize over 24%) were Jews,[Note 1] although Jews comprise less than 0.2% of the world's population[3] (or 1 in every 500 people). Overall, Jews have won a total of 41% of all the Nobel Prizes in economics, 28% in medicine, 26% in Physics, 19% in Chemistry, 13% in Literature and 9% of all peace awards.[4] Jews have been recipients of all six awards. The first Jewish recipient, Adolf von Baeyer, was awarded the prize in Chemistry in 1905. As of 2014, the most recent Jewish recipients included 2014 literature laureate Patrick Modiano, as well as James Rothman and Randy Schekman (Medicine); Arieh Warshel, Michael Levitt and Martin Karplus (Chemistry); and François Englert (Physics), all in 2013.

Jewish laureates Elie Wiesel and Imre Kertész survived the extermination camps during the Holocaust,[5] while François Englert survived by being hidden in orphanages and children's homes.[6] Others, such as Walter Kohn, Otto Stern, Albert Einstein, Hans Krebs and Martin Karplus had to flee Nazi Germany to avoid persecution.[7][8][9] Still others, including Rita Levi-Montalcini, Herbert Hauptman, Robert Furchgott, Arthur Kornberg, and Jerome Karle experienced significant antisemitism in their careers.[8][10]

The oldest person ever to receive a Nobel Prize was Leonid Hurwicz, a Polish-American Jew who received the 2007 prize in Economics when he was 90 years old.[11]

Contents

  • Literature 1
  • Chemistry 2
  • Physiology or Medicine 3
  • Physics 4
  • Peace 5
  • Economics 6
  • Forced to decline prize 7
  • Nobel Laureates Boulevard 8
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • Further reading 11
  • External links 12

Literature

Year Laureate Country Rationale
1910 Paul Heyse[12][13] Germany "as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories"[14]
1927 Henri Bergson[13] France "in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented"[15]
1958 Boris Pasternak[13] Soviet Union "for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition"[16]
1966 Shmuel Yosef Agnon[13] Israel "for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people"[17]
Nelly Sachs[13] Sweden "for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny with touching strength"[17]
1976 Saul Bellow[13] United States "for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work"[18]
1978 Isaac Bashevis Singer[13] United States "for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life"[19]
1981 Elias Canetti[13] United Kingdom "for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power"[20]
1987 Joseph Brodsky[13] United States "for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity"[21]
1991 Nadine Gordimer[13] South Africa "who through her magnificent epic writing has – in the words of Alfred Nobel – been of very great benefit to humanity"[22]
2002 Imre Kertész[13][23][24] Hungary "for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history"[25]
2004 Elfriede Jelinek[26] Austria "for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power"[27]
2005 Harold Pinter[13][28] United Kingdom "who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms"[29]
2014 Patrick Modiano[30]

[31]

France "for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation"[32]

Chemistry

Year Laureate Country Rationale
1905 Adolf von Baeyer[33][34][35][36] Germany "[for] the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on [37]
1906 Henri Moissan[33][34][35][36][38] France "[for his] investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for [the] electric furnace called after him"[39]
1910 Otto Wallach[33][34][35][36] Germany "[for] his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds"[40]
1915 Richard Willstätter[33][34][35][36] Germany "for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll"[41]
1918 Fritz Haber[33][34][35][36][42] Germany "for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"[43]
1943 [36][35][34][33] Hungary "for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"[44]
1961 Melvin Calvin Melvin Calvin[33][34][35][36] United States "for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"[45]
1962 Max Perutz[33][34][35][36][46] United Kingdom "for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"[47]
1972 Christian B. Anfinsen Christian B. Anfinsen[33][36][48] United States "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"[49]
William Howard Stein[33][34][36] United States "for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"[49]
1977 Ilya Prigogine[33][34][36][50] Belgium "for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"[51]
1979 Herbert C. Brown[33][34][36][52] United States "for their development of the use of [53]
1980 Paul Berg[33][34][36][54] United States "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"[55]
Walter Gilbert Walter Gilbert[33][34][36] United States "for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"[55]
1981 Roald Hoffmann[33][34][36] United States "for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"[56]
1982 Aaron Klug[33][34][36] United Kingdom "for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes"[57]
1985 Jerome Karle Jerome Karle[10][33][34][36][58][59] United States "for their outstanding achievements in developing direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"[60]
Herbert Hauptman Herbert A. Hauptman[8][33][34][36][61][62][63] United States
1989 Sidney Altman[33][34][36] Canada
United States
"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"[64]
1992 Rudolph A. Marcus[33][34][36] United States "for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"[65]
1994 [36][33][12] Hungary "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry"[66]
1996 Harry Kroto[36][67] England "for the discovery of fullerenes"[68]
1998 Walter Kohn Walter Kohn[7][8][33][36][69] United States "for his development of the density-functional theory"[70]
2000 Alan J. Heeger[33][34][36][71] United States "for the discovery and development of conductive polymers"[72]
2004 Aaron Ciechanover[36][73][74] Israel "for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"[75]
Avram Hershko[36][73] Israel
Irwin Rose[36][76][77] United States
2006 Roger D. Kornberg[73][78][79] United States "for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"[80][81]
2008 Martin Chalfie[82] United States "for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP".[83]
2009 Ada Yonath[73] Israel "for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"[84]
2011 Dan Shechtman[85] Israel "for the discovery of quasicrystals"[86]
2012 Robert Lefkowitz[87] United States "for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"[88]
2013 Arieh Warshel[9][89] Israel "for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"[90]
Michael Levitt[9][89] United States, Britain, Israel [91][92]
Martin Karplus[9][89] United States, Austria [93]

Physiology or Medicine

Year Laureate Country Rationale
1908 Élie Metchnikoff[35][36][94] Russia "in recognition of their work on immunity"[95]
Paul Ehrlich[35][36][94] Germany
1914 Robert Bárány[35][36][94] Austria-Hungary "for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus"[96]
1922 Otto Fritz Meyerhof[35][36][94] Germany "for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"[97]
1930 Karl Landsteiner[35][36][94] Austria "for his discovery of human blood groups"[98]
1931 Otto Heinrich Warburg[35][36] Germany "for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"[99]
1936 Otto Loewi[35][36][94] Austria "for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"[100]
1944 Joseph Erlanger[35][36][94][101] United States "for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"[102]
1945 Ernst Boris Chain[35][36][94] United Kingdom "for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"[103]
1946 Hermann Joseph Muller[35][36][94] United States "for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation"[104]
1947 Gerty Cori[36][94] United States "for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"[105]
1950 Tadeusz Reichstein[35][36][94] Switzerland / Poland "for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"[106]
1952 Selman Waksman[35][36][94] United States "for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"[107]
1953 Hans Adolf Krebs[8][35][36][94] United Kingdom "for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"[108]
Fritz Albert Lipmann[94] United States "for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"[108]
1958 Joshua Lederberg[35][36][94] United States "for his discoveries concerning genetic material of bacteria"[109]
1959 Arthur Kornberg[10][35][36][94] United States "for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"[110]
1964 Konrad Emil Bloch[35][36][94][111] United States "for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"[112]
1965 François Jacob[35][36][94] France "for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"[113]
André Michel Lwoff[35][36][94]
1967 [94][36][35] United States "for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"[114]
1968 Marshall Warren Nirenberg[35][36][94] United States "for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"[115]
1969 Salvador Luria[35][36][94] United States, Italy "for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"[116]
1970 Julius Axelrod[36][94] United States "for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"[117]
Bernard Katz[35][36][94] United Kingdom
1972 Gerald Edelman[36][94] United States "for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"[118]
1975 David Baltimore[36][94] United States "for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumor viruses and the genetic material of the cell"[119]
Howard Martin Temin[36][94] United States
1976 Baruch Samuel Blumberg[36][94] United States "for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"[120]
1977 Rosalyn Sussman Yalow[36][54][94] United States "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"[121]
1978 Daniel Nathans[36][94] United States "for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"[122]
1980 Baruj Benacerraf[36][94] United States "for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"[123]
1984 César Milstein[36][54][94] Argentina
"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"[124]
1985 Michael Stuart Brown[36][94] United States "for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"[125]
Joseph L. Goldstein[36][94] United States
1986 Stanley Cohen[36][54][94] United States "for their discoveries of growth factors"[126]
Rita Levi-Montalcini[36][94][127] Italy
1988 Gertrude B. Elion[36][94] United States "for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"[128]
1989 Harold E. Varmus[36][54][94] United States "for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"[129]
1994 Alfred G. Gilman[36][94] United States "for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"[130]
Martin Rodbell[36][94]
1997 Stanley B. Prusiner[36][94] United States "for his discovery of prions – a new biological principle of infection"[131]
1998 Robert F. Furchgott[8][36][94] United States "for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"[132]
2000 Paul Greengard[36][94] United States "for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"[133]
Eric Kandel[36][94] United States
2002 Sydney Brenner[36][94] United Kingdom "for their discoveries concerning 'genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"[134]
H. Robert Horvitz[36][94] United States
2004 Richard Axel[36][94][101][135] United States "for their discoveries of olfactory system"[136]
2006 Andrew Fire[94] United States "for his discovery of RNA interference – gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"[137]
2011 Ralph M. Steinman[85][94][138][139][140] Canada for "his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity"[141]
Bruce Beutler[85][94][142] United States "for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"
2013 James E. Rothman[9][143][144] United States for "their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"[145]
Randy Schekman[9][143][144] United States

Physics

Year Laureate Country Rationale
1907 Albert A. Michelson[34][35][146] United States "for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"[147]
1908 Gabriel Lippmann[34][35][146] France "for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"[148]
1921 Albert Einstein[34][35][146][149] Germany "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"[150]
1922 Niels Bohr[34][35][146] Denmark "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"[151]
1925 James Franck[34][146] Germany "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"[152]
Gustav Hertz[34][35] Germany
1943 Otto Stern[34][146] United States "for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"[153]
1944 Isidor Isaac Rabi[34][35][146] United States "for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"[154]
1945 Wolfgang Pauli[146][155] Austria "for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli principle"[156]
1952 Felix Bloch[34][35][146] United States "for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"[157]
1954 Max Born[34][35][146] United Kingdom "for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"[158]
1958 Ilya Frank[146] Soviet Union "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"[159]
1959 Emilio Gino Segrè[34][35][146] Italy "for their discovery of the antiproton"[160]
1960 Donald A. Glaser[34][35][146] United States "for the invention of the bubble chamber"[161]
1961 Robert Hofstadter[34][35][146] United States "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"[162]
1962 Lev Landau[34][35][146][163] Soviet Union "for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"[164][165]
1963 Eugene Wigner[146][166] United States "for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"[167]
1965 Richard Feynman[34][35][146][168] United States "for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"[169]
Julian Schwinger[34][35][146] United States
1967 Hans Bethe[146] United States "for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"[170]
1969 Murray Gell-Mann[34][35][146][171] United States "for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"[172]
1971 Dennis Gabor[34][146] United Kingdom "for his invention and development of the holographic method"[173]
1972 Leon Cooper[146][146][174][175] United States "for his jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"[176]
1973 Brian David Josephson[34] United Kingdom "for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effect"[177]
1975 Ben Roy Mottelson[34][146] Denmark "for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"[178]
1976 Burton Richter[34][146] United States "for his pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"[179]
1978 Arno Allan Penzias[34][146] United States "for his discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"[180]
1979 Sheldon Lee Glashow[34][146] United States "for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"[181]
Steven Weinberg[34][146] United States
1987 Karl Alexander Müller[146] Switzerland "for their important breakthrough in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"[182]
1988 Leon M. Lederman[34][54][146] United States "for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"[183]
Melvin Schwartz[34][146] United States
Jack Steinberger[34][146] United States
1990 Jerome Isaac Friedman[146] United States "for his pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"[184]
1992 [146] France / Poland "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"[185]
1995 Martin Lewis Perl[146] United States "for the discovery of the tau lepton" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"[186]
Frederick Reines[146] United States "for the detection of the neutrino" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"[186]
1996 David Morris Lee[12][146] United States "for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"[187]
Douglas D. Osheroff[12] United States
1997 Claude Cohen-Tannoudji[146] France "for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"[188]
2000 Zhores Alferov[12][146] Russia "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics"[189]
2003 Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov[146] Russia
United States
"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"[190]
Vitaly Ginzburg[146] Russia
2004 David Gross[73][146][191] United States "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"[192]
H. David Politzer[146] United States
2005 Roy J. Glauber[146] United States "for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"[193]
2011 Adam Riess[85][146][194][195][196] United States "for providing evidence that the expansion of the universe is accelerating"[193]
Saul Perlmutter[85][146][197][198] United States
2012 Serge Haroche[199] France "for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"[193]
2013 François Englert[6][9][200][201] Belgium "for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"[202]

Peace

Year Laureate Country Rationale
1911 Tobias Michael Carel Asser[203] The Netherlands "Initiator of the Conferences on International Private Law at the Hague; Cabinet Minister; Lawyer"[204]
Alfred Hermann Fried[205] Austria "Journalist; Founder of Die Friedenswarte"[204]
1968 René Cassin France "President of the European Court for Human Rights"[206]
1973 Henry A. Kissinger[207] United States "For the 1973 Paris agreement intended to bring about a cease-fire in the Vietnam War and a withdrawal of the American forces"[208][209]
1978 Menachem Begin[210] Israel "for the Camp David Agreement, which brought about a negotiated peace between Egypt and Israel"[211]
1986 Elie Wiesel[212] United States "Chairman of "The President's Commission on the Holocaust""[213]
1994 Yitzhak Rabin Israel "to honour a political act which called for great courage on both sides, and which has opened up opportunities for a new development towards fraternity in the Middle East."[214]
Shimon Peres Israel
1995 Joseph Rotblat United Kingdom
Poland
"for his efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms"[215]

Economics

Year Laureate Country Rationale
1970 Paul Samuelson[216][217] United States "for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science"

[218]

1971 Simon Kuznets[216][219] United States "for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development"[220]
1972 Kenneth Arrow[216][221] United States "for his pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory"[222]
1973 Wassily Leontief[216] Russia
Germany
United States
"for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems"[223]
1975 Leonid Kantorovich[216] Soviet Union "for his contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources"[224]
1976 Milton Friedman[216][221][225] United States "for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy"[226]
1978 Herbert A. Simon[216][227] United States "for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations"[228]
1980 Lawrence Klein[216][227] United States "for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies"[229]
1985 Franco Modigliani[216][217] Italy
United States
"for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets"[230]
1987 Robert Solow[216] United States "for his contributions to the theory of economic growth""[231]
1990 Harry Markowitz[216][227] United States "for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics""[232]
Merton Miller[216][227] United States
1992 Gary Becker[216][227] United States "for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour""[233]
1993 Robert Fogel[216][227] United States "for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change"[234]
1994 John Harsanyi[216][227][235] Hungary "for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games"[236]
1997 Myron Scholes[216][227][237] Canada "for a new method to determine the value of derivatives"[238][239]
2001 Joseph Stiglitz[216][227] United States "for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information"[240]
[241] United States
2002 Daniel Kahneman[216][227] Israel
United States
"for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty"[242]
2005 Robert Aumann[216][243] Israel
United States
"for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis"[244]
2007 Leonid Hurwicz[216][245][246][247][248] United States
Poland
"For having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory"[249]
Eric Maskin[216][248][250] United States
Roger Myerson[216][248] United States
2008 Paul Krugman[216][251] United States "for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity"[252]
2010 Peter Diamond[253][254] United States "for his analysis of markets with search frictions"[255]
2012 Alvin E. Roth[256] United States "for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design" [257]

Forced to decline prize

Boris Pasternak, a Russian Jew, winner of the 1958 prize for literature, initially accepted the award, but—after intense pressure from Soviet authorities—subsequently declined it.[258][259][260][261]

Nobel Laureates Boulevard

Monument and plaque honoring 2002 Economics Laureate Daniel Kahneman on Nobel Laureates Boulevard/Promenade in Rishon LeZion Israel.

The Israeli town of Rishon LeZion has a street in it dedicated to honoring all Jewish Nobel laureates. The street, called Tayelet Hatnei Pras Nobel (Nobel Laureates Boulevard/Promenade), has a monument with attached plaque for each Nobel laureate.[63]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Nobel Prize" (2007), in Encyclopædia Britannica, accessed 14 November 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online:
    An additional award, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, was established in 1968 by the Bank of Sweden and was first awarded in 1969
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^ "Winfrey selects Wiesel's 'Night' for book club", Associated Press, January 16, 2006.
  6. ^ a b USC Shoah Foundation Institute testimony of Francois Englert - USHMM Collections Search, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum website. Retrieved October 13, 2013.
  7. ^ a b
  8. ^ a b c d e f Hargittai, István (2003). The Road to Stockholm: Nobel Prizes, Science, and Scientists. Oxford University Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-19-860785-4
  9. ^ a b c d e f g A remarkable week for Jewish Nobel Prize winnersThe Jewish Chronicle, October 10, 2013. "No less than six Jewish scientists were awarded Nobel Prizes this week... Belgian-born Francois Englert won the accolade in physics... Also this week, two American Jews were awarded the Nobel Prize in medicine [...] James Rothman and Randy Schekman... Meanwhile, three Jewish-American scientists, Arieh Warshel, Michael Levitt and Martin Karplus, shared the Nobel Prize in chemistry... Karplus [...] fled the Nazi occupation of Austria as a child in 1938.
  10. ^ a b c Hargittai, István (2003). The Road to Stockholm: Nobel Prizes, Science, and Scientists. Oxford University Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-19-860785-4
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  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Jewish Laureates of Nobel Prize in Literature". Israel Science and Technology Directory. Retrieved October 16, 2012.
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  23. ^ Segel, Harold B. (2008). The Columbia Literary History of Eastern Europe Since 1945. Columbia University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-231-13306-7"... the few Hungarian writers who have attempted to deal with Hungary's role in the ware and the fate of the Hungarian Jewish population have been mostly Hungarian Jews. Certainly the best known, due to his receipt of the coveted Nobel Prize in Literature in 2002, is Imre Kertész (b. 1929)".
  24. ^ Rubin Suleiman, Susan; Forgács, Éva (eds) (2003). Contemporary Jewish Writing in Hungary: An Anthology. University of Nebraska Press. p. xlvi.
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  28. ^ Billington, Michael (2007). Harold Pinter. London: Faber and Faber. p. 2. ISBN 0-571-23476-3.
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  30. ^
  31. ^ Patrick Modiano’s ‘Suspended Sentences’. New York Times website.
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  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w "Jewish Laureates of Nobel Prize in Chemistry". Israel Science and Technology Directory. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au Wentzel Van Huyssteen (2003). Encyclopedia of Science and Religion, Volume 2. MacMillan Reference USA. p. 493.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as Feuer, Lewis Samuel (1995). Varieties of Scientific Experience: Emotive Aims in Scientific Hypotheses (citing Encylopaedia Judaica). Transaction Publishers. p. 402. ISBN 978-1-56000-223-9
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv J. Rogers Hollingsworth (2007), "High Cognitive Complexity and the Making of Major Scientific Discoveries", in Arnaud Sales, Marcel Fournier (eds.). Knowledge, Communication and CreativitySage Studies in International Sociology, SAGE, 2007, p. 136. ISBN 9780761943075
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  42. ^ Leroy, Francis (2003). A Century of Nobel Prizes Recipients: Chemistry, Rhysics, and Medicine. CRC Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-8247-0876-4
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    • Radu Balescu. "Ilya Prigogine: His Life, His Work", in Stuart Alan Rice (2007). Special volume in memory of Ilya Prigogine, John Wiley and Sons. p. 2. "In the history of science, there are few examples of such a flashing and immense ascent as that of Ilya Prigogine (Fig. 1). The little Russian Jewish immigrant arrived in Brussels at the age of 12..."
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  79. ^ Nadan Feldman. "U.S. Nobel laureate: Israel must invest more in higher education". Haaretz. January 13, 2012. "...explains Kornberg, when asked about the values his father instilled in him, and the atmosphere in which he grew up, in a Jewish family in the 1950s."
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    • Looks, Elka (2011-10-05). "Jews make strong showing among 2011 Nobel Prize winners". Haaretz. "Israeli scientist Daniel Shechtman has made headlines at home for winning the 2011 Nobel Prize in chemistry, but he is not the only Jewish recipient... Ralph Steinman and Bruce Beutler were awarded the Nobel Prize for medicine for their discoveries on the immune system... Saul Perlmutter and Adam G. Riess, both American Jews, are two of the three Nobel Prize in physics winners... So far, five of the seven Nobel Prize winners this year are Jewish..."
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  253. ^ [1]
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  1. ^ The definition of a Jew here includes anyone with at least one Jewish grandparent regardless of religious affiliation as well as those who converted to Judaism at any stage of life. (See Who is a Jew?)

Further reading

  • Charpa, Ulrich; Deichmann, Ute. (eds.) (2007). Jews and Sciences in German Contexts: Case Studies From the 19th and 20th Centuries, Mohr Siebeck, pp. 23–25.
  • Feldman, Burton (2001). The Nobel Prize: A History of Genius, Controversy, and Prestige, Arcade Publishing, pp. 407–10.
  • Julius, Anthony (1995). T. S. Eliot, Anti-Semitism, and Literary Form, Cambridge University Press, p. 266.
  • Lazarus, William P.; Sullivan, Mark. (2008). Comparative Religion For Dummies, Wiley Publishing, p. 45.
  • Patai, Raphael (1996). The Jewish Mind, Wayne State University Press, pp. 339–42.
  • Rubinstein, W. D. (1982). The Left, the Right and the Jews, Croom Helm, p. 63.
  • Scharfstein, Sol (1999). Understanding Jewish Holidays and Customs: Historical and Contemporary, KTAV Publishing House, p. 168.
  • Weiss, Mosheh (2004). A Brief History of the Jewish People, Rowman & Littlefield, pp. 216–17.
  • Zuckerman, Harriet (1996). Scientific Elite: Nobel Laureates in the United States, Transaction Publishers, originally publishing in 1977, pp. 71–78.

External links

  • Video by the National Museum of American Jewish History with some Jewish Nobel laureates listed